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|Mass Models for Spiral Galaxies from Two-dimensional Velocity Maps|
We model the mass distributions of 40 high surface brightness spiralgalaxies inside their optical radii, deriving parameters of mass modelsby matching the predicted velocities to observed velocity maps. We useconstant mass-to-light disk and bulge models, and we have tried fitswith no halo and with three different halo density profiles. The datarequire a halo in most, but not all, cases, while in others the best fitoccurs with negligible mass in the luminous component, which we regardas unphysical. All three adopted halo profiles lead to fits of about thesame quality, and our data therefore do not constrain the functionalform of the halo profile. The halo parameters display large degeneraciesfor two of the three adopted halo functions, but the separate luminousand dark masses are better constrained. However, the fitted disk andhalo masses vary substantially between the adopted halo models,indicating that even high-quality two-dimensional optical velocity mapsdo not provide significant constraints on the dark matter content of agalaxy. We demonstrate that data from long-slit observations are likelyto provide still weaker constraints. We conclude that additionalinformation is needed in order to constrain the separate disk and halomasses in a galaxy.
|Maximum Disk Mass Models for Spiral Galaxies|
We present axisymmetric maximum disk mass models for a sample of 74spiral galaxies taken from the southern sky Fabry-Perot Tully-Fishersurvey by Schommer et al. The sample contains galaxies spanning a largerange of morphologies and having rotation widths from 180 km s-1 to 680 km s -1. For each galaxy we have an I-bandimage and a two-dimensional Hα velocity field. We decompose thedisk and bulge by fitting models directly to the I-band image. Thismethod utilizes both the distinct surface brightness profiles and shapesof the projected disk and bulge in the galaxy images. The luminosityprofiles and rotation curves are derived using consistent centers,position angles, and inclinations derived from the photometry andvelocity maps. The distribution of mass is modeled as a sum of disk andbulge components with distinct, constant mass-to-light ratios. No darkmatter halo is included in the fits. The models reproduce the overallstructure of the rotation curves in the majority of galaxies, providinggood fits to galaxies that exhibit pronounced structural differences intheir surface brightness profiles. Of galaxies for which the rotationcurve is measured to R23.5 or beyond 75% are well fitted by amass-traces-light model for the entire region within R23.5.The models for about 20% of the galaxies do not fit well; the failure ofmost of these models is traced directly to nonaxisymmetric structures,primarily bars but also strong spiral arms. The median I-band M/L of thedisk plus bulge is 2.4+/-0.9 h75 in solar units, consistentwith normal stellar populations. These results require either that themass of dark matter within the optical disk of spiral galaxies is smallor that its distribution is very precisely coupled to the distributionof luminous matter.
|The Southern Sky Redshift Survey|
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.
|A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography|
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies|
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.
|Measuring galaxy distances from optical rotation curves|
A distance indicator for spiral galaxies is described using detailedrotation curves derived from H-alpha velocities fields and I band CCDphotometry. Two-dimensional velocity fields are obtained with an imagingFabry-Perot spectrometer, with a velocity accuracy of better than 10km/s. Rotation curves, based upon rotating disks geometries, are fit tothese velocity fields. The I band photometry profiles, and theindividual rotation curves for 75 galaxies are presented. The extractedcircular velocity is combined with I band magnitudes to form aTully-Fisher relation, with a scatter of about 0.25-0.3 mag. As anexample, the data are used to derive the relative distance modulusbetween the Hydra and Antlia clusters, which yields a peculiar motionfor Antlia of 900 +/- 100 km/s. This confirms previous detections oflarge peculiar motions in the Hydra-Centaurus region.
|Peculiar velocities of field spiral galaxies near and beyond the Great Attractor|
Peculiar velocities for a sample of 48 late-type spiral galaxies whichare located in the general vicinity of the Great Attractor (GA) aremeasured. Relative distances are derived using the I-band Tully-Fisherrelation. The existence of positive velocity residuals, with amplitude500-2000 km/s in the Hydra-Centaurus region, is confirmed for galaxieslocated at kinematic distances of 20-30 Mpc. Beyond 45 Mpc, there is avery weak signal of negative velocity residuals whose amplitude is verysensitive to the form of the Malmquist correction. However, positivevelocity residuals can be detected in galaxies with distances as largeas 80 Mpc. The origin of these motions is tested by the use of anonlinear spherical infall model which predicts the position of thecaustic surface as a function of distance from the GA. All availablevelocities are used to search for the caustics in redshift space.
|Redshift observations in the Hydra-Centaurus region|
The paper reports 406 redshifts for galaxies in the northern galactichemisphere, south of delta = 0 deg. A substantial fraction of theobserved galaxies are located in the equatorial zone between deltavalues of -17.5 and 0 deg. By combining these new data with thoseavailable in the literature, it is possible to extend the original CfAredshift survey of galaxies brighter than m(B(0)) = 14.5 to b = 30 deg,south of delta = 0. New data taken at lower galactic latitudes alsocontribute to the existing surveys of the Hydra-Centaurus complex.
|A southern redshift survey. I - Accurate redshifts for 500 galaxies observed at SAAO|
Radial velocities are presented for about 500 galaxies observed with anintensified Reticon photon-counting detector attached to the 1.9 mtelescope at the Sutherland field station of SAAO. The velocities weredetermined by cross correlation with standard velocity templates, fromthe measured wavelengths of emission lines, or from both techniques,with spectra covering the wavelength range from 3700 to 5400 A. Thefinal velocities appear to have the same zero point as H I radiovelocities, and have standard deviations of the order of 35 km/s, thoughcross-correlation velocities on their own may have significantly largererrors.
|H I observations of galaxies in between the Local and the Hydra/Centaurus superclusters|
H I observations obtained with the 300-ft NRAO and 100-m Effelsbergradio telescopes in 1984-1985 are reported for 440 galaxies, ofmorphological types S0/a or later and diameter at least 2 arcmin in thecatalog of de Vaucouleurs et al., 1976, from the region between theLocal and Hya/Cen superclusters. The data are compiled in tables alongwith published data on 310 galaxies to form a data base for studies offilamentary structures in the intercluster region. More than 50 percentof the galaxies are detected in H I, and the redshift distribution isfound to be consistent with the existence of filaments.
|Southern Galaxy Catalogue.|
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