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Stellar kinematics and populations of early-type galaxies with the SAURON and OASIS integral-field spectrographs
We summarise the results and achievements of integral-field spectroscopyof early-type galaxies, observed as part of a survey using both theSAURON and OASIS spectrographs. From the perspective of integral-fieldspectroscopy, these otherwise smooth and featureless objects show awealth of structure, both in their stellar kinematics and populations.We focus on the stellar content, and examine properties on bothkiloparsec scales with SAURON, and scales of 100’s of parsecs withOASIS. These complementary studies reveal two types of kinematicallydistinct components (KDCs), differing primarily in their intrinsicsizes. In previous studies, KDCs and their host galaxies have generallybeen found to be unremarkable in other aspects. We show that large KDCs,typical of the well-studied cases, indeed show little or no agedifferences with their host galaxy. The KDCs detected with the higherspatial-resolution of OASIS are intrinsically smaller and include, incontrast, a significant fraction of young stars. We speculate on therelationship between KDCs and their host galaxies, and the implicationsfor young populations in early-type galaxies.

Lifetime of nuclear velocity dispersion drops in barred galaxies
We have made hydro/N-body simulations with and without star formation toshed some light on the conditions under which a central kinematicallycold stellar component (characterized by a velocity dispersion drop orσ-drop) could be created in a hot medium (e.g. a bulge) andsurvive enough time to be observed. We found that the time-scale for aσ-drop formation could be short (less than 500 Myr), whereas itslifetime could be long (more than 1 Gyr) provided that the centralregion is continuously or regularly fed by fresh gas which leads to acontinuous star formation activity. Star formation in the centralregion, even at a low rate as 1Msolaryr-1, ismandatory to sustain a permanent σ-drop by replacing heatedparticles by new low-σ ones. We moreover show that as soon as starformation is switched off, the σ-drop begins to disappear.

The SAURON project - VI. Line strength maps of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxies
We present absorption line strength maps of 48 representative ellipticaland lenticular galaxies obtained as part of a survey of nearby galaxiesusing our custom-built integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating onthe William Herschel Telescope. Using high-quality spectra, spatiallybinned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, we measure four key age,metallicity and abundance ratio sensitive indices from the Lick/IDSsystem over a two-dimensional field extending up to approximately oneeffective radius. A discussion of calibrations and offsets is given,along with a description of error estimation and nebular emissioncorrection. We modify the classical Fe5270 index to define a new index,Fe5270S, which maximizes the useable spatial coverage ofSAURON. Maps of Hβ, Fe5015, Mgb and Fe5270S arepresented for each galaxy. We use the maps to compute average linestrengths integrated over circular apertures of one-eighth effectiveradius, and compare the resulting relations of index versus velocitydispersion with previous long-slit work. The metal line strength mapsshow generally negative gradients with increasing radius roughlyconsistent with the morphology of the light profiles. Remarkabledeviations from this general trend exist, particularly the Mgb isoindexcontours appear to be flatter than the isophotes of the surfacebrightness for about 40 per cent of our galaxies without significantdust features. Generally, these galaxies exhibit significant rotation.We infer from this that the fast-rotating component features a highermetallicity and/or an increased Mg/Fe ratio as compared to the galaxy asa whole. The Hβ maps are typically flat or show a mild positiveoutwards radial gradient, while a few galaxies show strong central peaksand/or elevated overall Hβ strength likely connected to recent starformation activity. For the most prominent post-starburst galaxies, eventhe metal line strength maps show a reversed gradient.

On the Lengths, Colors, and Ages of 18 Face-on Bars
Along with a brief analysis we present data obtained from BVRI andKs images of a sample of 19 galaxies (18 barred and 1unbarred), which will be further explored in a future paper. We measuredthe lengths and colors of the bars, created color maps, and estimatedglobal color gradients. Applying a method developed in a companionpaper, we could distinguish for seven galaxies in our sample those whosebars have been recently formed from the ones with already evolved bars.We estimated an average difference in the optical colors between youngand evolved bars that may be translated to an age difference of theorder of 10 Gyr, meaning that bars may be, at least in some cases,long-standing structures. Moreover, our results show that, on average,evolved bars are longer than young bars. This seems to indicate that,during its evolution, a bar grows longer by capturing stars from thedisk, in agreement with recent numerical and analytical results.Although the statistical significance of these results is low, andfurther studies are needed to confirm them, we discuss the implicationsfrom our results on the possibility of bars being a recurrentphenomenon. We also present isophotal contours for all our images aswell as radial profiles of relevant photometric and geometricparameters.

On the X-ray, optical emission line and black hole mass properties of local Seyfert galaxies
We investigate the relation between X-ray nuclear emission, opticalemission line luminosities and black hole masses for a sample of 47Seyfert galaxies. The sample, which has been selected from the Palomaroptical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies (Ho et al. 1997a, ApJS,112, 315), covers a wide range of nuclear powers, from L2-10keV ~ 1043 erg/s down to very low luminosities(L2-10 keV ~ 1038 erg/s). Best available data fromChandra, XMM-Newton and, in a few cases, ASCA observations have beenconsidered. Thanks to the good spatial resolution available from theseobservations and a proper modeling of the various spectral components,it has been possible to obtain accurate nuclear X-ray luminosities notcontaminated by off-nuclear sources and/or diffuse emission. X-rayluminosities have then been corrected taking into account the likelycandidate Compton thick sources, which are a high fraction (>30%)among type 2 Seyferts in our sample. The main result of this study isthat we confirm strong linear correlations between 2-10 keV,[OIII]λ5007, Hα luminosities which show the same slope asquasars and luminous Seyfert galaxies, independent of the level ofnuclear activity displayed. Moreover, despite the wide range ofEddington ratios (L/L_Edd) tested here (six orders of magnitude, from0.1 down to ~10-7), no correlation is found between the X-rayor optical emission line luminosities and the black hole mass. Ourresults suggest that Seyfert nuclei in our sample are consistent withbeing a scaled-down version of more luminous AGN.

X-ray spectral survey with XMM-Newton of a complete sample of nearby Seyfert galaxies
Results obtained from an X-ray spectral survey of nearby Seyfertgalaxies using XMM-Newton are reported. The sample was opticallyselected, well defined, complete in B magnitude, and distance limited:it consists of the nearest (D 22 Mpc) 27 Seyfert galaxies (9 oftype 1, 18 of type 2) taken from the Ho et al. (1997a, ApJS, 112, 315)sample. This is one of the largest atlases of hard X-ray spectra oflow-luminosity active galaxies ever assembled. All nuclear sourcesexcept two Seyfert 2s are detected between 2 and 10 keV, half for thefirst time ever, and average spectra are obtained for all of them.Nuclear luminosities reach values down to 1038 ergs-1. The shape of the distribution of X-ray parameters isaffected by the presence of Compton-thick objects (30% among type2s). The latter have been identified either directly from their intenseFeK line and flat X-ray spectra, or indirectly with flux diagnosticdiagrams which use isotropic indicators. After taking into account thesehighly absorbed sources, we find that (i) the intrinsic X-ray spectralproperties (i.e., spectral shapes and luminosities above 2 keV) areconsistent between type 1 and type 2 Seyferts, as expected from "unifiedmodels"; (ii) Seyfert galaxies as a whole are distributed fairlycontinuously over the entire range of N_H, between 1020 and1025 cm-2; and (iii) while Seyfert 1s tend to havelower NH and Seyfert 2s tend to have the highest, we find 30%and 10% exceptions, respectively. Overall the sample is of sufficientquality to well represent the average intrinsic X-ray spectralproperties of nearby active galactic nuclei, including a proper estimateof the distribution of their absorbing columns. Finally, we concludethat, with the exception of a few cases, the present study agrees withpredictions of unified models of Seyfert galaxies, and extends theirvalidity down to very low luminosities.

How large are the bars in barred galaxies?
I present a study of the sizes (semimajor axes) of bars in discgalaxies, combining a detailed R-band study of 65 S0-Sb galaxies withthe B-band measurements of 70 Sb-Sd galaxies from Martin (1995). As hasbeen noted before with smaller samples, bars in early-type (S0-Sb)galaxies are clearly larger than bars in late-type (Sc-Sd) galaxies;this is true both for relative sizes (bar length as fraction ofisophotal radius R25 or exponential disc scalelength h) andabsolute sizes (kpc). S0-Sab bars extend to ~1-10 kpc (mean ~ 3.3 kpc),~0.2-0.8R25 (mean ~ 0.38R25) and ~0.5-2.5h (mean ~1.4h). Late-type bars extend to only ~0.5-3.5 kpc,~0.05-0.35R25 and 0.2-1.5h their mean sizes are ~1.5 kpc, ~0.14R25 and ~0.6h. Sb galaxies resemble earlier-type galaxiesin terms of bar size relative to h; their smallerR25-relative sizes may be a side effect of higher starformation, which increases R25 but not h. Sbc galaxies form atransition between the early- and late-type regimes. For S0-Sbcgalaxies, bar size correlates well with disc size (both R25and h); these correlations are stronger than the known correlation withMB. All correlations appear to be weaker or absent forlate-type galaxies; in particular, there seems to be no correlationbetween bar size and either h or MB for Sc-Sd galaxies.Because bar size scales with disc size and galaxy magnitude for mostHubble types, studies of bar evolution with redshift should selectsamples with similar distributions of disc size or magnitude(extrapolated to present-day values); otherwise, bar frequencies andsizes could be mis-estimated. Because early-type galaxies tend to havelarger bars, resolution-limited studies will preferentially find bars inearly-type galaxies (assuming no significant differential evolution inbar sizes). I show that the bars detected in Hubble Space Telescope(HST) near-infrared(IR) images at z~ 1 by Sheth et al. have absolutesizes consistent with those in bright, nearby S0-Sb galaxies. I alsocompare the sizes of real bars with those produced in simulations anddiscuss some possible implications for scenarios of secular evolutionalong the Hubble sequence. Simulations often produce bars as large as(or larger than) those seen in S0-Sb galaxies, but rarely any as smallas those in Sc-Sd galaxies.

The Kinematic Signature of Face-On Peanut-shaped Bulges
We present a kinematic diagnostic for peanut-shaped bulges in nearlyface-on galaxies. The face-on view provides a novel perspective onpeanuts that would allow study of their relation to bars and disks ingreater detail than hitherto possible. The diagnostic is based on thefact that peanut shapes are associated with a flat density distributionin the vertical direction. We show that the kinematic signaturecorresponding to such a distribution is a minimum in the fourth-orderGauss-Hermite moment s4. We demonstrate our method on N-bodysimulations of varying peanut strength, showing that strong peanuts canbe recognized to inclinations i~=30deg, regardless of thestrength of the bar. We also consider compound systems in which a bulgeis present in the initial conditions, as may happen if bulges form athigh redshift through mergers. We show that in this case, because thevertical structure of the bulge is not derived from that of the disk,the signature of a peanut in s4 is weakened. Thus the samekinematic signature of peanuts can be used to explore bulge formationmechanisms. The observational requirements for identifying peanuts withthis method are challenging, but feasible.

The Stellar Populations in the Central Parsecs of Galactic Bulges
We present Hubble Space Telescope blue spectra at intermediate spectralresolution for the nuclei of 23 nearby disk galaxies. These objects wereselected to have nebular emission in their nuclei and span a range ofemission-line classifications, as well as Hubble types. In this paper wefocus on the stellar population as revealed by the continuum spectralenergy distribution measured within the central 0.13" (~8 pc) of thesegalaxies. The data were modeled with linear combinations of single-agestellar population synthesis models. The large majority (~80%) of thesurveyed nuclei have spectra whose features are consistent with apredominantly old (>~5×109 yr) stellar population.Approximately 25% of these nuclei show evidence of a component with ageyounger than 1 Gyr, with the incidence of these stars related to thenebular classification. Successful model fits imply an average reddeningcorresponding to AV~0.4 mag and a stellar metallicity of1-2.5 Zsolar. We discuss the implications of these resultsfor understanding the star formation history in the environment ofquiescent and active supermassive black holes. Our findings reinforcethe picture wherein Seyfert nuclei and the majority of low-ionizationnuclear emission-line regions are predominantly accretion-powered andsuggest that much of the central star formation in H II nuclei isactually circumnuclear.Based on observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, which isoperated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

The SAURON project - III. Integral-field absorption-line kinematics of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxies
We present the stellar kinematics of 48 representative elliptical andlenticular galaxies obtained with our custom-built integral-fieldspectrograph SAURON operating on the William Herschel Telescope. Thedata were homogeneously processed through a dedicated reduction andanalysis pipeline. All resulting SAURON data cubes were spatially binnedto a constant minimum signal-to-noise ratio. We have measured thestellar kinematics with an optimized (penalized pixel-fitting) routinewhich fits the spectra in pixel space, via the use of optimal templates,and prevents the presence of emission lines to affect the measurements.We have thus generated maps of the mean stellar velocity V, the velocitydispersion σ, and the Gauss-Hermite moments h3 andh4 of the line-of-sight velocity distributions. The mapsextend to approximately one effective radius. Many objects displaykinematic twists, kinematically decoupled components, central stellardiscs, and other peculiarities, the nature of which will be discussed infuture papers of this series.

Galaxy Interaction and the Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Galaxy interactions are studied in terms of the starburst-Seyfertconnection. The starburst requires a high rate of gas supply. Since theefficiency for supplying the gas is high in a galaxy interaction,although the companion is not necessarily discernible, Seyfert galaxieswith circumnuclear starbursts are expected to be interacting. Since thelarge amounts of circumnuclear gas and dust obscure the broad-lineregion, they are expected to be observed as Seyfert 2 galaxies. Theactive galactic nucleus itself does not require a high rate of gassupply. Seyfert galaxies without circumnuclear starbursts are notnecessarily expected to be interacting even at the highest luminosities.They are not necessarily expected to evolve from Seyfert galaxies withcircumnuclear starbursts. We derive these and other theoreticalexpectations and confirm them with statistics on observational data ofmagnitude-limited samples of Seyfert galaxies.

A New Nonparametric Approach to Galaxy Morphological Classification
We present two new nonparametric methods for quantifying galaxymorphology: the relative distribution of the galaxy pixel flux values(the Gini coefficient or G) and the second-order moment of the brightest20% of the galaxy's flux (M20). We test the robustness of Gand M20 to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and spatialresolution and find that both measures are reliable to within 10% forimages with average S/N per pixel greater than 2 and resolutions betterthan 1000 and 500 pc, respectively. We have measured G andM20, as well as concentration (C), asymmetry (A), andclumpiness (S) in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet/optical wavelengthsfor 148 bright local ``normal'' Hubble-type galaxies (E-Sd) galaxies, 22dwarf irregulars, and 73 0.05

Inner-truncated Disks in Galaxies
We present an analysis of the disk brightness profiles of 218 spiral andlenticular galaxies. At least 28% of disk galaxies exhibit innertruncations in these profiles. There are no significant trends oftruncation incidence with Hubble type, but the incidence among barredsystems is 49%, more than 4 times that for nonbarred galaxies. However,not all barred systems have inner truncations, and not allinner-truncated systems are currently barred. Truncations represent areal dearth of disk stars in the inner regions and are not an artifactof our selection or fitting procedures nor the result of obscuration bydust. Disk surface brightness profiles in the outer regions are wellrepresented by simple exponentials for both truncated and nontruncateddisks. However, truncated and nontruncated systems have systematicallydifferent slopes and central surface brightness parameters for theirdisk brightness distributions. Truncation radii do not appear tocorrelate well with the sizes or brightnesses of the bulges. Thissuggests that the low angular momentum material apparently missing fromthe inner disk was not simply consumed in forming the bulge population.Disk parameters and the statistics of bar orientations in our sampleindicate that the missing stars of the inner disk have not simply beenredistributed azimuthally into bar structures. The sharpness of thebrightness truncations and their locations with respect to othergalactic structures suggest that resonances associated with diskkinematics, or tidal interactions with the mass of bulge stars, might beresponsible for this phenomenon.

The origin of H I-deficiency in galaxies on the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. II. Companions and uncertainties in distances and deficiencies
The origin of the deficiency in neutral hydrogen of 13 spiral galaxieslying in the outskirts of the Virgo cluster is reassessed. If thesegalaxies have passed through the core of the cluster, their interstellargas should have been lost through ram pressure stripping by the hotX-ray emitting gas of the cluster. We analyze the positions of these HI-deficient and other spiral galaxies in velocity-distance plots, inwhich we include our compilation of velocity-distance data on 61elliptical galaxies, and compare with simulated velocity-distancediagrams obtained from cosmological N-body simulations. We find that˜20% relative Tully-Fisher distance errors are consistent with thegreat majority of the spirals, except for a small number of objectswhose positions in the velocity-distance diagram suggest grosslyincorrect distances, implying that the Tully-Fisher error distributionfunction has non-Gaussian wings. Moreover, we find that the distanceerrors may lead to an incorrect fitting of the Tolman-Bondi solutionthat can generate significant errors in the distance and especially themass estimates of the cluster. We suggest 4 possibilities for theoutlying H I-deficient spirals (in decreasing frequency): 1) they havelarge relative distance errors and are in fact close enough (atdistances between 12.7 and 20.9 Mpc from us) to the cluster to havepassed through its core and seen their gas removed by ram pressurestripping; 2) their gas is converted to stars by tidal interactions withother galaxies; 3) their gas is heated during recent mergers withsmaller galaxies; and 4) they are not truly H I-deficient (e.g. S0/amisclassified as Sa).Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Spectrophotometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. The data
Drift-scan mode (3600-6800 Å) spectra with 500

Dust emission in the far-infrared as a star formation tracer at z= 0: systematic trends with luminosity
We investigate whether dust emission in the far-infrared (far-IR)continuum provides a robust estimate of the star formation rate (SFR)for a nearby, normal late-type galaxy. We focus on the ratio of the40-1000 μm luminosity (Ldust) to the far-ultraviolet(far-UV) (0.165 μm) luminosity, which is connected to recent episodesof star formation. Available total photometry at 0.165, 60, 100 and 170μm limits the statistics to 30 galaxies, which, however, span a largerange in observed (and, thus, attenuated by dust) K-band (2.2 μm)luminosity, morphology and inclination (i). This sample shows that theratio of Ldust to the observed far-UV luminosity depends notonly on i, as expected, but also on morphology and, in a tighter way, onobserved K-band luminosity. We find thatLdust/LFUV~ e-τK (α+0.62)LK0.62, where LFUV andLK are the unattenuated stellar luminosities in far-UV and K,respectively, and α is the ratio of the attenuation optical depthsat 0.165 μm (τFUV) and 2.2 μm (τK).This relation is to zeroth order independent of i and morphology. It maybe further expressed asLdust/LFUV~LδK, whereδ= 0.61 - 0.02α, under the observationally motivatedassumption that, for an average inclination,e-τK~L-0.02K. We adoptcalculations of two different models of attenuation of stellar light byinternal dust to derive solid-angle-averaged values of α. We findthat δ is positive and decreases towards 0 from the more luminousto the less luminous galaxies. This means that there is no universalratio of far-IR luminosity to unattenuated far-UV luminosity for nearby,normal late-type galaxies. The far-IR luminosity systematicallyoverestimates SFR in more luminous, earlier-type spirals, owing to theincreased fractional contribution to dust heating of optical/near-IRphotons in these objects. Conversely, it systematically underestimatesSFR in fainter, later-type galaxies, the τFUV of which isreduced. The limited statistics and the uncertainty affecting theprevious scaling relations do not allow us to establish quantitativeconclusions, but an analogous analysis making use of larger data sets,available in the near future (e.g. from GALEX, ASTRO-F and SIRTF), andof more advanced models will allow a quantitative test of ourconclusions.

The infrared-X-ray continuum correlation in active galactic nuclei
The correlation between the soft X-ray and near-infrared emission fromactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) is analysed using composite models. Wefind new evidence for differences in the ranges of parameters thatcharacterize the narrow-line region (NLR) of Seyfert galaxies andlow-ionization nuclear emission regions (LINERs). Soft X-rays show lessvariability, so they are better fitted for this kind of analysis. In ourmodels, soft X-rays are emitted in the post-shock region of clouds withrelatively high shock velocities Vs > 250 kms-1. Consequently, dust emission peaks in the mid-infrared.On the other hand, in the photoionized zone, dust is at lowertemperature and usually does not contribute to the mid-infraredemission. The results are sensible enough to allow the same modellingmethod to be applied to different types of AGN. We found that shockvelocities are between 300 and 1000 km s-1, with the NLR oflow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) and type 2 Seyfertgalaxies (Sy2s) showing lower velocities than type 1 Seyfert galaxies(Sy1s). The intensity of the ionizing radiation flux at the Lyman limitfrom the central source is low for LINERs and low-luminosity AGNs (logFh= 9 to 10), increasing towards Sy2s (log Fh~ 11)and Sy1s (11 <=Fh<= 12). Results obtained by modellingthe Einstein and the ROSAT samples of galaxies are in full agreement.Dust-to-gas ratios by number are >=10-14 in LINERs andLLAGNs, between 10-15 and 3 × 10-13 in Sy1sand up to 5 × 10-13 in Sy2s. In order to fit theinfrared and X-ray continua, an η factor is defined, which accountsfor the emitting area of the cloud. If the infrared emission is due tobremsstrahlung and comes from the same cloud that produces the softX-rays, the η values obtained from both emissions must be the same.Therefore, if (η)IR < (η)softX, theremust be a strong contribution of soft X-rays from the active centre.From the η values, we expect to identify the objects that couldpresent strong variability.

The Relationship between Stellar Light Distributions of Galaxies and Their Formation Histories
A major problem in extragalactic astronomy is the inability todistinguish in a robust, physical, and model-independent way how galaxypopulations are physically related to each other and to their formationhistories. A similar, but distinct, and also long-standing question iswhether the structural appearances of galaxies, as seen through theirstellar light distributions, contain enough physical information tooffer this classification. We argue through the use of 240 images ofnearby galaxies that three model-independent parameters measured on asingle galaxy image reveal its major ongoing and past formation modesand can be used as a robust classification system. These parametersquantitatively measure: the concentration (C), asymmetry (A), andclumpiness (S) of a galaxy's stellar light distribution. When combinedinto a three-dimensional ``CAS'' volume all major classes of galaxies invarious phases of evolution are cleanly distinguished. We argue thatthese three parameters correlate with important modes of galaxyevolution: star formation and major merging activity. This is arguedthrough the strong correlation of Hα equivalent width andbroadband colors with the clumpiness parameter S, the uniquely largeasymmetries of 66 galaxies undergoing mergers, and the correlation ofbulge to total light ratios, and stellar masses, with the concentrationindex. As an obvious goal is to use this system at high redshifts totrace evolution, we demonstrate that these parameters can be measured,within a reasonable and quantifiable uncertainty with available data outto z~3 using the Hubble Space Telescope GOODS ACS and Hubble Deep Fieldimages.

Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames Galaxies
Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

Numerical simulations of central stellar velocity dispersion drops in disc galaxies
We present an interpretation of the stellar velocity dispersion dropsdiscovered in the nuclear regions of three barred galaxy hosts ofactive/starburst galactic nuclei (NGC 1097,NGC 1808 and NGC 5728) by Emsellemet al. (\cite{debca1}). Using self-consistent N-body simulationsincluding stars, gas and star formation, we show that young stars bornin the nuclear regions from dynamically cold gas have a lower velocitydispersion than the older stellar population. The young population (lessthan 0.9 Gyr old in our models), being more massive and brighter thanthe older one at near infrared wavelengths, fully dominates the observedline-of-sight kinematics of the circumnuclear regions.

The detection of stellar velocity dispersion drops in the central regions of five isolated Seyfert spirals
We analyze the kinematics of the central regions of five isolatedSeyfert spiral galaxies from the DEGAS sample (four with new datapresented in this paper, IC 184, UGC 3223, NGC 2639, NGC 6814, and NGC6951 from our previous data), by using long slit spectroscopy in theCaII triplet range (at ~8600 Å) obtained with a 4 m-classtelescope. A drop of the velocity dispersions in the innermost +/-(1-3)arcsec is observed in four of them, and hinted at in the remaininggalaxy (NGC 6814). The available HST images for our sample together withanother nine galaxies with reported velocity dispersion drops are alsoused to investigate the presence of morphological inner structures atthe scales of the kinematical drops. Evidence for disk-like shapes isfound in 12 out of the 14 cases. The only exceptions are NGC 6814 andNGC 6951. Existing N-body simulations including stars, gas and starformation predict that such a drop is most probably due to a youngstellar population born from dynamically cold gas accreted in acircumnuclear disk formed during an episode of central gas accretiondriven by a bar. The equivalent widths of the calcium triplet lines forour 5 galaxies have been measured. Even if the profiles could beformally consistent with constant EW(CaT) values, they seem to indicatethe presence of a local maximum in the regions corresponding spatiallyto the drops; if confirmed, this would imply the presence of a differentstellar population, whose properties could help constrain the models.Based on observations made with the WHT operated on the island of LaPalma by ING in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos ofthe Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

UV to radio centimetric spectral energy distributions of optically-selected late-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster
We present a multifrequency dataset for an optically-selected,volume-limited, complete sample of 118 late-type galaxies (>=S0a) inthe Virgo cluster. The database includes UV, visible, near-IR, mid-IR,far-IR, radio continuum photometric data as well as spectroscopic dataof Hα , CO and HI lines, homogeneously reduced, obtained from ourown observations or compiled from the literature. Assuming the energybalance between the absorbed stellar light and that radiated in the IRby dust, we calibarte an empirical attenuation law suitable forcorrecting photometric and spectroscopic data of normal galaxies. Thedata, corrected for internal extinction, are used to construct thespectral energy distribution (SED) of each individual galaxy, andcombined to trace the median SED of galaxies in various classes ofmorphological type and luminosity. Low-luminosity, dwarf galaxies haveon average bluer stellar continua and higher far-IR luminosities perunit galaxy mass than giant, early-type spirals. If compared to nearbystarburst galaxies such as M 82 and Arp 220, normal spirals haverelatively similar observed stellar spectra but 10-100 times lower IRluminosities. The temperature of the cold dust component increases withthe far-IR luminosity, from giant spirals to dwarf irregulars. The SEDare used to separate the stellar emission from the dust emission in themid-IR regime. We show that the contribution of the stellar emission at6.75 mu m to the total emission of galaxies is generally important, from~ 80% in Sa to ~ 20% in Sc.Tables 2-5, 7, 8, and Fig. 2 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgTables 10-12 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/402/37

[C II] emission and star formation in late-type galaxies. II. A model
We study the relationship between gas cooling via the [C II] (lambda =158 μm) line emission and dust cooling via the far-IR continuumemission on the global scale of a galaxy in normal (i.e. non-AGNdominated and non-starburst) late-type systems. It is known that theluminosity ratio of total gas and dust cooling, LC II/LFIR, shows a non-linear behaviour with the equivalent widthof the H alpha (lambda = 6563 Å) line emission, the ratiodecreasing in galaxies of lower massive star-formation activity. Thisresult holds despite the fact that known individual Galactic andextragalactic sources of the [C II] line emission show different [C II]line-to-far-IR continuum emission ratios. This non-linear behaviour isreproduced by a simple quantitative theoretical model of gas and dustheating from different stellar populations, assuming that thephotoelectric effect on dust, induced by far-UV photons, is the dominantmechanism of gas heating in the general diffuse interstellar medium ofthe galaxies under investigation. According to the model, the globalLC II/LFIR provides a direct measure of thefractional amount of non-ionizing UV light in the interstellar radiationfield and not of the efficiency of the photoelectric heating. The theoryalso defines a method to constrain the stellar initial mass functionfrom measurements of LC II and LFIR. A sample of20 Virgo cluster galaxies observed in the [C II] line with the LongWavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory is usedto illustrate the model. The limited statistics and the necessaryassumptions behind the determination of the global [C II] luminositiesfrom the spatially limited data do not allow us to establish definitiveconclusions but data-sets available in the future will allow tests ofboth the reliability of the assumptions behind our model and thestatistical significance of our results.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA.

An Efficient Strategy to Select Targets for Gasdynamical Measurements of Black Hole Masses Using the Hubble Space Telescope
Gasdynamical studies using the Hubble Space Telescope are an integralcomponent for future progress in the search for massive black holes ingalactic nuclei. Here we present an extensive set of gas rotation curvesobtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph for the centralregions of 23 disk galaxies. We find that the bulges of randomlyselected, nearby spiral and S0 galaxies generally do not containwell-defined gaseous disks. Only 15%-20% of disk galaxies have regular,symmetric velocity fields useful for dynamical analysis. Throughcomparison of the kinematics with Hubble Space Telescope images of thenuclear regions, we show that the probability of success can besignificantly boosted by preselecting objects whose central dust lanesfollow a well-ordered, circularly symmetric pattern. The dust morphologycan be ascertained efficiently by visual inspection of unsharp-maskedimages. Based on observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

A New Empirical Method for Estimating the Far-Infrared Flux of Galaxies
We propose a new empirical method to estimate the total far-infraredflux of galaxies from the spectral energy distribution (SED) atwavelengths of λ <= 100 μm. It is difficult to derive thetotal far-infrared luminosity from only the IRAS data, though it is oneof the most important properties of galaxies. Observations by InfraredTelescope in Space (IRTS) indicate that the SED of the diffuse emissionfrom the Galactic plane in this wavelength region can be derived fromthe 60 μm to 100 μm color. This empirical SED relation wasimproved in order to obtain a better fit to the Galactic plane data forIν(60 μm) / Iν(100 μm) > 0.6, andapplied to 96 IRAS galaxies for which ISOPHOT and KAO data are availableat λ > 100 μm. As a result, the empirical relation welldescribes the far-infrared (FIR) SED for a majority of galaxies.Additionally, the total FIR flux for λ >= 40 μm was derivedfrom the flux densities at 60 and 100 μm by using this model. For the96 IRAS galaxies, the uncertainty in the total far-infrared flux of thepresent method is 26%. The present method is more accurate than theprevious one widely used to derive the total infrared flux from the IRAS60 and 100 μm data.

The SAURON project - II. Sample and early results
Early results are reported from the SAURON survey of the kinematics andstellar populations of a representative sample of nearby E, S0 and Sagalaxies. The survey is aimed at determining the intrinsic shape of thegalaxies, their orbital structure, the mass-to-light ratio as a functionof radius, the age and metallicity of the stellar populations, and thefrequency of kinematically decoupled cores and nuclear black holes. Theconstruction of the representative sample is described, and itsproperties are illustrated. A comparison with long-slit spectroscopicdata establishes that the SAURON measurements are comparable to, orbetter than, the highest-quality determinations. Comparisons arepresented for NGC 3384 and 4365, where stellar velocities and velocitydispersions are determined to a precision of 6kms-1, and theh3 and h4 parameters of the line-of-sight velocitydistribution to a precision of better than 0.02. Extraction of accurategas emission-line intensities, velocities and linewidths from the datacubes is illustrated for NGC 5813. Comparisons with published linestrengths for NGC 3384 and 5813 reveal uncertainties of <~0.1Åon the measurements of the Hβ, Mg b and Fe5270 indices.Integral-field mapping uniquely connects measurements of the kinematicsand stellar populations to the galaxy morphology. The maps presentedhere illustrate the rich stellar kinematics, gaseous kinematics, andline-strength distributions of early-type galaxies. The results includethe discovery of a thin, edge-on, disc in NGC 3623, confirm theaxisymmetric shape of the central region of M32, illustrate the LINERnucleus and surrounding counter-rotating star-forming ring in NGC 7742,and suggest a uniform stellar population in the decoupled core galaxyNGC 5813.

Catalog of Multicolor Profiles of Galaxies
A catalog of multicolor photometric profiles derived from aperturephotometry for a selected sample of galaxies is given. The data sources,homogenization procedures and selection criteria used are described.

Far-Infrared Photometry of a Statistical Sample of Late-Type Virgo Cluster Galaxies
We present deep diffraction-limited far-infrared (FIR) strip maps of asample of 63 galaxies later than S0 and brighter thanBT=16.8, selected from the Virgo Cluster Catalogue ofBinggeli, Sandage, & Tammann. The ISOPHOT instrument on board theInfrared Space Observatory was used to achieve sensitivities typicallyan order of magnitude deeper than IRAS in the 60 and 100 μm bands andto reach the confusion limit at 170 μm. The averaged 3 σ upperlimits for integrated flux densities of point sources at 60, 100, and170 μm are 43, 33, and 58 mJy, respectively. A total of 63.5% aredetected at all three wavelengths. The highest detection rate (85.7%) isin the 170 μm band. In many cases the galaxies are resolved, allowingthe scale length of the infrared disks to be derived from theoversampled brightness profiles in addition to the spatially integratedemission. The data presented should provide the basis for a variety ofstatistical investigations of the FIR spectral energy distributions ofgas-rich galaxies in the local universe spanning a broad range in starformation activity and morphological types, including dwarf systems andgalaxies with rather quiescent star formation activity. Based onobservations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), an ESA projectwith instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) andwith the participation of ISAS and NASA.

The DEEP Groth Strip Survey. X. Number Density and Luminosity Function of Field E/S0 Galaxies at z < 1
We present the luminosity function and color-redshift relation of amagnitude-limited sample of 145 mostly red field E/S0 galaxies atz<~1 from the DEEP Groth Strip Survey (GSS). Using nearby galaxyimages as a training set, we develop a quantitative method to classifyE/S0 galaxies based on smoothness, symmetry, and bulge-to-total lightratio. Using this method, we identify 145 E/S0's at 16.5~1.5. We use the tightcorrelation between V-I and zspec for this red subset toestimate redshifts of the remaining E/S0's to an accuracy of ~10%, withthe exception of a small number (16%) of blue interlopers at lowredshift that are quantitatively classified as E/S0's but are notcontained within the red envelope. Constructing a luminosity function ofthe full sample of 145 E/S0's, we find that there is about 1.1-1.9 magbrightening in rest-frame B-band luminosity back to z~=0.8 from z=0,consistent with other studies. Together with the red colors, thisbrightening is consistent with models in which the bulk of stars in redfield E/S0's formed before zfor>~1.5 and have beenevolving rather quiescently, with few large starbursts since then.Evolution in the number density of field E/S0 galaxies is more difficultto measure, and uncertainties in the raw counts and their ratio to localsamples might amount to as much as a factor of 2. Within thatuncertainty, the number density of red E/S0's to z~=0.8 seems relativelystatic, being comparable to or perhaps moderately less than that oflocal E/S0's, depending on the assumed cosmology. A doubling of E/S0number density since z=1 can be ruled out with high confidence (97%) ifΩm=1. Taken together, our results are consistent withthe hypothesis that the majority of luminous field E/S0's were alreadyin place by z~1, that the bulk of their stars were already fairly old,and that their number density has not changed by large amounts sincethen.

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Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:12h30m02.30s
Aparent dimensions:3.981′ × 3.467′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 4477
J/AJ/90/1681VCC 1253

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