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The Molecular Interstellar Medium of Dwarf Galaxies on Kiloparsec Scales: A New Survey for CO in Northern, IRAS-detected Dwarf Galaxies
We present a new survey for CO in dwarf galaxies using the ARO Kitt Peak12 m telescope. This survey consists of observations of the centralregions of 121 northern dwarfs with IRAS detections and no known COemission. We detect CO in 28 of these galaxies and marginally detectanother 16, increasing by about 50% the number of such galaxies known tohave significant CO emission. The galaxies we detect are comparable instellar and dynamical mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud, althoughsomewhat brighter in CO and fainter in the far-IR. Within dwarfs, wefind that the CO luminosity LCO is most strongly correlatedwith the K-band and the far-infrared luminosities. There are also strongcorrelations with the radio continuum (RC) and B-band luminosities andlinear diameter. Conversely, we find that far-IR dust temperature is apoor predictor of CO emission within the dwarfs alone, although a goodpredictor of normalized CO content among a larger sample of galaxies. Wesuggest that LCO and LK correlate well because thestellar component of a galaxy dominates the midplane gravitational fieldand thus sets the pressure and density of the atomic gas, which controlthe formation of H2 from H I. We compare our sample with moremassive galaxies and find that dwarfs and large galaxies obey the samerelationship between CO and the 1.4 GHz RC surface brightness. Thisrelationship is well described by a Schmidt law withΣRC~Σ1.3CO. Therefore,dwarf galaxies and large spirals exhibit the same relationship betweenmolecular gas and star formation rate (SFR). We find that this result isrobust to moderate changes in the RC-to-SFR and CO-to-H2conversion factors. Our data appear to be inconsistent with large (orderof magnitude) variations in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor inthe star-forming molecular gas.

Dwarf and Normal Spiral Galaxies: are they Self-Similar?
The investigation presented here was focused on clarifying the existenceof dwarf spiral galaxies as a separate group from classical spirals.First, a list of spiral galaxies with small sizes was obtained.Information on colors, luminosities, morphologies and chemical contentwas searched for in the literature for these galaxies. Using thisinformation, it can be concluded that dwarf spirals are not likely to bethe tail of the distribution of classical galaxies. On the contrary,significant differences in some of the most important properties ofspiral galaxies, such as the metallicity gradient and the bar frecuency,were found. In any case, further and more accurate observations areneeded for a definitive answer.

Globular Clusters as Candidates for Gravitational Lenses to Explain Quasar-Galaxy Associations
We argue that globular clusters (GCs) are good candidates forgravitational lenses in explaining quasar-galaxy associations. Thecatalog of associations (Bukhmastova 2001) compiled from the LEDAcatalog of galaxies (Paturel 1997) and from the catalog of quasars(Veron-Cetty and Veron 1998) is used. Based on the new catalog, we showthat one might expect an increased number of GCs around irregulargalaxies of types 9 and 10 from the hypothesis that distant compactsources are gravitationally lensed by GCs in the halos of foregroundgalaxies. The King model is used to determine the central surfacedensities of 135 GCs in the Milky Way. The distribution of GCs incentral surface density was found to be lognormal.

The luminous and dark matter content of disk galaxies
We have compiled a sample of disk galaxies with available photometry inthe B and K bands, velocity line-widths and HI integral fluxes. Severalparameters that trace the luminous, baryonic and dark matter contentswere inferred. We investigated how these parameters vary with differentgalaxy properties, and compared the results with predictions of galaxyevolutionary models in the context of the Λ Cold Dark Matter(ΛCDM) cosmogony. The ratio of disk-to-total maximum circularvelocity, (Vd,m/Vt,m), depends mainly on thecentral disk surface density Σd,0 (or surfacebrightness, SB), increasing roughly asΣd,00.15. While a fraction of high SBgalaxies have a (Vd,m/Vt,m) ratio corresponding tothe maximum disk solution, the low SB are completely dark matterdominated. The trend is similar for the models, although they haveslightly smaller (Vd,m/Vt,m) ratios thanobservations, in particular at the highest SBs and when small baryonfractions are used. The scatter in the(Vd,m/Vt,m)- Σd,0 plot is large.An analysis of residuals shows that (Vd,m/Vt,m)tends to decrease as the galaxy is redder, more luminous (massive), andof earlier type. The models allow us to explain the physics of theseresults, which imply a connexion between halo structure and luminousproperties. The dynamical-to-baryon mass and dynamical mass-to-light (Band K) ratios at a given radius were also estimated. All these ratios,for observations and models, decrease with Σd,0; (orSB) and do not correlate significantly with the galaxy scale, contraryto what has been reported in previous works, based on the analysis ofrotation curve shapes. We discuss this difference and state theimportance of solving the controversy of whether the dark and luminouscontents in disk galaxies depend on SB or luminosity. The broadagreement between the models and observations presented here regardingthe trends of the dynamical-to-baryon matter and mass-to-light ratioswith several galaxy properties favors the ΛCDM scenario. However,the excess of dark matter inside the optical region of disk galaxiesremains the main difficulty.Appendices A and B are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org. Table 1 is only available at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/633

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

Neutral hydrogen and optical observations of edge-on galaxies: Hunting for warps
We present 21-cm HI line and optical R-band observations for a sample of26 edge-on galaxies. The HI observations were obtained with theWesterbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and are part of the WHISP database(Westerbork HI Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies). We present HImaps, optical images, and radial HI density profiles. We have alsoderived the rotation curves and studied the warping and lopsidedness ofthe HI disks. 20 out of the 26 galaxies of our sample are warped,confirming that warping of the HI disks is a very common phenomenon indisk galaxies. Indeed, we find that all galaxies that have an extendedHI disk with respect to the optical are warped. The warping usuallystarts around the edge of the optical disk. The degree of warping variesconsiderably from galaxy to galaxy. Furthermore, many warps areasymmetric, as they show up in only one side of the disk or exhibitlarge differences in amplitude in the approaching and receding sides ofthe galaxy. These asymmetries are more pronounced in rich environments,which may indicate that tidal interactions are a source of warpasymmetry. A rich environment tends to produce larger warps as well. Thepresence of lopsidedness seems to be related to the presence of nearbycompanions. Full Fig. 13 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The Ursa Major cluster of galaxies - III. Optical observations of dwarf galaxies and the luminosity function down to MR=-11
Results are presented of a deep optical survey of the Ursa Majorcluster, a spiral-rich cluster of galaxies at a distance of 18.6Mpcwhich contains about 30 per cent of the light but only 5 per cent of themass of the nearby Virgo cluster. Fields around known cluster membersand a pattern of blind fields along the major and minor axes of thecluster were studied with mosaic CCD cameras on the Canada-France-HawaiiTelescope. The dynamical crossing time for the Ursa Major cluster isonly slightly less than a Hubble time. Most galaxies in the localUniverse exist in similar moderate-density environments. The Ursa Majorcluster is therefore a good place to study the statistical properties ofdwarf galaxies, since this structure is at an evolutionary stagerepresentative of typical environments, yet has enough galaxies thatreasonable counting statistics can be accumulated. The mainobservational results of our survey are as follows. (i) The galaxyluminosity function is flat, with a logarithmic slope α=-1.1 for-17

The Ursa Major Cluster of Galaxies. V. H I Rotation Curve Shapes and the Tully-Fisher Relations
This paper investigates the statistical properties of the Tully-Fisher(TF) relations for a volume-limited complete sample of spiral galaxiesin the nearby Ursa Major Cluster. The merits of B, R, I, and K' surfacephotometry and the availability of detailed kinematic information from HI synthesis imaging have been exploited. In addition to the corrected HI global profile widths WiR,I, the available H Irotation curves allow direct measurements of the observed maximumrotational velocities Vmax and the amplitudesVflat of the outer flat parts. The dynamical state of the gasdisks could also be determined in detail from the radio observations.The four luminosity and three kinematic measures allowed theconstruction of 12 correlations for various subsamples. For large galaxysamples, the Mb,iR-logWiR,Icorrelation in conjunction with strict selection criteria is preferredfor distance determinations with a 7% accuracy. Galaxies with rotationcurves that are still rising at the last measured point liesystematically on the low-velocity side of the TF relation. Galaxieswith a partly declining rotation curve(Vmax>Vflat) tend to lie systematically on thehigh-velocity side of the relation when usingWiR,I or Vmax. However, systematicoffsets are eliminated when Vflat is used. Residuals of theMb,iB-log(2Vflat) relation correlateconsistently with global galaxy properties along the Hubble sequencelike morphological type, color, surface brightness, and gas massfraction. These correlations are absent for the near-infraredMb,iK'-log(2Vflat)residuals. The tightest correlation(χ2red=1.1) is found for theMb,iK'-log(2Vflat) relation,which has a slope of -11.3+/-0.5 and a total observed scatter of 0.26mag with a most likely intrinsic scatter of zero. The tightness of thenear-infrared correlation is preserved when converting it into abaryonic TF relation that has a slope of -10.0 in the case(Mgas/LK')=1.6 while a zerointrinsic scatter remains most likely. Based on the tightness of thenear-infrared and baryonic correlations, it is concluded that the TFrelation reflects a fundamental correlation between the mass of the darkmatter halo, measured through its induced maximum rotational velocityVflat, and the total baryonic mass Mbar of agalaxy where Mbar~V4flat. Althoughthe actual distribution of the baryonic matter inside halos of similarmass can vary significantly, it does not affect this relation.

The Ursa Major cluster of galaxies. IV. HI synthesis observations
In this data paper we present the results of an extensive 21 cm-linesynthesis imaging survey of 43 spiral galaxies in the nearby Ursa Majorcluster using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Detailedkinematic information in the form of position-velocity diagrams androtation curves is presented in an atlas together with HI channel maps,21 cm continuum maps, global HI profiles, radial HI surface densityprofiles, integrated HI column density maps, and HI velocity fields. Therelation between the corrected global HI linewidth and the rotationalvelocities Vmax and Vflat as derived from therotation curves is investigated. Inclination angles obtained from theoptical axis ratios are compared to those derived from the inclined HIdisks and the HI velocity fields. The galaxies were not selected on thebasis of their HI content but solely on the basis of their clustermembership and inclination which should be suitable for a kinematicanalysis. The observed galaxies provide a well-defined, volume limitedand equidistant sample, useful to investigate in detail the statisticalproperties of the Tully-Fisher relation and the dark matter halos aroundthem.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

The Correlation between Galaxy H I Line Widths and K'Luminosities
The relationship between galaxy luminosities and rotation rates isstudied with total luminosities in the K' band. Extinction problems areessentially eliminated at this band centered at 2.1 μm. A templateluminosity-line width relation is derived based on 65 galaxies drawnfrom two magnitude-limited cluster samples. The zero point is determinedusing four galaxies with accurately known distances. The calibration isapplied to give the distance to the Pisces Cluster (59 Mpc) at aredshift in the cosmic microwave background frame of 4771 kms-1. The resultant value of the Hubble constant is 81 kms-1Mpc-1. The largest sources of uncertainty arethe small number of zero-point calibrators at this time at K' and thepresent application to only one cluster.

Distances to Galaxies from the Correlation between Luminosities and Line Widths. III. Cluster Template and Global Measurement of H0
The correlation between the luminosities and rotation velocities ofgalaxies can be used to estimate distances to late-type galaxies. It isan appropriate moment to reevaluate this method given the great deal ofnew information available. The major improvements described hereinclude: (1) the template relations can now be defined by large,complete samples, (2) the samples are drawn from a wide range ofenvironments, (3) the relations are defined by photometric informationat the B, R, I, and K' bands, (4) the multiband information clarifiesproblems associated with internal reddening, (5) the template zeropoints are defined by 24 galaxies with accurately known distances, and(6) the relations are applied to 12 clusters scattered across the skyand out to velocities of 8000 km s-1. The biggest change fromearlier calibrations are associated with point 5. Roughly a 15% increasein the distance scale has come about with the fivefold increase in thenumber of zero-point calibrators. The overall increase in the distancescale from the luminosity-line width methodology is about 10% afterconsideration of all factors. Modulo an assumed distance to the LargeMagellanic Cloud of 50 kpc and no metallicity corrections to the Cepheidcalibration, the resulting value of the Hubble constant isH0=77+/-8 km s-1 Mpc-1, where the erroris the 95% probable statistical error. Cumulative systematic errorsinternal to this analysis should not exceed 10%. Uncertainties in thedistance scale ladder external to this analysis are estimated at ~10%.If the Cepheid calibration is shifted from the LMC to NGC 4258 with adistance established by observations of circumnuclear masers, thenH0 is larger by 12%.

The QDOT all-sky IRAS galaxy redshift survey
We describe the construction of the QDOT survey, which is publiclyavailable from an anonymous FTP account. The catalogue consists ofinfrared properties and redshifts of an all-sky sample of 2387 IRASgalaxies brighter than the IRAS PSC 60-μm completeness limit(S_60>0.6Jy), sparsely sampled at a rate of one-in-six. At |b|>10deg, after removing a small number of Galactic sources, the redshiftcompleteness is better than 98per cent (2086/2127). New redshifts for1401 IRAS sources were obtained to complete the catalogue; themeasurement and reduction of these are described, and the new redshiftstabulated here. We also tabulate all sources at |b|>10 deg with noredshift so far, and sources with conflicting alternative redshiftseither from our own work, or from published velocities. A list of 95ultraluminous galaxies (i.e. with L_60μm>10^12 L_solar) is alsoprovided. Of these, ~20per cent are AGN of some kind; the broad-lineobjects typically show strong Feii emission. Since the publication ofthe first QDOT papers, there have been several hundred velocity changes:some velocities are new, some QDOT velocities have been replaced by moreaccurate values, and some errors have been corrected. We also present anew analysis of the accuracy and linearity of IRAS 60-μm fluxes. Wefind that the flux uncertainties are well described by a combination of0.05-Jy fixed size uncertainty and 8per cent fractional uncertainty.This is not enough to cause the large Malmquist-type errors in the rateof evolution postulated by Fisher et al. We do, however, find marginalevidence for non-linearity in the PSC 60-μm flux scale, in the sensethat faint sources may have fluxes overestimated by about 5per centcompared with bright sources. We update some of the previous scientificanalyses to assess the changes. The main new results are as follows. (1)The luminosity function is very well determined overall but is uncertainby a factor of several at the very highest luminosities(L_60μm>5x10^12L_solar), as this is where the remainingunidentified objects are almost certainly concentrated. (2) Thebest-fitting rate of evolution is somewhat lower than our previousestimate; expressed as pure density evolution with density varying as(1+z)^p, we find p=5.6+/-2.3. Making a rough correction for the possible(but very uncertain) non-linearity of fluxes, we find p=4.5+/-2.3. (3)The dipole amplitude decreases a little, and the implied value of thedensity parameter, assuming that IRAS galaxies trace the mass, isΩ=0.9(+0.45, -0.25). (4) Finally, the estimate of density varianceon large scales changes negligibly, still indicating a significantdiscrepancy from the predictions of simple cold dark matter cosmogonies.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Investigation of Barred Galaxies. V. Surroundings of SB and SA Galaxies
Not Available

Internal extinction, population incompleteness bias and the faint-end of the B-band Tully-Fisher relation
We analyse the distribution of three different samples of spiralgalaxies of the Local Universe in the B-band luminosity-maximumrotational velocity (L_B-VMax) plane, i.e. the B-magnitudeTully-Fisher (TF) relation. The first sample comprises 25+31 late-type(from Sa to Im-BCD) galaxies, selected from, respectively, the Virgo andthe Ursa Major clusters. In addition, a sample of 20 group extremelate-type (ELT) spiral (from Sd to Sm) galaxies and a sample of 13 dwarflate-type galaxies are selected. First, we analyse the influence ofthree different corrections for internal extinction (IE) on both theslope and the zero-point of the relation. These recipes reflect eitheri) the morphological type dependence of the IE or ii) the assumption ofa ``sandwich-model'' for the distribution of the dust and the stellarcomponents within the disk or iii) the existence of the metallicity-massrelation. As a first result we find that the latter recipe of IEcorrection systematically makes Sa-Sc galaxies brighter than laterspirals. Since the former galaxies mainly populate the region of thebright, fast rotators, the slope of the corresponding TF relationbecomes much steeper than in the other two cases. Under the hypothesisthat the ELT spiral galaxies in clusters and in groups share the sameLF, we show that the claimed skew of the group ELT spiral galaxies withrespect to the extrapolated TF relation of more luminous systems (i.e.the local TF calibrators) is due both to the population incompletenessbias affecting such a template and to the type segregation. Finally, weconfirm that the distribution of dwarf galaxies with comparablerotational and random velocities in the L_B-VMax plane isconsistent with the relation of more luminous systems, while therotationally supported dwarf galaxies are underluminous with respect tothe ELT galaxies of the same VMax. However, the latterresults may suffer from the heterogeneous methods of measurement ofdwarf galaxy distances that were adopted.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles
We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it.

The Ursa Major Cluster of Galaxies. II. Bimodality of the Distribution of Central Surface Brightnesses
The Ursa Major Cluster appears to be unevolved and made up of H I--richspiral galaxies such as those one finds in the field. B, R, I, K'photometry has been obtained for 79 galaxies, including 62 in a completesample with M^{b,i}B<-16.m5 (with a distance to thecluster of 15.5 Mpc). The K' information is particularly important forthe present discussion because it is not seriously affected byobscuration. There is reasonably convincing evidence that thedistribution of exponential disk central surface brightnesses isbimodal. There is roughly an order of magnitude difference in the meanluminosity densities of high and low surface brightness disks. Disksavoid the domain between the high and low surface brightness zones. Thefew intermediate surface brightness examples in the sample all havesignificant neighbors within a projected distance of 80 kpc. The highsurface brightness galaxies exhibit a range-21^{{m}}

The Ursa Major Cluster of Galaxies.I.Cluster Definition and Photometric Data
The Ursa Major Cluster has received remarkably little attention,although it is as near as the Virgo Cluster and contains a comparablenumber of H I-rich galaxies. In this paper, criteria for groupmembership are discussed and data are presented for 79 galaxiesidentified with the group. Of these, all 79 have been imaged at B,R,Ibands with CCDs, 70 have been imaged at K' with a HgCdTe array detector,and 70 have been detected in the HI 21 cm line. A complete sample of 62galaxies brighter than M_B_ = - 16.5 is identified. Images and gradientsin surface brightness and color are presented at a common linear scale.As has been seen previously, the galaxies with the reddest global colorsare reddest at the centers and get bluer at large radii. However,curiously, among the galaxies with the bluest global colors there aresystems with very blue cores that get redder at large radii.

The UV properties of normal galaxies. III. Standard luminosity profiles and total magnitudes.
In the previous papers of this series we collected and reduced to thesame system all the available photometric data obtained in theultraviolet (UV) range for normal (i.e. non active) galaxies. Here weuse these data to derive standard UV luminosity profiles for threemorphological bins (E/S0; Sa/Sb; Sc/Sd) and extrapolated totalmagnitudes for almost 400 galaxies. We find that: 1) the UV growthcurves are well matched by the B-band revised standard luminosityprofiles, once a proper shift in the effective radius is applied, and 2)the UV light in early-type galaxies is more centrally concentrated thanthe visible light.

The UV properties of normal galaxies. II. The ``non-IUE'' data.
In the last decade several satellite and balloon borne experiments havecollected a large number of ultraviolet fluxes of normal galaxiesmeasured through apertures of various sizes and shapes. We havehomogenized this data set by deriving scale corrections with respect toIUE. In a forthcoming paper these data will be used to derive standardluminosity profiles and total magnitudes.

Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies
Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop anew classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is notnecessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for futurestatistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; thelatter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite(IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimatesof arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness werecompiled for most sample objects.

A revised catalog of CfA1 galaxy groups in the Virgo/Great Attractor flow field
A new identification of groups and clusters in the CfA1 Catalog ofHuchra et al. is presented, using a percolation algorithm to identifydensity enhancements. It is shown that in the resulting catalog,contamination by interlopers is significantly reduced. The Schechterluminosity function is redetermined, including the Malmquist bias.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

The dustiness, luminosity, and metallicity of galaxies
B-band CCD images have been obtained of 230 galaxies in and near theVirgo and Ursa Major clusters. A coarse classification of these imagesshows that the 'dustiness' of late-type galaxies correlates stronglywith their luminosity. Luminous spirals are seen to be much dustier thanlate-type systems of lower luminosity. The reason for this correlationis probably that luminous galaxies are more metal-rich than fainterobjects. Systems with Fe/H less than about -1.0 are observed to beessentially dust-free.

Classification of galaxies on CCD frames
Morphological classifications of 231 galaxies in and near the Virgo andUrsa Major clusters are reported which show that luminosityclassification techniques (LCTs) can be used to determine theluminosities of spiral galaxies with an accuracy of about 0.7 mag on CCDframes. The observations in the direction of the Virgo Cluster confirmthe assignment of some galaxies to the background field, stronglyconfirming that the large dispersion in the Tully-Fisher relation forVirgo galaxies is at least partly due to contamination of the Virgo coresample by background galaxies. LCTs yield a distance of 15.3 + 2.6 or -2.2 Mpc for the spiral and irregular galaxies associated with the coreof the Virgo Cluster proper. The Ursa Major and Virgo cluster distancesare found to be the same. A class of galaxies with fuzzy, anemic outerstructure and active star formation in their cores is found to be commonin Virgo but rare in the Ursa Major Cluster.

Imaging and spectrophotometry of Virgo cluster irregular galaxies
Large-aperture spectrophotometric observations and CCD images in theH-alpha and R bands have been obtained for Virgo cluster Magellanic,dwarf, and amorphous irregular galaxies. Although a small number ofVirgo cluster irregulars have optical and H I properties consistent withrecent gas loss, the rate of production of gas-poor irregulars is toolow to account for the large population of Virgo cluster dE galaxies orto explain the deficiency in the number of irregulars relative tospirals. Radial brightness profiles reveal that only NGC 4641 followsthe r exp 1/4 law of classical ellipticals, that four of the galaxieshave exponential brightness distributions, and that one system has anindeterminant profile form. It is shown that the properties of Virgocluster irregular galaxies can be best understood in terms ofenvironmental modifications of normal systems in the circumclusterenvironment and in the cluster core.

Ultraviolet observations and star-formation rate in galaxies
The present 149 galaxies, essentially of spiral and irregular types wereobserved at about 2000 A in a survey using a balloon-borne imagingtelescope. Total ultraviolet fluxes in an about 125-A wide bandpass havebeen obtained by comparison with field stars. On average, the m(2000)-Bcolor gets redder from late to early morphological types. For a giventype, this color exhibits a large scatter which increases from late toearly types. As expected, the galaxies show a relation between them(2000)-B and B-V colors. After a correction for dust extinction basedon the neutral hydrogen content of each galaxy, the observed fluxes areused to obtain quantitative estimates of the current star formation rate(SFR). A good correlation is found between the SFR and the total gascontent. A weak correlation observed between the SFR per unit area andthe average gas surface density might be compatible with the existenceof a power-law relation of exponent 1, between birthrate and gasdensity. The SFR per unit gas mass shows both a significant dispersionand a decrease toward later types. Implications in terms of starformation history are discussed.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:11h56m42.00s
Aparent dimensions:0.977′ × 0.692′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 3985

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