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Mid-Infrared Spectra of Classical AGNs Observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope
Full low-resolution (65

Dust properties of UV bright galaxies at z ~ 2
We investigate the properties of the extinction curve in the rest-frameUV for a sample of 34 UV-luminous galaxies at 2 < z < 2.5,selected from the FORS Deep Field (FDF) spectroscopic survey. A newparametric description of the rest-frame UV spectral energy distributionis adopted; its sensitivity to properties of the stellar populations orof dust attenuation is established with the use of models. The latterare computed by combining composite stellar population models andcalculations of radiative transfer of the stellar and scatteredradiation through the dusty interstellar medium (ISM) for a dust/starsconfiguration describing dust attenuation in local starbursts. In thefavoured configuration the stars are enveloped by a shell with atwo-phase, clumpy, dusty ISM. The distribution of the z ˜ 2UV-luminous FDF galaxies in several diagnostic diagrams shows that theirextinction curves range between those typical of the Small and LargeMagellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC, respectively). For the majority ofstrongly reddened objects having a UV continuum slope β > -0.4 asignificant 2175 Å absorption feature (or "UV bump") is inferred,indicating an LMC-like extinction curve. On the other hand, the UVcontinua of the least reddened objects are mostly consistent withSMC-like extinction curves, lacking a significant UV bump, as for thesample of local starbursts investigated by Calzetti and collaborators.Furthermore, the most opaque (⠘ 0) and, thus (for ourmodels), dustiest UV-luminous FDF galaxies tend to be among the mostmetal-rich, most massive, and largest systems at z ˜ 2, indicating< Z > ˜ 0.5 {-} 1 Zȯ, < Mstars> ˜ 6 × 1010 Mȯ, and ˜ 4 kpc, respectively. The presence of the UVbump does not seem to depend on the total metallicity, as given by theequivalent width (EW) of the C IV doublet. Conversely, it seems to beassociated with a large average EW of the six most prominentinterstellar low-ionisation absorption lines falling in the FORSspectra. The average EW of these saturated lines offers a proxy for theISM topology. We interpret these results as the evidence for adifference in the properties of the dusty ISM among the most evolvedUV-luminous, massive galaxies at z ˜ 2.

The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Sample selection and hosts brightness profiles
This is the first of a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGNs in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. We selected twosamples, both with high resolution 5 GHz VLA observations available andproviding measurements down to 1 mJy level, reaching radio-luminositiesas low as 1019 W Hz-1. We focus on the 116radio-detected galaxies as to boost the fraction of AGN with respect toa purely optically selected sample. Here we present the analysis of theoptical brightness profiles based on archival HST images, available for65 objects. We separate early-type galaxies on the basis of the slope oftheir nuclear brightness profiles, into core and power-law galaxiesfollowing the Nuker's scheme, rather than on the traditionalmorphological classification (i.e. into E and S0 galaxies). Our sampleof AGN candidates is indistinguishable, when their brightness profilesare concerned, from galaxies of similar optical luminosity but hostingweaker (or no) radio-sources. We confirm previous findings thatrelatively bright radio-sources (Lr > 1021.5 WHz-1) are uniquely associated to core galaxies. However,below this threshold in radio-luminosity core and power-law galaxiescoexist and they do not show any apparent difference in theirradio-properties. Not surprisingly, since our sample is deliberatelybiased to favour the inclusion of active galaxies, we found a higherfraction of optically nucleated galaxies. Addressing the multiwavelengthproperties of these nuclei will be the aim of the two forthcomingpapers.

Massive star populations in Wolf-Rayet galaxies
We analyse long-slit spectral observations of 14 Wolf-Rayet (WR)galaxies from the sample of Schaerer, Contini & Pindao. All 14galaxies show broad WR emission in the blue region of the spectrum,consisting of a blend of NIIIλ4640, CIIIλ4650,CIVλ4658 and HeIIλ4686 emission lines, which is a spectralcharacteristic of WN stars. Broad CIVλ5808 emission, termed thered bump, is detected in nine galaxies and CIIIλ5996 is detectedin six galaxies. These emission features are due to WC stars. We derivethe numbers of late WN and early WC stars from the luminosity of theblue and red bumps, respectively. The number of O stars is estimatedfrom the luminosity of the Hβ emission line, after subtracting thecontribution of WR stars. The Schaerer & Vacca models predict thatthe number of WR stars relative to O stars,NWR/NO, increases with metallicity. Forlow-metallicity galaxies, the results agree with predictions ofevolutionary synthesis models for galaxies with a burst of starformation, and indicate an initial mass function (IMF) slope -2<~Γ<~- 2.35 in the low-metallicity regime. Forhigh-metallicity galaxies our observations suggest a Salpeter IMF(Γ=-2.35) and an extended short burst. The main possible sourcesof error are the adopted luminosities for single WCE and WNL stars. Wealso report, for the first time, on NGC 450 as a galaxy with WRcharacteristics. For NGC 450, we estimate the number of WN and WC stars.The number ratio NWR/NO, and the equivalent widthsof the blue bump, EWλ4686, and of the red bump,EWλ5808, in NGC 450 are also in good agreement withthe instantaneous burst model prediction for WR galaxies.

Star Formation History and Extinction in the Central Kiloparsec of M82-like Starbursts
We report on the star formation histories and extinction in the centralkiloparsec region of a sample of starburst galaxies that have similarfar-infrared (FIR), 10 μm, and K-band luminosities as those of thearchetype starburst M82. Our study is based on new optical spectra andpreviously published K-band photometric data, both sampling the samearea around the nucleus. Model starburst spectra were synthesized as acombination of stellar populations of distinct ages formed over theHubble time and were fitted to the observed optical spectra and K-bandflux. The model is able to reproduce simultaneously the equivalentwidths of emission and absorption lines, the continuum fluxes between3500 and 7000 Å, and the K-band and FIR flux. A good fit requiresa minimum of three populations: (1) a young population of age <=8Myr, with its corresponding nebular emission, (2) an intermediate-agepopulation (age <500 Myr), and (3) an old population that forms partof the underlying disk or/and bulge population. The birthrate parameter,which is defined as the ratio of the current star formation rate to theaverage past rate, is found to be in the range 1-12. The contribution ofthe old population to the K-band luminosity depends on the birthrateparameter and remains above 60% in the majority of the sample galaxies.Even in the blue band, the intermediate-age and old populationscontribute more than 40% of the total flux in all the cases. Arelatively high contribution from the old stars to the K-band nuclearflux is also apparent from the strength of the 4000 Å break andthe Ca II K line. The extinction of the old population is found to bearound half that of the young population. The contribution to thecontinuum from the relatively old stars has the effect of diluting theemission equivalent widths below the values expected for young bursts.The mean dilution factors are found to be 5 and 3 for the Hα andHβ lines, respectively.

Stellar populations in HII galaxies
We analyse the stellar content of a large number of HII galaxies fromthe continua and absorption features of their spectra using populationsynthesis methods, in order to gain information about the star formationhistories of these objects.We find that all galaxies of our sample contain an old stellarpopulation (≥1 Gyr) that dominates the stellar mass, and in amajority of these we also found evidence for an intermediate-agepopulation ≥50 Myr apart from the presently bursting, ionizing younggeneration ≤107 yr.Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Spectrophotometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. The data
Drift-scan mode (3600-6800 Å) spectra with 500

Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. VI. HI observations and the K-band Tully-Fisher relation
This paper reports a study of the effect of a bar on the neutralhydrogen (HI) content of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. We also makecomparisons with a sample of ``normal'' galaxies and investigate howwell starburst and Seyfert galaxies follow the fundamental scalingTully-Fisher (TF) relation defined for normal galaxies. 111 Markarian(Mrk) IRAS galaxies were observed with the Nançay radiotelescope,and HI data were obtained for 80 galaxies, of which 64 are newdetections. We determined the (20 and 50%) linewidths, the maximumvelocity of rotation and total HI flux for each galaxy. Thesemeasurements are complemented by data from the literature to form asample of Mrk IRAS (74% starburst, 23% Seyfert and 3% unknown) galaxiescontaining 105 unbarred and 113 barred ones. Barred galaxies have lowertotal and bias-corrected HI masses than unbarred galaxies, and this istrue for both Mrk IRAS and normal galaxies. This robust result suggeststhat bars funnel the HI gas toward the center of the galaxy where itbecomes molecular before forming new stars. The Mrk IRAS galaxies havehigher bias-corrected HI masses than normal galaxies. They also showsignificant departures from the TF relation, both in the B and K bands.The most deviant points from the TF relation tend to have a strongfar-infrared luminosity and a low oxygen abundance. These resultssuggest that a fraction of our Mrk IRAS galaxies are still in theprocess of formation, and that their neutral HI gas, partly of externalorigin, has not yet reached a stationary state.Based on observations obtained at the large radiotelescope ofObservatoire de Nançay, operated by Observatoire de Paris.Tables 5 and 6 are only (and Table 4 also) available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/515

Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the ˜9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35

The evolution of stars and gas in starburst galaxies
In systems undergoing starbursts the evolution of the young stellarpopulation is expected to drive changes in the emission-line properties.This evolution is usually studied theoretically, with a combination ofevolutionary synthesis models for the spectral energy distribution ofstarbursts and photoionization calculations. In this paper we present amore empirical approach to this issue. We apply empirical populationsynthesis techniques to samples of starburst and HII galaxies in orderto measure their evolutionary state and correlate the results with theiremission-line properties. A couple of useful tools are introduced thatgreatly facilitate the interpretation of the synthesis: (1) anevolutionary diagram, the axes of which are the strengths of the young,intermediate age and old components of the stellar population mix; and(2) the mean age of stars associated with the starburst, . These toolsare tested with grids of theoretical galaxy spectra and found to workvery well even when only a small number of observed properties(absorption-line equivalent widths and continuum colours) is used in thesynthesis.Starburst nuclei and HII galaxies are found to lie on a well-definedsequence in the evolutionary diagram. Using the empirically defined meanstarburst age in conjunction with emission-line data, we have verifiedthat the equivalent widths of Hβ and [OIII] decrease for increasing. The same evolutionary trend was identified for line ratios indicativeof the gas excitation, although no clear trend was identified formetal-rich systems. All these results are in excellent agreement withlong-known, but little tested, theoretical expectations.

The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.

Evolutionary spectral energy distribution diagnostics of starburst galaxies: signature of bimodality
We construct an evolutionary spectral energy distribution (SED) model ofa starburst region, from the ultraviolet to submillimetre wavelengths.This model allows us to derive the star formation rate, optical depth bydust and apparent effective radius of starburst regions at variouswavelengths; as a result, the intrinsic surface brightness of starburstregions can be derived. Using this SED model, we analyse 16ultraviolet-selected starburst galaxies and 10 ultraluminous infraredgalaxies. The derived star formation rates and optical depths arecompared with emission-line measurements and are found to be consistent.The derived apparent effective radii are also consistent withobservations. From the SED analysis, we find a bimodal property of thestar formation rate with the optical depth and the compactness ofstellar distributions. While mild starbursts have a limiting intrinsicsurface brightnessLbolr-2e~= 1012Lsolar kpc-2, intense starbursts tend to be moreheavily obscured and concentrated within a characteristic scale ofre~= 0.3 kpc. We suggest that the mild starbursts can betriggered by a self-gravitating disc instability in which feedback iseffective in the shallow gravitational potential. On the other hand, theintense starbursts can be induced via an external dynamical perturbationsuch as galaxy merging, in which feedback is less effective owing to thedeep gravitational potential attained by the large gas concentrationwithin the central starburst region.

Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames Galaxies
Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The cold gas properties of Markarian galaxies
A sample of 61 Markarian galaxies detected in the CO line was compiled.Using available HI, element H2, optical and radio continuumdata, the analysis of the gas kinematics and the star formationproperties for this sample of galaxies was performed. The mainconclusion can be summarized as follows: (1) The HI and CO line widthsare well correlated. Interaction between galaxies has no influence onthe CO line broadening. A rapidly rotating nuclear disk in the galaxymight lead to the CO line broadening with less influence on the HI line.(2) The atomic and molecular gas surface densities are well correlatedwith the blue, FIR and radio continuum surface brightness; however, thecorrelation for molecular component is stronger.\ (3) In general, thegalaxies with UV-excess (Markarian galaxies) do not differ in their starformation properties from the non-UV galaxies.

An empirical calibration of star formation rate estimators
The observational determination of the behaviour of the star formationrate (SFR) with look-back time or redshift has two main weaknesses: (i)the large uncertainty of the dust/extinction corrections, and (ii) thatsystematic errors may be introduced by the fact that the SFR isestimated using different methods at different redshifts. Mostfrequently, the luminosity of the Hα emission line, that of theforbidden line [O II] λ3727 and that of the far-ultravioletcontinuum are used with low-, intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies,respectively. To assess the possible systematic differences among thedifferent SFR estimators and the role of dust, we have compared SFRestimates using Hα, [O II] λ3727 Å, ultraviolet (UV)and far-infrared (FIR) luminosities [SFR(Hα), SFR(O II), SFR(UV)and SFR(FIR), respectively of a sample comprising the 31 nearbystar-forming galaxies that have high-quality photometric data in the UV,optical and FIR. We review the different `standard' methods for theestimation of the SFR and find that while the standard method providesgood agreement between SFR(Hα) and SFR(FIR), both SFR(O II) andSFR(UV) are systematically higher than SFR(FIR), irrespective of theextinction law. We show that the excess in the SFR(O II) and SFR(UV) ismainly due to an overestimation of the extinction resulting from theeffect of underlying stellar Balmer absorptions in the measured emissionline fluxes. Taking this effect into consideration in the determinationof the extinction brings the SFR(O II) and SFR(UV) in line with theSFR(FIR), and simultaneously reduces the internal scatter of the SFRestimations. Based on these results, we have derived `unbiased' SFRexpressions for the SFR(UV), SFR(OII) and SFR(Hα). We have usedthese estimators to recompute the SFR history of the Universe using theresults of published surveys. The main results are that the use of theunbiased SFR estimators brings into agreement the results of allsurveys. Particularly important is the agreement achieved for the SFRderived from the FIR/millimetre and optical/UV surveys. The `unbiased'star formation history of the Universe shows a steep rise in the SFRfrom z =0 to z =1 with SFR ~(1+z)4.5, followed by a declinefor z>2 where SFR ~(1+z)-1.5. Galaxy formation models tendto have a much flatter slope from z=0 to z=1

A New Database of Observed Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Starburst Galaxies from the Ultraviolet to the Far-Infrared
We present a database of UV-to-FIR data of 83 nearby starburst galaxies.The galaxies are selected based upon the availability of IUE data. Wehave recalibrated the IUE UV spectra for these galaxies by incorporatingthe most recent improvements. For 45 of these galaxies we useobservations by Storchi-Bergmann et al. and McQuade et al. for thespectra in the optical range. The NIR data are from new observationsobtained at the NASA/IRTF and the Mount Laguna Observatory, combinedwith the published results from observations at the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. In addition, published calibrated ISO data are included toprovide mid-IR flux densities for some of the galaxies. Theoptical-to-IR data are matched as closely as possible to the IUE largeaperture. In conjunction with IRAS and ISO FIR flux densities, all thesedata form a set of observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of thenuclear regions of nearby starburst galaxies. The SEDs should be usefulin studying star formation and dust/gas attenuation in galaxies. We alsopresent the magnitudes in the standard BVRI and various HST/WFPC2bandpasses synthesized from the UV and optical wavelength ranges ofthese SEDs. For some of the galaxies, the HST/WFPC2 magnitudessynthesized from the SEDs are checked with those directly measured fromWFPC2 images to test the photometric errors of the optical data andtheir effective matching of apertures with the UV data. The implicationsof the new SEDs on the star formation rates and dust/gas attenuation arebriefly discussed.

Far-Infrared Census of Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Far-infrared flux densities are newly extracted from the IRAS databasefor the Revised Shapley-Ames and CfA complete samples of Seyfertgalaxies. These data are used to classify the Seyfert galaxies intothose where the far-infrared continuum emission is dominated by theactive galactic nucleus (AGN), circumnuclear starburst, or host galaxy.While AGN-dominant objects consist of comparable numbers of Seyfert 1and 2 galaxies, starburst- and host-dominant objects consistpreferentially of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Thus, in addition to the dustytorus, the circumnuclear starburst region and host galaxy are importantin hiding the broad-line region. Morphologically, starburst-dominantSeyfert galaxies are of later types and more strongly interacting thanAGN-dominant Seyfert galaxies. In a later type galaxy, the AGN centralengine has a lower Eddington luminosity, and the gaseous content ishigher. The gas is efficiently supplied to the starburst via agalaxy-galaxy interaction. Morphologies of host-dominant Seyfertgalaxies are of various types. Since starbursts in Seyfert galaxies areolder than those in classical starburst galaxies, we propose anevolution from starburst to starburst-dominant Seyfert to host-dominantSeyfert for a late-type galaxy. An evolution from AGN-dominant Seyfertto host-dominant Seyfert is proposed for an early-type galaxy. Thesesequences have durations of a few times 108 yr and occurrepeatedly within a galaxy during its evolution from a late type to anearly type.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

Star formation and dust extinction in nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies
We study the star formation rate and dust extinction properties of asample of nearby star-forming galaxies as derived from Hα and UV (~ 2000 Å) observations and we compare them to those of a sample ofstarburst galaxies. The dust extinction in Hα is estimated fromthe Balmer decrement and the extinction in UV using the FIR to UV fluxratio or the attenuation law for starburst galaxies of Calzetti et al.(\cite{calzetti5}). The Hα and UV emissions are stronglycorrelated with a very low scatter for the star-forming objects and witha much higher scatter for the starburst galaxies. The Hα to UVflux ratio is found to be larger by a factor ~ 2 for the starburstgalaxies. We compare both samples with a purely UV selected sample ofgalaxies and we conclude that the mean Hα and UV properties ofnearby star-forming galaxies are more representative of UV-selectedgalaxies than starburst galaxies. We emphasize that the Hα to UVflux ratio is strongly dependent on the dust extinction: the positivecorrelation found between FHα/FUV andFFIR/FUV vanishes when the Hα and UV fluxare corrected for dust extinction. The Hα to UV flux ratiosconverted into star formation rate and combined with the Balmerdecrement measurements are tentatively used to estimate the dustextinction in UV.

Strömgren Photometry from z=0 to z~1. I. The Method
We use rest-frame Strömgren photometry to observe clusters ofgalaxies in a self-consistent manner from z=0 to z=0.8. Strömgrenphotometry of galaxies is intended as a compromise between standardbroadband photometry and spectroscopy, in the sense that it is moresensitive to subtle variations in spectral energy distributions than theformer, yet much less time-consuming than the latter. principalcomponent analysis is used to facilitate extraction of information fromthe Strömgren data. By calibrating the principal components usingwell-studied galaxies, as well as models of stellar populations, wedevelop a purely empirical method to detect, and subsequently classify,cluster galaxies at all redshifts smaller than 0.8. Interlopers arediscarded with unprecedented efficiency (up to 100%). The firstprincipal component essentially reproduces the Hubble sequence and canthus be used to determine the global star formation history of clustermembers. The (PC2, PC3) plane allows us to identify Seyfert galaxies(and distinguish them from starbursts) based on photometric colorsalone. In the case of E/S0 galaxies with known redshift, we are able toresolve the age-dust-metallicity degeneracy, albeit at the accuracylimit of our present observations. We use this technique in later papersto probe galaxy clusters well beyond their cores and to faintermagnitudes than spectroscopy can achieve, because the faint end of theluminosity function as well as the outer cluster regions seem to exhibitthe strongest evolutionary trends. We are able to directly compare thesedata over the entire redshift range without a priori assumptions becauseour observations do not require first-order k-corrections. Thecompilation of such data for different cluster types over a wideredshift range is likely to set important constraints on the evolutionof galaxies and on the clustering process.

The Secular Evolution of Galactic Disks with a Star Formation Threshold: The Origins of Low Surface Brightness Spirals, Magellanic Irregulars, and Blue Compact Dwarfs
The long-term evolution of disk galaxies of extremely late morphologicaltype is examined in relation to the possible dynamical effect of a starformation threshold in the interstellar gas. Although having commonfeatures such as high gas content, blue optical colors, and dominantdark matter, extremely late galaxies exhibit a remarkable diversity intheir structure, ranging from low surface brightness disks and centralbars to the centrally concentrated star-forming regions thatcharacterize blue compact dwarf galaxies. I make the hypothesis that theobserved structural variety has been caused by secular evolutionprocesses taking place in the galactic disks, probably driven by somekind of viscosity. A simple model of the secular evolution of galacticdisks is devised, and how the mass redistribution process depends uponthe galaxy mass and density is examined. It is found that the existenceof a threshold surface density of the gas disk, below which the starformation is heavily damped, has a profound effect on theviscosity-driven evolution of late-type galaxies, i.e., galaxies with asmall mass and/or a low density. More massive and/or denser galaxies,corresponding to luminous high surface brightness galaxies (with aHubble type of ~Scd and earlier), hardly suffer from this effect and aregoverned by a different regime of mass transport. The most importantresult found in the present extensive model calculation is that the``viscous'' evolution model of galactic disks, coupled with theexistence of a star formation threshold in the interstellar gas density,predicts the formation of gas-rich, low-mass galaxies that have aprominent central component at the present cosmological epoch. The mostplausible candidates for such systems include blue compact dwarfgalaxies and extremely late-type disk galaxies possessing a central bar.

Starburst or Seyfert? Adding a Radio and Far-Infrared Perspective to the Investigation of Activity in Composite Galaxies
It was once common to regard Seyfert and starburst galaxies ascompletely different types of object, but there is growing recognitionthat these classifications refer to the extremes of a continuousspectrum of galaxy types. In a previous study we investigated a sampleof galaxies with ambiguous optical emission-line ratios and concludedfrom near-infrared spectroscopic observations that the sample consistedof composite galaxies, containing both a starburst and an activegalactic nucleus (AGN). We now extend our study using radio synthesisand long-baseline interferometer observations made with the AustraliaTelescope, together with far-infrared IRAS observations, to discuss therelative contribution of starburst and AGN components to the overallluminosity of the composite galaxies. We find that only a small fractionof the radio emission (<10%) can be attributed to an AGN and that themajority of the far-infrared emission (>90%) is probably due to thestarburst component. We also show that an AGN contribution to theoptical emission of as little as 10% is sufficient to account for theambiguous line-ratio diagnostics.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

1.65 ^mum (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. IV. observations of 170 galaxies with the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope
We present near-infrared (H band) surface photometry of 170 galaxies,obtained in 1997 using the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope equipped with theNICMOS3 camera MAGIC. The majority of our targets are selected amongbright members of the Virgo cluster, however galaxies in the A262 andCancer clusters and in the Coma/A1367 supercluster are also included.This data set is aimed at complementing the NIR survey in the Virgocluster discussed in \cite[Boselli et al. (1997)]{B97} and in the ComaSupercluster, presented in Papers I, II and III of this series.Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii andlight concentration indices are derivedTables 1 and 2 (full version) are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.Based on observations taken at the Calar Alto Observatory, operated bythe Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly withthe Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

H I observations of emission-line galaxies
We present single-dish Lovell telescope H i observations of a sample of67 emission-line and UV-excess galaxies, of which 52 are taken from theUniversity of Michigan (UM) catalogue. In addition, H i observations of24 gas-rich irregular galaxies are presented. We find that emission-linegalaxies are H i-rich with a median H i mass to blue luminosity ratioMHI/LB of ~ 0.45 Msun/Lsun.Within the UM galaxy sample the MHI/LB ratio tendsto increase with decreasing luminosity. Finally, it is found that themost H i-rich UM galaxies are the most metal deficient, implying thatthese objects are less evolved.

Spectral classification of emission-line galaxies
The main goal of this work is to further investigate the classificationof emission-line galaxies from the ``Spectrophotometric Catalogue of HII galaxies'' by Terlevich et al. (1991) in a homogeneous and objectiveway, using the three line-ratio diagrams, called diagnostic diagrams, ofVeilleux & Osterbrock (1987). On the basis of the resultingcatalogue, we critically discuss the classification methods in theoptical range. In particular we compare our classification scheme to theone done by Rola et al. (1997) which is efficient for the classificationof redshifted galaxies. We also propose a new diagnostic diagraminvolving the known intensity ratio R23=([O II],l 3727+[OIII] l 4959+{[O III] l 5007)/Hb which appears to be a very goodcriterion allowing to discriminate the Seyfert 2 from H ii galaxies. Therevised catalogue including 314 narrow-emission-line galaxies contains HII galaxies, Seyfert 2 galaxies, Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-LineRegions (hereafter LINERs) galaxies and some particular types ofgalaxies with the most intriguing ones, called ``ambiguous'', due to theambiguity of their location in the diagnostic diagrams. These galaxiesappear as H II galaxies and as active galactic nuclei (hereafter AGNs)in different diagrams of Veilleux & Osterbrock and constitutecertainly a sample of particularly interesting candidates for a thoroughstudy of connections between starbursts and AGNs. Available inelectronic form only via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Age and Dust Degeneracy for Starburst Galaxies Solved?
We present a newly built spectral evolution model of galaxies thatincludes both stellar and dust effects. Applying the model to 22 nearbystarburst galaxies shows that far-infrared (FIR) luminosity of galaxieshelps to break the age-dustiness degeneracy. We have derived a uniquesolution of age and the dustiness for each starburst galaxy. Theresulting starburst ages and optical depths are in the range 10<=t(Myr)<=500 and 0.5<=tau_V<=5.0, respectively. The result isrobust and is almost independent of model assumptions such as dustdistributions, extinction curves, and burst strengths. With the rapidlygrowing sensitivity of submillimeter detectors, it should becomepossible in the near future to determine the age and tau_V ofstar-forming galaxies at redshifts z~=3 and beyond. Accurate estimatesof tau_V for Lyman-break galaxies and high-z galaxies might require asubstantial revision of the previously claimed picture of star formationhistory over the Hubble time.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:12h25m42.70s
Aparent dimensions:2.188′ × 1.479′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 4385

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