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Rejuvenation of spiral bulges
We seek to understand whether the stellar populations of galactic bulgesshow evidence of secular evolution triggered by the presence of thedisc. For this purpose, we re-analyse the sample of Proctor and Sansom,deriving stellar population ages and element abundances fromabsorption-line indices as functions of central velocity dispersion andHubble type. We obtain consistent constraints on ages from the threeBalmer-line indices Hβ, Hγ and Hδ, based on stellarpopulation models that take the abundance ratio effects on these indicesinto account. Emission-line contamination turns out to be a criticalaspect, which favours the use of the higher order Balmer-line indices.Our derived ages are consistent with those of Proctor and Sansom basedon a completely different method. In agreement with other studies in theliterature, we find that bulges have relatively low luminosity weightedages, the lowest age derived being 1.3Gyr. Hence, bulges are notgenerally old, but actually rejuvenated systems. We discuss evidencethat this might be true also for the bulge of the Milky Way. The datareveal clear correlations of all three parameters luminosity weightedage, total metallicity and α/Fe ratio with central velocitydispersion. The smallest bulges are the youngest with the lowestα/Fe ratios owing to late Fe enrichment from Type Ia supernovae.Using models combining recent minor star formation with a base oldpopulation, we show that the smallest bulges must have experiencedsignificant star formation events involving 10-30 per cent of theirtotal mass in the past 1-2Gyr. No significant correlations of thestellar population parameters with Hubble type are found. We show thatthe above relationships with σ coincide perfectly with those ofearly-type galaxies. In other words, bulges are typically younger, metalpoorer and less α/Fe enhanced than early-type galaxies because oftheir smaller masses. At a given velocity dispersion, bulges andelliptical galaxies are indistinguishable as far as their stellarpopulations are concerned. These results favour an inside-out formationscenario and indicate that the discs in spiral galaxies of Hubble typesSbc and earlier cannot have a significant influence on the evolution ofthe stellar populations in the bulge component. The phenomenon ofpseudo-bulge formation must be restricted to spirals of types later thanSbc.

Objective Classification of Spiral Galaxies Having Extended Rotation Curves Beyond the Optical Radius
We carry out an objective classification of four samples of spiralgalaxies having extended rotation curves beyond the optical radius. Amultivariate statistical analysis (viz., principal component analysis[PCA]) shows that about 96% of the total variation is due to twocomponents, one being the combination of absolute blue magnitude andmaximum rotational velocity beyond the optical region and the otherbeing the central density of the halo. On the basis of PCA a fundamentalplane has been constructed that reduces the scatter in the Tully-Fisherrelation up to a maximum of 16%. A multiple stepwise regression analysisof the variation of the overall shape of the rotation curves shows thatit is mainly determined by the central surface brightness, while theshape purely in the outer part of the galaxy (beyond the optical radius)is mainly determined by the size of the galactic disk.

The Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation of Galaxies with Extended Rotation Curves and the Stellar Mass of Rotating Galaxies
I investigate the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation for a sample ofgalaxies with extended 21 cm rotation curves spanning the range 20 kms-1<~Vf<=300 km s-1. A variety ofscalings of the stellar mass-to-light ratio Υ* areconsidered. For each prescription for Υ*, I give fitsof the form Md=AVxf.Presumably, the prescription that comes closest to the correct valuewill minimize the scatter in the relation. The fit with minimum scatterhas A=50 Msolar km-4 s4 andx=4. This relation holds over five decades in mass. Galaxy color,stellar fraction, and Υ* are correlated with eachother and with Md, in the sense that more massivegalaxies tend to be more evolved. There is a systematic dependence ofthe degree of maximality of disks on surface brightness. High surfacebrightness galaxies typically have Υ*~3/4 of themaximum disk value, while low surface brightness galaxies typicallyattain ~1/4 of this amount.

Metal-poor Globular Clusters and the Formation of Their Host Galaxies
We have determined the total numbers and specific frequencies of blue,metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) in eight spiral and early-typegalaxies. These data, along with five measurements from the literature,show a trend of increasing blue GC specific frequency with increasingmass of the host galaxy. The increase is not accounted for in a simplegalaxy formation model in which elliptical galaxies and their GC systemsare formed by the merger of typical spiral galaxies. The data appearbroadly consistent with hierarchical formation scenarios in whichmetal-poor GCs are formed over a finite period in the early universeduring the initial stages of galaxy assembly. In this picture, theobserved trend is related to biasing, in the sense that the more massivegalaxies of today began assembling earlier and therefore formedrelatively more GCs during this early epoch of metal-poor GC formation.We discuss how comparisons of the observed specific frequency ofmetal-poor GCs with model calculations can constrain the formationredshift of these objects.

The Mass Discrepancy-Acceleration Relation: Disk Mass and the Dark Matter Distribution
The mass discrepancy in disk galaxies is shown to be well correlatedwith acceleration, increasing systematically with decreasingacceleration below a critical scalea0~3700km2s-2kpc-1=1.2×10-10ms-2.For each galaxy, there is an optimal choice of stellar mass-to-lightratio that minimizes the scatter in this mass discrepancy-accelerationrelation. The same mass-to-light ratios also minimize the scatter in thebaryonic Tully-Fisher relation and are in excellent agreement with theexpectations of stellar population synthesis. Once the disk mass isdetermined in this fashion, the dark matter distribution is specified.The circular velocity attributable to the dark matter can be expressedas a simple equation that depends only on the observed distribution ofbaryonic mass. It is a challenge to understand how this very fine-tunedcoupling between mass and light comes about.

A New Nonparametric Approach to Galaxy Morphological Classification
We present two new nonparametric methods for quantifying galaxymorphology: the relative distribution of the galaxy pixel flux values(the Gini coefficient or G) and the second-order moment of the brightest20% of the galaxy's flux (M20). We test the robustness of Gand M20 to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and spatialresolution and find that both measures are reliable to within 10% forimages with average S/N per pixel greater than 2 and resolutions betterthan 1000 and 500 pc, respectively. We have measured G andM20, as well as concentration (C), asymmetry (A), andclumpiness (S) in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet/optical wavelengthsfor 148 bright local ``normal'' Hubble-type galaxies (E-Sd) galaxies, 22dwarf irregulars, and 73 0.05

Nuclear Stellar Populations in the Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies
To understand the nuclear stellar populations and star formationhistories of the nuclei of spiral galaxies, we have obtained K-bandnuclear spectra for 41 galaxies and H-band spectra for 20 galaxies inthe Infrared Space Observatory's Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies. In thevast majority of the subsample (80%), the near-infrared spectra suggestthat evolved red stars completely dominate the nuclear stellarpopulations and that hot young stars are virtually nonexistent. Thesignatures of recent star formation activity are only found in 20% ofthe subsample, even though older red stars still dominate the stellarpopulations in these galaxies. Given the dominance of evolved stars inmost galaxy nuclei and the nature of the emission lines in the galaxieswhere they were detected, we suggest that nuclear star formationproceeds in the form of instantaneous bursts. The stars produced bythese bursts comprise only ~2% of the total nuclear stellar mass inthese galaxies, but we demonstrate how the nuclear stellar populationsof normal spiral galaxies can be built up through a series of thesebursts. The bursts were detected only in Sbc galaxies and later, andboth bars and interactions appeared to be sufficient, but not necessary,triggers for the nuclear star formation activity. The vast majority ofgalaxies with nuclear star formation were classified as H II galaxies.With one exception, LINERs and transition objects were dominated byolder red stars, which suggested that star formation was not responsiblefor generating these galaxies' optical line emission.

Deprojecting spiral galaxies using Fourier analysis. Application to the Frei sample
We present two methods that can be used to deproject spirals, based onFourier analysis of their images, and discuss their potential andrestrictions. Our methods perform particularly well for galaxies moreinclined than 50° or for non-barred galaxies moreinclined than 35°. They are fast and straightforward touse, and thus ideal for large samples of galaxies. Moreover, they arevery robust for low resolutions and thus are appropriate for samples ofcosmological interest. The relevant software is available from us uponrequest. We use these methods to determine the values of the positionand inclination angles for a sample of 79 spiral galaxies contained inthe Frei et al. (\cite{frei96}) sample. We compare our results with thevalues found in the literature, based on other methods. We findstatistically very good agreementTable 7 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/415/849

Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae, Set II
Classifications on the DDO system are given for an additional 231 hostgalaxies of supernovae that have been discovered during the course ofthe Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the Katzman Automatic ImagingTelescope (KAIT). This brings the total number of hosts of supernovae(SNe) discovered (or independently rediscovered) by KAIT, which have sofar been classified on a homogeneous system, to 408. The probabilitythat SNe Ia and SNe II have a different distribution of host-galaxyHubble types is found to be 99.7%. A significant difference is alsofound between the distributions of the host galaxies of SNe Ia and ofSNe Ibc (defined here to include SNe Ib, Ib/c, and Ic). However, nosignificant difference is detected between the frequency distributionsof the host galaxies of SNe II and SNe IIn. This suggests that SNe IInare generally not SNe Ia embedded in circumstellar material that aremasquerading as SNe II. Furthermore, no significant difference is foundbetween the distribution of the Hubble types of the hosts of SNe Ibc andof SNe II. Additionally, SNe II-P and SNe II-L are found to occur amongsimilar stellar populations. The ratio of the number of SNe Ia-pec tonormal SNe Ia appears to be higher in early-type galaxies than it is ingalaxies of later morphological types. This suggests that the ancestorsof SNe Ia-pec may differ systematically in age or composition from theprogenitors of normal SNe Ia. Unexpectedly, five SNe of Types Ib/c, II,and IIn (all of which are thought to have massive progenitors) are foundin host galaxies that are nominally classified as types E and S0.However, in each case the galaxy classification is uncertain, or newlyinspected images show evidence suggesting a later classification. Amongthese five objects, NGC 3720, the host galaxy of SN 2002at, wasapparently misidentified in the Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies.

The sub-mm/radio correlation in spiral galaxies.
Not Available

Supernovae 2003J, 2003K, 2003L, 2003M
IAUC 8048 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

The Relationship between Stellar Light Distributions of Galaxies and Their Formation Histories
A major problem in extragalactic astronomy is the inability todistinguish in a robust, physical, and model-independent way how galaxypopulations are physically related to each other and to their formationhistories. A similar, but distinct, and also long-standing question iswhether the structural appearances of galaxies, as seen through theirstellar light distributions, contain enough physical information tooffer this classification. We argue through the use of 240 images ofnearby galaxies that three model-independent parameters measured on asingle galaxy image reveal its major ongoing and past formation modesand can be used as a robust classification system. These parametersquantitatively measure: the concentration (C), asymmetry (A), andclumpiness (S) of a galaxy's stellar light distribution. When combinedinto a three-dimensional ``CAS'' volume all major classes of galaxies invarious phases of evolution are cleanly distinguished. We argue thatthese three parameters correlate with important modes of galaxyevolution: star formation and major merging activity. This is arguedthrough the strong correlation of Hα equivalent width andbroadband colors with the clumpiness parameter S, the uniquely largeasymmetries of 66 galaxies undergoing mergers, and the correlation ofbulge to total light ratios, and stellar masses, with the concentrationindex. As an obvious goal is to use this system at high redshifts totrace evolution, we demonstrate that these parameters can be measured,within a reasonable and quantifiable uncertainty with available data outto z~3 using the Hubble Space Telescope GOODS ACS and Hubble Deep Fieldimages.

A Survey for H2O Megamasers. III. Monitoring Water Vapor Masers in Active Galaxies
We present single-dish monitoring of the spectra of 13 extragalacticwater megamasers taken over a period of 9 years and a single epoch ofsensitive spectra for seven others. The primary motivation is a searchfor drifting line velocities analogous to those of the systemic featuresin NGC 4258, which are known to result from centripetal acceleration ofgas in an edge-on, subparsec molecular disk. We detect a velocity driftanalogous to that in NGC 4258 in only one source, NGC 2639. Another, themaser source in NGC 1052, exhibits erratic changes in its broad maserprofile over time. Narrow maser features in all of the other diskgalaxies discussed here either remain essentially constant in velocityover the monitoring period or are sufficiently weak or variable inintensity that individual features cannot be traced reliably from oneepoch to the next. In the context of a circumnuclear, molecular diskmodel, our results suggest that either (a) the maser lines seen aresystemic features subject to a much smaller acceleration than present inNGC 4258, presumably because the gas is farther from the nuclear blackhole, or (b) we are detecting ``satellite'' lines for which theacceleration is in the plane of the sky.Our data include the first K-band science observations taken with thenew 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The GBT data were taken duringtesting and commissioning of several new components and so are subjectto some limitations; nevertheless, they are in most cases the mostsensitive H2O spectra ever taken for each source and cover800 MHz (~=10,800 km s-1) of bandwidth. Many new maserfeatures are detected in these observations. Our data also include atentative and a clear detection of the megamaser in NGC 6240 at epochs ayear and a few months, respectively, prior to the detections reported byHagiwara et al. and Nakai et al.We also report a search for water vapor masers toward the nuclei of 58highly inclined (i>80deg), nearby galaxies. These sourceswere selected to investigate the tendency that H2O megamasersfavor inclined galaxies. None were detected, confirming that megamasersare associated exclusively with active galactic nuclei.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

The 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas
We present the largest galaxies as seen in the near-infrared (1-2μm), imaged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), ranging inangular size from 1' to 1.5d. We highlight the 100 largest in thesample. The galaxies span all Hubble morphological types, includingelliptical galaxies, normal and barred spirals, and dwarf and peculiarclasses. The 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas provides the necessary sensitivityand angular resolution to examine in detail morphologies in thenear-infrared, which may be radically different from those in theoptical. Internal structures such as spirals, bulges, warps, rings,bars, and star formation regions are resolved by 2MASS. In addition tolarge mosaic images, the atlas includes astrometric, photometric, andshape global measurements for each galaxy. A comparison of fundamentalmeasures (e.g., surface brightness, Hubble type) is carried out for thesample and compared with the Third Reference Catalogue. We furthershowcase NGC 253 and M51 (NGC 5194/5195) to demonstrate the quality anddepth of the data. The atlas represents the first uniform, all-sky,dust-penetrated view of galaxies of every type, as seen in thenear-infrared wavelength window that is most sensitive to the dominantmass component of galaxies. The images and catalogs are availablethrough the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database and Infrared ScienceArchive and are part of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog.

Galaxy classification using fractal signature
Fractal geometry is becoming increasingly important in the study ofimage characteristics. For recognition of regions and objects in naturalscenes, there is always a need for features that are invariant and theyprovide a good set of descriptive values for the region. There are manyfractal features that can be generated from an image. In this paper,fractal signatures of nearby galaxies are studied with the aim ofclassifying them. The fractal signature over a range of scales proved tobe an efficient feature set with good discriminating power. Classifierswere designed using nearest neighbour method and neural networktechnique. Using the nearest distance approach, classification rate wasfound to be 92%. By the neural network method it has been found toincrease to 95%.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

A comparison of stellar populations in galaxy spheroids across a wide range of Hubble types
We present line-strengths and kinematics from the central regions of 32galaxies with Hubble types ranging from E to Sbc. Spectral indices,based on the Lick system, are measured in the optical and near-infrared(NIR). The 24 indices measured, in conjunction with models of theeffects of varying abundance ratios, permit the breaking ofage/metallicity degeneracy, and allow estimation of enhancements inspecific light elements (particularly C and Mg). The large range ofHubble types observed allows direct comparison of line-strengths in thecentres of early-type galaxies (E and S0) with those in spiral bulges,free from systematic differences that have plagued comparisons ofresults from different studies. Our sample includes field and Virgocluster galaxies. For early-type galaxies our data are consistent withpreviously reported trends of Mg2 and Mgb with velocitydispersion. In spiral bulges we find trends in all indices with velocitydispersion. We estimate luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities andheavy-element abundance ratios (enhancements) from optical indices.These show that bulges are less enhanced in light (α-capture)elements and have lower average age than early-type galaxies. Trendsinvolving age and metallicity also differ sharply between early and latetypes. An anticorrelation exists between age and metallicity in earlytypes, while, in bulges, metallicity is correlated with velocitydispersion. We consider the implications of these findings for models ofthe formation of these galaxies. We find that primordial collapse modelsof galaxy formation are ruled out by our observations, while severalpredictions of hierarchical clustering (merger) models are confirmed.

Modified Newtonian Dynamics as an Alternative to Dark Matter
Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is an empirically motivatedmodification of Newtonian gravity or inertia suggested by Milgrom as analternative to cosmic dark matter. The basic idea is that ataccelerations below ao ~ 10-8 cm/s2 ~cHo/6 the effective gravitational attraction approaches√(gnao), where gn is the usualNewtonian acceleration. This simple algorithm yields flat rotationcurves for spiral galaxies and a mass-rotation velocity relation of theform M ∝ V4 that forms the basis for the observedluminosity-rotation velocity relation-the Tully-Fisher law. We reviewthe phenomenological success of MOND on scales ranging from dwarfspheroidal galaxies to superclusters and demonstrate that the evidencefor dark matter can be equally well interpreted as evidence for MOND. Wediscuss the possible physical basis for an acceleration-basedmodification of Newtonian dynamics as well as the extention of MOND tocosmology and structure formation.

The H I Line Width/Linear Diameter Relationship as an Independent Test of the Hubble Constant
The relationship between corrected H I line widths and linear diameters(LW/LD) for spiral galaxies is used as an independent check on the valueof the Hubble constant. After calibrating the Tully-Fisher (TF) relationin both the B and I bands, the B-band relation is used for galaxies ofmorphological/luminosity types Sc I, Sc I.2, Sc I.3, Sab, Sb, Sb I-II,and Sb II to derive the LW/LD relation. We find that for this sample thescatter in the LW/LD is smallest with a Hubble constant of 90-95 kms-1 Mpc-1. Lower values of the Hubble constantproduce a separation in the LW/LD relation that is a function ofmorphological type. Since a Hubble constant of 90-95 is significantlylarger than the final Key Project value of 72 km s-1Mpc-1, a comparison of TF, surface brightness fluctuation(SBF), and fundamental plane (FP) is made. This comparison indicatesthat the Key Project TF distances to 21 clusters may be too large. For asample of 11 clusters, the Key Project TF distances provide anunweighted mean Hubble constant of 77 km s-1Mpc-1, while a combination of the FP, SBF, and our TFdistances for the same 11 clusters gives H0=91 kms-1 Mpc-1. A more subtle result in our data is amorphological dichotomy in the Hubble constant. The data suggest that ScI galaxies follow a Hubble constant of 90-95 while Sb galaxies follow aHubble constant closer to 75 km s-1 Mpc-1.Possible explanations for this result are considered, but it is shownthat this Sb/Sc I Hubble flow discrepancy is also present in the VirgoCluster and is consistent with previous investigations that indicatethat some galaxies carry a component of age-related intrinsic redshift.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

An Infrared Space Observatory Atlas of Bright Spiral Galaxies
In this first paper in a series we present an atlas of infrared imagesand photometry from 1.2 to 180 μm for a sample of bright spiralgalaxies. The atlas galaxies are an optically selected,magnitude-limited sample of 77 spiral and S0 galaxies chosen from theRevised Shapley-Ames Catalog (RSA). The sample is a representativesample of spiral galaxies and includes Seyfert galaxies, LINERs,interacting galaxies, and peculiar galaxies. Using the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO), we have obtained 12 μm images and photometry at60, 100, and 180 μm for the galaxies. In addition to its imagingcapabilities, ISO provides substantially better angular resolution thanis available in the IRAS survey, and this permits discrimination betweeninfrared activity in the central regions and global infrared emission inthe disks of these galaxies. These ISO data have been supplemented withJHK imaging using ground-based telescopes. The atlas includes 2 and 12μm images. Following an analysis of the properties of the galaxies,we have compared the mid-infrared and far-infrared ISO photometry withIRAS photometry. The systematic differences we find between the IRASFaint Source Catalog and ISO measurements are directly related to thespatial extent of the ISO fluxes, and we discuss the reliability of IRASFaint Source Catalog total flux densities and flux ratios for nearbygalaxies. In our analysis of the 12 μm morphological features we findthat most but not all galaxies have bright nuclear emission. We find 12μm structures such as rings, spiral arm fragments, knotted spiralarms, and bright sources in the disks that are sometimes brighter thanthe nuclei at mid-infrared wavelengths. These features, which arepresumably associated with extranuclear star formation, are common inthe disks of Sb and later galaxies but are relatively unimportant inS0-Sab galaxies. Based on observations with the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO), an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA MemberStates (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, andUnited Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Supernovae in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies
In order to investigate the influence of environment on supernova (SN)production, we have performed a statistical investigation of the SNediscovered in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies. 22SNe in 18 isolated galaxies, 48 SNe in 40 galaxy members of 37 pairs and211 SNe in 170 galaxy members of 116 groups have been selected andstudied. We found that the radial distributions of core-collapse SNe ingalaxies located in different environments are similar, and consistentwith those reported by Bartunov, Makarova & Tsvetkov. SNe discoveredin pairs do not favour a particular direction with respect to thecompanion galaxy. Also, the azimuthal distributions inside the hostmembers of galaxy groups are consistent with being isotropics. The factthat SNe are more frequent in the brighter components of the pairs andgroups is expected from the dependence of the SN rates on the galaxyluminosity. There is an indication that the SN rate is higher in galaxypairs compared with that in groups. This can be related to the enhancedstar formation rate in strongly interacting systems. It is concludedthat, with the possible exception of strongly interacting systems, theparent galaxy environment has no direct influence on SN production.

The Ursa Major cluster of galaxies - III. Optical observations of dwarf galaxies and the luminosity function down to MR=-11
Results are presented of a deep optical survey of the Ursa Majorcluster, a spiral-rich cluster of galaxies at a distance of 18.6Mpcwhich contains about 30 per cent of the light but only 5 per cent of themass of the nearby Virgo cluster. Fields around known cluster membersand a pattern of blind fields along the major and minor axes of thecluster were studied with mosaic CCD cameras on the Canada-France-HawaiiTelescope. The dynamical crossing time for the Ursa Major cluster isonly slightly less than a Hubble time. Most galaxies in the localUniverse exist in similar moderate-density environments. The Ursa Majorcluster is therefore a good place to study the statistical properties ofdwarf galaxies, since this structure is at an evolutionary stagerepresentative of typical environments, yet has enough galaxies thatreasonable counting statistics can be accumulated. The mainobservational results of our survey are as follows. (i) The galaxyluminosity function is flat, with a logarithmic slope α=-1.1 for-17

The Ursa Major Cluster of Galaxies. V. H I Rotation Curve Shapes and the Tully-Fisher Relations
This paper investigates the statistical properties of the Tully-Fisher(TF) relations for a volume-limited complete sample of spiral galaxiesin the nearby Ursa Major Cluster. The merits of B, R, I, and K' surfacephotometry and the availability of detailed kinematic information from HI synthesis imaging have been exploited. In addition to the corrected HI global profile widths WiR,I, the available H Irotation curves allow direct measurements of the observed maximumrotational velocities Vmax and the amplitudesVflat of the outer flat parts. The dynamical state of the gasdisks could also be determined in detail from the radio observations.The four luminosity and three kinematic measures allowed theconstruction of 12 correlations for various subsamples. For large galaxysamples, the Mb,iR-logWiR,Icorrelation in conjunction with strict selection criteria is preferredfor distance determinations with a 7% accuracy. Galaxies with rotationcurves that are still rising at the last measured point liesystematically on the low-velocity side of the TF relation. Galaxieswith a partly declining rotation curve(Vmax>Vflat) tend to lie systematically on thehigh-velocity side of the relation when usingWiR,I or Vmax. However, systematicoffsets are eliminated when Vflat is used. Residuals of theMb,iB-log(2Vflat) relation correlateconsistently with global galaxy properties along the Hubble sequencelike morphological type, color, surface brightness, and gas massfraction. These correlations are absent for the near-infraredMb,iK'-log(2Vflat)residuals. The tightest correlation(χ2red=1.1) is found for theMb,iK'-log(2Vflat) relation,which has a slope of -11.3+/-0.5 and a total observed scatter of 0.26mag with a most likely intrinsic scatter of zero. The tightness of thenear-infrared correlation is preserved when converting it into abaryonic TF relation that has a slope of -10.0 in the case(Mgas/LK')=1.6 while a zerointrinsic scatter remains most likely. Based on the tightness of thenear-infrared and baryonic correlations, it is concluded that the TFrelation reflects a fundamental correlation between the mass of the darkmatter halo, measured through its induced maximum rotational velocityVflat, and the total baryonic mass Mbar of agalaxy where Mbar~V4flat. Althoughthe actual distribution of the baryonic matter inside halos of similarmass can vary significantly, it does not affect this relation.

The Ursa Major cluster of galaxies. IV. HI synthesis observations
In this data paper we present the results of an extensive 21 cm-linesynthesis imaging survey of 43 spiral galaxies in the nearby Ursa Majorcluster using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Detailedkinematic information in the form of position-velocity diagrams androtation curves is presented in an atlas together with HI channel maps,21 cm continuum maps, global HI profiles, radial HI surface densityprofiles, integrated HI column density maps, and HI velocity fields. Therelation between the corrected global HI linewidth and the rotationalvelocities Vmax and Vflat as derived from therotation curves is investigated. Inclination angles obtained from theoptical axis ratios are compared to those derived from the inclined HIdisks and the HI velocity fields. The galaxies were not selected on thebasis of their HI content but solely on the basis of their clustermembership and inclination which should be suitable for a kinematicanalysis. The observed galaxies provide a well-defined, volume limitedand equidistant sample, useful to investigate in detail the statisticalproperties of the Tully-Fisher relation and the dark matter halos aroundthem.

A list of peculiar velocities of RFGC galaxies
A list of radial velocities, HI line widths and peculiar velocities of1327 galaxies from the RFGC catalogue has been compiled using actualobservations and literature data. The list can be used for studying bulkmotions of galaxies, construction of the field of peculiar velocitiesand other tasks.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Is a Simple Collisionless Relic Dark Matter Particle Ruled Out?
The central densities of dark matter (DM) halos are much lower thanpredicted in cold DM models of structure formation. Confirmation thatthey have cores with a finite central density would allow us to rule outmany popular types of collisionless particles as candidates for DM. Anymodel that leads to cusped halos (such as cold DM) is already facingserious difficulties on small scales, and hot DM models have beenexcluded. Here I show that fermionic warm DM is inconsistent with thewide range of phase-space densities in the DM halos of well-observednearby galaxies.

The Correlation between Galaxy H I Line Widths and K'Luminosities
The relationship between galaxy luminosities and rotation rates isstudied with total luminosities in the K' band. Extinction problems areessentially eliminated at this band centered at 2.1 μm. A templateluminosity-line width relation is derived based on 65 galaxies drawnfrom two magnitude-limited cluster samples. The zero point is determinedusing four galaxies with accurately known distances. The calibration isapplied to give the distance to the Pisces Cluster (59 Mpc) at aredshift in the cosmic microwave background frame of 4771 kms-1. The resultant value of the Hubble constant is 81 kms-1Mpc-1. The largest sources of uncertainty arethe small number of zero-point calibrators at this time at K' and thepresent application to only one cluster.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:12h11m04.90s
Aparent dimensions:6.761′ × 1.23′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 4157

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