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|X-ray luminosities of galaxies in groups|
We have derived the X-ray luminosities of a sample of galaxies ingroups, making careful allowance for contaminating intragroup emission.The LX:LB and LX:LFIRrelations of spiral galaxies in groups appear to be indistinguishablefrom those in other environments, however the elliptical galaxies fallinto two distinct classes. The first class is central-dominant groupgalaxies, which are very X-ray luminous and may be the focus of groupcooling flows. All other early-type galaxies in groups belong to thesecond class, which populates an almost constant band ofLX/LB over the range9.8
|1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. III. observations of 558 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5 m telescope|
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm ) surface photometry of 558galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This dataset, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on theGornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, withobservations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiralgalaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series.Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii andlight concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of apositive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index andthe galaxy H-band luminosity Based on observations taken at TIRGO(Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxies|
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the ``Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The 3-D structure of the Coma-A 1367 supercluster: Optical spectroscopy of 102 galaxies|
Optical spectroscopy of 117 CGCG galaxies, 102 of which are projected inthe direction of the Coma-A 1367 supercluster, is reported. These newmeasurements, added to those found in the literature, bring to 1068 thenumber of CGCG galaxies in this region with available redshift, out of atotal of 1085 objects with m_p<= 15.7. We use these data to infer the3-D structure of the Coma supercluster. Based on observations obtainedwith the Loiano telescope belonging to the University of Bologna, Italy,and with the G. Haro telescope of the INAOE, Mexico.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|ROSAT Observations of Five Poor Galaxy Clusters with Extended Radio Sources|
We present the results of deep ROSAT PSPC observations of the poorclusters MKW2, N79-299A, S49-128, S49-132, and S49-140. These poorclusters all contain extended radio sources, generally with a bent,head- tail (HT) morphology. It had been previously thought that HTsshould only be found in rich clusters, which have sufficiently highintracluster medium (ICM) densities and velocity dispersions foreffective ram pressure bending of the radio jets. We have found that theX-ray emission associated with these poor clusters is generally quiteclumpy and asymmetrical. Often, the clumps are associated with subgroupsor individual galaxies, as well as with extended regions around theradio sources. Our results also indicate that there is a continuum ofX-ray properties from poor to rich clusters. In many respects, poorclusters seem to be a low-mass extension of rich clusters. We find thatthese poor clusters have baryon fractions ranging from 1% to 25%. Also,the radio sources within these clusters are probably thermally confinedby the ICM. Although four of our clusters have central X-ray luminosityexcesses, the implied cooling times are longer than a Hubble time. Weinterpret the central X-ray luminosity excesses as unresolved galaxyemission. We hypothesize that these poor clusters have recentlycollapsed out of large, loose clouds of galaxies. We believe that manyof the poor cluster properties are understandable in light of thishypothesis. First, four of these five clusters are embedded withinlarger Zwicky clusters. This may indicate that these large Zwickyclusters act as "incubators" of poor clusters. Second, the observedflat, broad velocity distributions may reflect the velocities associatedwith the larger-scale systems from which we believe that these poorclusters have collapsed. Third, some of these galaxies (such as NGC4061, within N79-299A) show signs of interactions with neighboringgalaxies with large relative velocities (~850 km/s). Fourth, theobserved ICM densities, coupled with velocity distributions which aresuggestive of unrelaxed systems, and the peculiar velocities of theradio galaxies may explain the ram pressure bending of the radio jets inthe HTs.
|Radio-continuum survey of the Coma/A1367 supercluster. IV - 1.4 GHz observations of CGCG galaxies|
1.4 GHz radio-continuum observations of 148 CGCG galaxies in the Comasupercluster region were obtained with the VLA in C array configuration.Comparison with previous measurements at 0.6 GHz leads to an averagespectral index of 0.8. The structures of 29 galaxies in this regiondetermined with high-resolution VLA (A array) observations arepresented.
|A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies|
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.
|Radio continuum survey of the Coma/A1367 supercluster. I - 610 MHz observations of CGCG galaxies in four groups|
Radio continuum observations obtained with the Westerbork RadioSynthesis Telescope (WSRT) at 0.6 GHz of four groups of galaxies in theComa/A1367 supercluster area are presented. Ninety-nine CGCG galaxieswere surveyed, yielding the detection of 21 objects. A wide-angle-tailradio galaxy, NGC 4061, in the NGC 4065 group is found. Analysis of thissource suggests a relatively low value (n(e) T approximately 1000 per cucm K) for the intracluster gas pressure in this group.
|Band theory applied to the Coma/A1367 supercluster|
Predictions from redshift-magnitude band theory are tested againstobservations in the Coma/A1367 supercluster. Bands, associated verticalsequences, and morphological correlations are found. The structure ofsuperclusters is discussed in the light of both conventional and bandtheory. Conventional theory may require a rather unusual geometry, whileband theory matches the observations in a simple manner.
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