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Measuring shapes of galaxy images - II. Morphology of 2MASS galaxies
We study a sample of 112 galaxies of various Hubble types imaged in theTwo Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the near-infrared (NIR; 1-2 μm)J, H and Ks bands. The sample contains (optically classified)32 ellipticals, 16 lenticulars and 64 spirals acquired from the 2MASSExtended Source Catalogue (XSC).We use a set of non-parametric shape measures constructed from theMinkowski functionals (MFs) for galaxy shape analysis. We useellipticity (ɛ) and orientation angle (Φ) as shapediagnostics. With these parameters as functions of area within theisophotal contour, we note that the NIR elliptical galaxies withɛ > 0.2 show a trend of being centrally spherical andincreasingly flattened towards the edge, a trend similar to images inoptical wavelengths. The highly flattened elliptical galaxies showstrong change in ellipticity between the centre and the edge. Thelenticular galaxies show morphological properties resembling eitherellipticals or disc galaxies. Our analysis shows that almost half of thespiral galaxies appear to have bar-like features while the rest arelikely to be non-barred. Our results also indicate that almost one-thirdof spiral galaxies have optically hidden bars.The isophotal twist noted in the orientations of elliptical galaxiesdecreases with the flattening of these galaxies, indicating that twistand flattening are also anticorrelated in the NIR, as found in opticalwavelengths. The orientations of NIR lenticular and spiral galaxies showa wide range of twists.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

A Dual-Transition Survey of CO in the Coma Cluster of Galaxies
We present CO (1-0) and (2-1) observations of 33 galaxies in theComa/Abell 1367 supercluster made with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Inaddition, we observed four of the galaxies with the 15 m JCMT, at CO(2-1). The indicative molecular gas mass correlates strongly with thedust mass, and a stronger relationship is seen between the far-infraredand CO surface brightnesses than between the simple luminosities.Comparison of CO (2-1) spectra from IRAM and JCMT allows an estimate ofthe size of the CO emission region, which varies between 10% and 100% ofthe size of the optical disk, contrary to earlier estimates that the COis contained within the optical half-light radius. There is a slightsuggestion that starburst galaxies have a lower ratio of brightnesstemperatures, T_b(2-1)/T_b(1-0), than other galaxies.

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

On the question of radio emission of spiral galaxies in groups of galaxies
It has been shown that the radio emission properties of spiral galaxies,if the other conditions are the same, are determined rather by thepresence of the close neighbours than by space density of galaxiesaround them. The rate of occurence of radio sources and their radioluminosities among the spiral members of groups of galaxies depend onthe projected seperation between them and their nearest neighbour. Theshorter this seperation the higher the probability of radio emission.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

A ^12^CO(1-0) survey of spiral galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster.
We present observations of the ^12^CO(J=1-0) line at 2.6mm of 65galaxies located in the Coma supercluster region: 33 actually belong tothe Coma supercluster while 32 are either foreground or backgroundobjects. These data have been obtained using the NRAO 12m telescope atKitt Peak (United States), and for four galaxies, using the IRAM 30mtelescope at Pico Veleta (Spain). Out of these 65 galaxies, 54 had neverbeen observed in the CO(1-0) line; 49 have been detected by us, of which37 are new detections. We give molecular gas masses deduced from the COline integrated intensities, and upper limits for the 16 undetectedobjects, computed with a Galactic conversion factorN(H_2_)=2.3x10^20^I(CO) and H_0_=75km/s/Mpc.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

Velocity dispersions for elliptical galaxies. I. First set of measurements.
Measurements of central velocity dispersions and heliocentric radialvelocities are presented for 94 field galaxies. Among these, 5 newradial velocities and 80 new central velocity dispersions are obtained.Reduction was performed independently by cross-correlation,Fourier-quotient and Fourier-correlation-quotient methods.

Measuring the Hubble constant and our Virgo-infall velocity independently
A sample of spiral galaxies with BT less than 14.5 located intwo local volumes, one in the direction of, but behind, the VirgoCluster (behind-Virgo volume (BV)) and the other in the oppositedirection (anti-Virgo volume (AV)), were used via a Tully-Fisher (TF)relation to derive the following two parameters: HAB, themean Hubble ratio between AV and BV, and delta vparallel, thepeculiar velocity of the Local Group in the direction of the VirgoCluster (VC) with respect to a uniformly expanding reference systemdefined by our AV and BV sub-samples. The two sampled volumes, separatedby a velocity interval of 5600 km/s, form an antipodal pair. Thisparticular geometry not only allows us to derive the two parametersindependently but also reduces the dynamical effect of the LocalSupercluster on HAB without increasing the Malmquist bias. Bylimiting our sample to spiral galaxies having large velocity widthsWR, we effectively reduce the TF scatter and Malmquist biasin our sample. The TF zero point and dispersion were then determined byfurther correcting for the small residual Malmquist bias. An additionalsample of fainter galaxies was used to test for a non-Gaussian tail tothe TF disperison. We found no evidence for such a tail and formallygive an upper limit of about 18% for the fractional contribution of anunseen tail. The average intrinsic TF dispersion for the dominantGaussian component is sigmaTF0 approximately 0.33mag for WR approximately equal to or greater than 180 km/s.Our numerical results are delta vparallel approximatelyequals 414 +/- 82 km/s and HAB approximately equals (84.0 +/-2.4)(1 + epsilon) km/s Mpc, where (1 + epsilon) accounts for anysystematic error between the calibrators and the sample galaxies.Various dynamical models were tested to explore the effect onHAB of the uncertainties in the local velocity field.Constrained by our observed delta vparallel as well as otherobservational quantities, we found that the rms deviation from unity ofHAB/H0 (where H0 is the Hubble constantfor each model) is 5%, making HAB a good indicator forH0. Taking this variation as an additional error, our formalestimate for the Hubble constant is H0 approximately equals(84 +/- 5)(1 + epsilon) km/s Mpc.

H I 21 centimeter observations and I-band CCD surface photometry of spiral galaxies behind the Virgo Cluster and toward its antipode
Sample selection, radio and optical data acquisition and reduction, andobservation results are presented for spiral galaxies behind the VirgoCluster and toward its antipode. I-band CCD photometry was obtained forall the bright galaxies and part of the sample of faint galaxies in thetwo local volumes was studied. The statistical properties of the galaxysamples are discussed.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

The Tully-Fisher relation in different environments
The Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) in different environments wasinvestigated in 13 galaxy samples spanning a large range in galaxydensities, using two statistical tests to compare the TFR of differentsamples. Results of the analysis of TFR parameters in severalenvironments showed that, when samples of similar data-accuracy andmagnitude-range were compared, there was no significant differencebetween the galaxy samples. It is suggested that a comparison of sampleswith very different data accuracy or those biased by incompletenesseffects may lead to misleading results.

On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.

Continuum radio emission from Virgo galaxies
The paper presents single-antenna measurements of radio emission from120 galaxies in the Virgo cluster at 2380 MHz using a 2.6 arc min beam(half-power beam width). It also presents interferometric measurementsat the same frequency for 48 galaxies with less than or equal to 1 arcsec resolution. The relative concentration of the radio emission forthese galaxies, particularly the emission from the galactic diskcompared with that from the nucleus is discussed. It is found that thedisk emission dominates in most cases. Some indications that the fluxconcentration is greater in elliptical and lenticular galaxies than itis in spirals are also found.

HI-observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster of galaxies. I - The data
New H I-data for a large number of bright galaxies inside the 10 degradius area of the Virgo cluster of galaxies have been obtained with the100 m radiotelescope at Effelsberg. A total of 234 galaxies was observedfor the first time. Among them, 53 have been detected providing newaccurate radial velocities. Data from the literature have been compiled.Together with the new data, they form a (nearly homogeneous) set of H Iobservations for more than 450 galaxies.

CCD surface photometry of field Galaxies. II - Bulge/disk decompositions
Major- and minor-axis profiles given previously for 105 galaxies of allmorphological types are decomposed into bulge and disk components. Inaddition, three model-independent parameters which measure the meansurface brightness, scale radius, and degree of light concentration arederived. The best correlations are found between Hubble type,concentration, bulge/disk ratio, and mean surface brightness.Correlations between the individual bulge and disk parameters generallyshow large scatter. The properties of S0 galaxies are inconsistent withtheir having been formed from spiral galaxies via gas depletion; theirproperties are intermediate between those of ellipticals and spirals.Most elliptical galaxies probably do not form by the merging of diskgalaxies. The difficulty of distinguishing between elliptical and S0galaxies in some cases is emphasized.

A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.

Supplement to the detailed bibliography on the surface photometry of galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...60..517P&db_key=AST

CCD surface photometry of field galaxies. I - Observations
Images of 105 galaxies selected from a larger complete sample ofintrinsically luminous galaxies have been obtained for the purpose ofcomputing surface brightness profiles. The intensity profiles along themajor and minor axes are computed by a method in which ellipticalcontours whose position angle and ellipticity are allowed to vary withradius are fitted to the true isophotes of a galaxy. The resultingprofiles and ellipse parameters are listed for each object. An extensivecomparison of the present photometry with that of other workers is madeto assess the reliability of the data. For most objects, additionalphotometric information is given, including an isophotal radius andmagnitude within a limiting isophote of 24.0 mag/sq arcsec, anapproximate total magnitude, the effective radius containing one-halfthe total light, and the mean surface brightness inside this radius. Afull analysis of the data is deferred to a second paper where theprofiles will be decomposed into bulge and disk components.

H I observations in the Virgo Cluster area. II - A complete, magnitude-limited sample of spiral galaxies
The H I 21-cm data on the spiral galaxy population of the Virgo Clusteris extended to a complete sample of galaxies with type Sa or later;there has been a failure to detect in only five cases, all of which areof type Sa. For 69 detected galaxies, names, Hubble types, bluemagnitudes, optical and hydrogen diameters, total 21-cm flux, dynamicalmass and mass-to-light ratio, H I mass-to-light ratio, system redshift,H I profile widths, and spin vector position angle and inclination, aregiven in tabular form. Contour maps are also given for 63 of thosegalaxies. Attention is given to aspects of the kinematics of the programgalaxies.

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

A catalog of hierarchical subclustering in the Turner-Gott groups
Information on the substructure, to four levels of hierarchy, ispresented for the 103 groups listed by Turner and Gott (TG) in theircatalog of groups of galaxies. All galaxies brighter than Mpg= 14.0 in the region delta is 0 deg or greater and b(II) is 40 deg orgreater that have been assigned group memberships by TG are included.Also listed is the local environmental information for each of thegalaxies, giving the surface density enhancement beta in the galaxy'sneighborhood, calculated at 15 levels in the range beta = 4.6 to 10,000.

A sensitive H I detection survey for early-type disk galaxies
A sensitive neutral hydrogen study was carried out on a sample of 145galaxies with known redshift and with Hubble classification SO, SO/a, orSa. New H I data were collected with the 305-m Arecibo telescope. Thestudy covers galaxies both in and outside of the Virgo cluster, includessome faint galaxies (to mz = 14.0), and used only one central Arecibobeam per galaxy. In total, 64 galaxies are detected, including 25 pureSO galaxies. However, in spite of the good sensitivity, many of the SOgalaxies are still undetected (while others give a very strong signal),indicating a very large range in the ratio of hydrogen mass toluminosity. We confirm that the detection probability for SO galaxies issmaller inside the Virgo cluster than outside. Most Sa galaxies weredetected, except in the Virgo cluster core, and the H I content ofdetected Sa galaxies is smaller inside the cluster than outside. Thecorrelation of gas content with optical features and radio continuumproperties is also discussed.

Stars having peculiar spectra. 38 new variables stars.
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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:11h58m35.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.82′ × 1.072′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 4014

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