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The Hα Galaxy Survey . III. Constraints on supernova progenitors from spatial correlations with Hα emission
Aims.We attempt to constrain progenitors of the different types ofsupernovae from their spatial distributions relative to star formationregions in their host galaxies, as traced by Hα + [Nii] lineemission. Methods: .We analyse 63 supernovae which have occurredwithin galaxies from our Hα survey of the local Universe. Threestatistical tests are used, based on pixel statistics, Hα radialgrowth curves, and total galaxy emission-line fluxes. Results:.Many type II supernovae come from regions of low or zero emission lineflux, and more than would be expected if the latter accurately traceshigh-mass star formation. We interpret this excess as a 40% "Runaway"fraction in the progenitor stars. Supernovae of types Ib and Ic doappear to trace star formation activity, with a much higher fractioncoming from the centres of bright star formation regions than is thecase for the type II supernovae. Type Ia supernovae overall show a weakcorrelation with locations of current star formation, but there isevidence that a significant minority, up to about 40%, may be linked tothe young stellar population. The radial distribution of allcore-collapse supernovae (types Ib, Ic and II) closely follows that ofthe line emission and hence star formation in their host galaxies, apartfrom a central deficiency which is less marked for supernovae of typesIb and Ic than for those of type II. Core-collapse supernova ratesoverall are consistent with being proportional to galaxy totalluminosities and star formation rates; however, within this total thetype Ib and Ic supernovae show a moderate bias towards more luminoushost galaxies, and type II supernovae a slight bias towardslower-luminosity hosts.

UBVR and Hubble Space Telescope Mid-Ultraviolet and Near-Infrared Surface Photometry and Radial Color Gradients of Late-Type, Irregular, and Peculiar Galaxies
We introduce a data set of 142 mostly late-type spiral, irregular, andpeculiar (interacting or merging) nearby galaxies observed in UBVR atthe Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT), and we present ananalysis of their radial color gradients. We confirm that nearbyelliptical and early- to mid-type spiral galaxies show either no or onlysmall color gradients, becoming slightly bluer with radius. In contrast,we find that late-type spiral, irregular, peculiar, and merging galaxiesbecome on average redder with increasing distance from the center. Thescatter in radial color gradient trends increases toward later Hubbletype. As a preliminary analysis of a larger data set obtained with theHubble Space Telescope (HST), we also analyze the color gradients of sixnearby galaxies observed with NICMOS in the near-IR (H) and with WFPC2in the mid-UV (F300W) and red (F814W). We discuss the possibleimplications of these results on galaxy formation and compare our nearbygalaxy color gradients to those at high redshift. We present examples ofimages and UBVR radial surface brightness and color profiles, as well asof the tables of measurements; the full atlas and tables are publishedin the electronic edition only.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., underNASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated withprograms 8645, 9124, and 9824.

The Molecular Interstellar Medium of Dwarf Galaxies on Kiloparsec Scales: A New Survey for CO in Northern, IRAS-detected Dwarf Galaxies
We present a new survey for CO in dwarf galaxies using the ARO Kitt Peak12 m telescope. This survey consists of observations of the centralregions of 121 northern dwarfs with IRAS detections and no known COemission. We detect CO in 28 of these galaxies and marginally detectanother 16, increasing by about 50% the number of such galaxies known tohave significant CO emission. The galaxies we detect are comparable instellar and dynamical mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud, althoughsomewhat brighter in CO and fainter in the far-IR. Within dwarfs, wefind that the CO luminosity LCO is most strongly correlatedwith the K-band and the far-infrared luminosities. There are also strongcorrelations with the radio continuum (RC) and B-band luminosities andlinear diameter. Conversely, we find that far-IR dust temperature is apoor predictor of CO emission within the dwarfs alone, although a goodpredictor of normalized CO content among a larger sample of galaxies. Wesuggest that LCO and LK correlate well because thestellar component of a galaxy dominates the midplane gravitational fieldand thus sets the pressure and density of the atomic gas, which controlthe formation of H2 from H I. We compare our sample with moremassive galaxies and find that dwarfs and large galaxies obey the samerelationship between CO and the 1.4 GHz RC surface brightness. Thisrelationship is well described by a Schmidt law withΣRC~Σ1.3CO. Therefore,dwarf galaxies and large spirals exhibit the same relationship betweenmolecular gas and star formation rate (SFR). We find that this result isrobust to moderate changes in the RC-to-SFR and CO-to-H2conversion factors. Our data appear to be inconsistent with large (orderof magnitude) variations in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor inthe star-forming molecular gas.

A Hubble Space Telescope Census of Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies. II. Cluster Sizes and Structural Parameter Correlations
We investigate the structural properties of nuclear star clusters inlate-type spiral galaxies. More specifically, we fit analytical modelsto Hubble Space Telescope images of 39 nuclear clusters in order todetermine their effective radii after correction for the instrumentalpoint-spread function. We use the results of this analysis to comparethe luminosities and sizes of nuclear star clusters to those of otherellipsoidal stellar systems, in particular the Milky Way globularclusters. Our nuclear clusters have a median effective radius ofre=3.5 pc, with 50% of the sample falling in the range2.4pc<=re<=5.0pc. This narrow size distribution isstatistically indistinguishable from that of Galactic globular clusters,even though the nuclear clusters are, on average, 4 mag brighter thanthe old globular clusters. We discuss some possible interpretations ofthis result. From a comparison of nuclear cluster luminosities withvarious properties of their host galaxies, we confirm that more luminousgalaxies harbor more luminous nuclear clusters. It remains unclearwhether this correlation mainly reflects the influence of galaxy size,mass, and/or star formation rate. Since the brighter galaxies in oursample typically have stellar disks with a higher central surfacebrightness, nuclear cluster luminosity also correlates with thisproperty of their hosts. On the other hand, we find no evidence for acorrelation between the presence of a nuclear star cluster and thepresence of a large-scale stellar bar.

The Hα galaxy survey. I. The galaxy sample, Hα narrow-band observations and star formation parameters for 334 galaxies
We discuss the selection and observations of a large sample of nearbygalaxies, which we are using to quantify the star formation activity inthe local Universe. The sample consists of 334 galaxies across allHubble types from S0/a to Im and with recession velocities of between 0and 3000 km s-1. The basic data for each galaxy are narrowband H\alpha +[NII] and R-band imaging, from which we derive starformation rates, H\alpha +[NII] equivalent widths and surfacebrightnesses, and R-band total magnitudes. A strong correlation is foundbetween total star formation rate and Hubble type, with the strongeststar formation in isolated galaxies occurring in Sc and Sbc types. Moresurprisingly, no significant trend is found between H\alpha +[NII]equivalent width and galaxy R-band luminosity. More detailed analyses ofthe data set presented here will be described in subsequent papers.Based on observations made with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.The full version of Table \ref{tab3} is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/23 Reduced image datafor this survey can be downloaded fromhttp://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/HaGS/

Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames Galaxies
Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters.

Molecular gas in the central regions of the latest-type spiral galaxies
Using the IRAM 30 >m telescope, we have surveyed an unbiased sampleof 47 nearby spiral galaxies of very late (Scd-Sm) Hubble-type foremission in the 12CO(1-0) and (2-1) lines. The sensitivity ofour data (a few mK) allows detection of about 60% of our sample in atleast one of the CO lines. The median detected H2 mass is1.4x 107 >msun within the central few kpc, assuming astandard conversion factor. We use the measured line intensities tocomplement existing studies of the molecular gas content of spiralgalaxies as a function of Hubble-type and to significantly improve thestatistical significance of such studies at the late end of the spiralsequence. We find that the latest-type spirals closely follow thecorrelation between molecular gas content and galaxy luminosityestablished for earlier Hubble types. The molecular gas in late-typegalaxies seems to be less centrally concentrated than in earlier types.We use Hubble Space Telescope optical images to correlate the moleculargas mass to the properties of the central galaxy disk and the compactstar cluster that occupies the nucleus of most late-type spirals. Thereis no clear correlation between the luminosity of the nuclear starcluster and the molecular gas mass, although the CO detection rate ishighest for the brightest clusters. It appears that the central surfacebrightness of the stellar disk is an important parameter for the amountof molecular gas at the galaxy center. Whether stellar bars play acritical role for the gas dynamics remains unclear, in part because ofuncertainties in the morphological classifications of our sample.

A Hubble Space Telescope Census of Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies. I. Observations and Image Analysis
We present new Hubble Space Telescope I-band images of a sample of 77nearby late-type spiral galaxies with low inclination. The main purposeof this catalog is to study the frequency and properties of nuclear starclusters. In 59 galaxies of our sample, we have identified a distinct,compact (but resolved), and dominant source at or very close to thephotocenter. In many cases, these clusters are the only prominent sourcewithin a few kiloparsecs from the galaxy nucleus. We present surfacebrightness profiles, derived from elliptical isophote fits, of allgalaxies for which the fit was successful. We use the fitted isophotesat radii larger than 2" to check whether the location of the clustercoincides with the photocenter of the galaxy and confirm that in nearlyall cases, we are truly dealing with ``nuclear'' star clusters. Fromanalytical fits to the surface brightness profiles, we derive thecluster luminosities after subtraction of the light contribution fromthe underlying galaxy disk and/or bulge. Based on observations made withthe NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space TelescopeScience Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universitiesfor Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Theseobservations are associated with proposal 8599.

Supernovae in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies
In order to investigate the influence of environment on supernova (SN)production, we have performed a statistical investigation of the SNediscovered in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies. 22SNe in 18 isolated galaxies, 48 SNe in 40 galaxy members of 37 pairs and211 SNe in 170 galaxy members of 116 groups have been selected andstudied. We found that the radial distributions of core-collapse SNe ingalaxies located in different environments are similar, and consistentwith those reported by Bartunov, Makarova & Tsvetkov. SNe discoveredin pairs do not favour a particular direction with respect to thecompanion galaxy. Also, the azimuthal distributions inside the hostmembers of galaxy groups are consistent with being isotropics. The factthat SNe are more frequent in the brighter components of the pairs andgroups is expected from the dependence of the SN rates on the galaxyluminosity. There is an indication that the SN rate is higher in galaxypairs compared with that in groups. This can be related to the enhancedstar formation rate in strongly interacting systems. It is concludedthat, with the possible exception of strongly interacting systems, theparent galaxy environment has no direct influence on SN production.

Spectrophotometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data
We have obtained integrated and nuclear spectra as well as U, B, Rsurface photometry for a representative sample of 196 nearby galaxies.These galaxies span the entire Hubble sequence in morphological type, aswell as a wide range of luminosities (MB=-14 to -22). Here wepresent the spectrophotometry for these galaxies. The selection of thesample and the U, B, R surface photometry is described in a companionpaper. Our goals for the project include measuring the current starformation rates and metallicities of these galaxies, and elucidatingtheir star formation histories, as a function of luminosity andmorphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt to lower luminositysystems. We anticipate that our study will be useful as a benchmark forstudies of galaxies at high redshift. We describe the observing, datareduction, and calibration techniques and demonstrate that ourspectrophotometry agrees well with that of Kennicutt. The spectra spanthe range 3550-7250 Å at a resolution (FWHM) of ~6 Å andhave an overall relative spectrophotometric accuracy of ~+/-6%. Wepresent a spectrophotometric atlas of integrated and nuclear rest-framespectra as well as tables of equivalent widths and synthetic colors. Theatlas and tables of measurements will be made available electronically.We study the correlations of galaxy properties determined from thespectra and images. Our findings include: (1) galaxies of a givenmorphological class display a wide range of continuum shapes andemission-line strengths if a broad range of luminosities are considered,(2) emission-line strengths tend to increase and continua tend to getbluer as the luminosity decreases, and (3) the scatter on the generalcorrelation between nuclear and integrated Hα emission-linestrengths is large.

Surface Photometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data
We have obtained integrated spectra and multifilter photometry for arepresentative sample of ~200 nearby galaxies. These galaxies span theentire Hubble sequence in morphological type, as well as a wide range ofluminosities (MB=-14 to -22) and colors (B-R=0.4-1.8). Herewe describe the sample selection criteria and the U, B, R surfacephotometry for these galaxies. The spectrophotometric results will bepresented in a companion paper. Our goals for the project includemeasuring the current star formation rates and metallicity of thesegalaxies, and elucidating their star formation histories, as a functionof luminosity and morphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt tolower luminosity systems. We anticipate that our study will be useful asa benchmark for studies of galaxies at high redshift. We discuss theobserving, data reduction, and calibration techniques and show that ourphotometry agrees well with previous work in those cases in whichearlier data are available. We present an atlas of images, radialsurface brightness profiles, and color profiles as well as tables ofderived parameters. The atlas and tables of measurements will be madeavailable electronically. We study the correlations of galaxy propertiesdetermined from the galaxy images. Our findings include the following:(1) colors determined within the effective radius correlate better withmorphological type than with MB and (2) 50% of thelow-luminosity galaxies are bluest in their centers.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

The Rise Time of Nearby Type IA Supernovae
We present calibrated photometric measurements of the earliestdetections of nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The set of ~30 new,unfiltered CCD observations delineate the early rise behavior of SNe Ia18 to 10 days before maximum. Using simple empirical models, wedemonstrate the strong correlation between the rise time (i.e., the timebetween explosion and maximum), the postrise light-curve shape, and thepeak luminosity. Using a variety of light-curve shape methods, we findthe rise time to B maximum for an SN Ia withΔm15(B)=1.1 mag and peak MV=-19.45 mag to be19.5+/-0.2 days. We find that the peak brightness of SNe Ia iscorrelated with their rise time; SNe Ia that are 0.10 mag brighter atpeak in the B band require 0.80+/-0.05 days longer to reach maximumlight. We determine the effects of several possible sources ofsystematic errors, but none of these significantly impacts the inferredrise time. We explore the degree to which comparisons between theobserved and theoretically predicted rise times constrain SN Iaprogenitor systems.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

A Photometric Method for Quantifying Asymmetries in Disk Galaxies
A photometric method for quantifying deviations from axisymmetry inoptical images of disk galaxies is applied to a sample of 32 face-on andnearly face-on spirals. The method involves comparing the relativefluxes contained within trapezoidal sectors arranged symmetrically aboutthe galaxy center of light, excluding the bulge and/or barred regions.Such a method has several advantages over others, especially whenquantifying asymmetry in flocculent galaxies. Specifically, theaveraging of large regions improves the signal-to-noise in themeasurements; the method is not strongly affected by the presence ofspiral arms; and it identifies the kinds of asymmetry that are likely tobe dynamically important. Application of this ``method of sectors'' toR-band images of 32 disk galaxies indicates that about 30% of spiralsshow deviations from axisymmetry at the 5 sigma level.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The observation of the nearby universe in UV and in FIR: an evidence for a moderate extinction in present day star forming galaxies
We study the FIR and UV-visible properties of star forming galaxies inthe nearby Universe. This comparison is performed using the localluminosity functions at UV and FIR wavelengths and on individualstarburst galaxies for which photometric data from UV to NIR and FIR areavailable. The FIR and UV luminosity functions have quite differentshapes : the UV function exhibits a strong increase for low luminositygalaxies whereas the FIR tail towards ultra luminous galaxies (L >10(11) Lsun) is not detected in UV. The comparison of the FIR and UVlocal luminosity densities argues for a rather moderate extinction innearby disk galaxies. The galaxies selected to be detected in FIR and UVare found to be located in the medium range of both luminosityfunctions. An emphasis is made on starburst galaxies. For a sample of 22of these objects, it is found that the UV (912-3650 Angstroms), thevisible (3600-12500 Angstroms) and the NIR (12500-22000 Angstroms)wavelength range contribute ~ 30%, ~ 50% and ~ 20% respectively to thetotal emerging stellar emission (for a subsample of 12 galaxies for theNIR and visible light). The mean ratio of the dust to bolometricluminosity of these galaxies is 0.37+/-0.22 similar to the ratio foundfor normal spiral galaxies. Only 4 out of the 22 galaxies exhibit a verylarge extinction with more than 60% of their energy emitted in theFIR-submm range. The mean extinction at 2000Angstroms is found to be ~1.2 mag although with a large dispersion. The UV, visible and NIRemissions of our sample galaxies are consistent with a burst lastingover ~ 1 Gyr. The conversion factor of the stellar emission into dustemission is found to correlate with the luminosity of the galaxies,brighter galaxies having a higher conversion factor. Since our sampleappears to be representative of the mean properties of the galaxypopulation in FIR and UV, a very large conversion of the stellar lightinto dust emission can no longer be assumed as a general property ofstarburst galaxies at least in the local Universe. Instead a largeramount of energy emerging from the present starburst galaxies seems tocome from the stars rather than from the dust. We compare the UVproperties of our local starburst galaxies to those of recently detectedhigh redshift galaxies. The larger extinction found in the distantgalaxies is consistent with the trend we find for the nearby starburstgalaxies namely the brighter the galaxies the lower the escape fractionof stellar light.

HIPPARCOS calibration of the peak brightness of four SNe IA and the value of H_0
HIPPARCOS geometrical parallaxes allowed us to calibrate the CepheidPeriod-Luminosity relation and to compute the true distance moduli of 17galaxies. Among these 17 galaxies, we selected those which generatedtype Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia). We found NGC 5253, parent galaxy of 1895Band 1972E, IC 4182 and NGC 4536 parents of 1937C and 1981B,respectively. We used the available B-band photometry to determine thepeak brightness of these four SNe Ia. We obtained = -19.65 +/- 0.09. Then, we built a sample of 57SNe Ia in order to plot the Hubble diagram and determine its zero-point.Our result (ZPB = -3.16 +/- 0.10) is in agreement with otherdeterminations and allows us to derive the following Hubble constant:H0 = 50 +/- 3 (internal) km.s(-1}.Mpc({-1)) .

Gas Mass Fractions and the Evolution of Spiral Galaxies
We show that the gas mass fraction of spiral galaxies is stronglycorrelated with luminosity and surface brightness. It is not correlatedwith linear size. Gas fraction varies with luminosity and surfacebrightness at the same rate, indicating evolution at fixed size. Dimgalaxies are clearly less evolved than bright ones, having consumed only~ \frac {1}{2} of their gas. This resolves the gas consumption paradox,since there exist many galaxies with large gas reservoirs. Thesegas-rich galaxies must have formed the bulk of their stellar populationsin the last half of a Hubble time. The existence of such immaturegalaxies at z = 0 indicates that either galaxy formation is a lengthy oreven ongoing process, or the onset of significant star formation can bedelayed for arbitrary periods in tenuous gas disks.

Galaxies with a UV excess in which supernovae have been observed.
Not Available

Optical Spectra of Recent Supernovae of Type Ia: SN1995AL, SN1997Y, =
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2054A&db_key=AST

Constraining the Ages of Supernova Progenitors. I. Supernovae and Spiral Arms
We present the first results of a three-part study of supernova (SN)ages using positional age indicators in spiral galaxies. We havemeasured the positions of 90 Spectroscopically identified Type Ia andType II SNs (SNs Ia and SNs II) relative to spiral arms in their hostgalaxies, making a special effort to reduce inhomogeneity in the processof arm tracing for different galaxies. We find that SNs II are moretightly concentrated to the arms than SNs Ia, but both kinds of SNsoccur closer to arms than a random disk population. However, whencompared with the distribution of V and I light relative to the arms,the SNs Ia are no more tightly concentrated than the general stellarpopulation. This indicates that SNs Ia occur in a population old enoughto have diffused away from their formation regions.

The Ursa Major Cluster of Galaxies.I.Cluster Definition and Photometric Data
The Ursa Major Cluster has received remarkably little attention,although it is as near as the Virgo Cluster and contains a comparablenumber of H I-rich galaxies. In this paper, criteria for groupmembership are discussed and data are presented for 79 galaxiesidentified with the group. Of these, all 79 have been imaged at B,R,Ibands with CCDs, 70 have been imaged at K' with a HgCdTe array detector,and 70 have been detected in the HI 21 cm line. A complete sample of 62galaxies brighter than M_B_ = - 16.5 is identified. Images and gradientsin surface brightness and color are presented at a common linear scale.As has been seen previously, the galaxies with the reddest global colorsare reddest at the centers and get bluer at large radii. However,curiously, among the galaxies with the bluest global colors there aresystems with very blue cores that get redder at large radii.

Colliding and Merging Galaxies. III. The Dynamically Young Merger Remnant NGC 3921
This paper presents imaging, photometric, and spectroscopic observationsof NGC 3921 = Mrk 430 gathered over many years with five opticaltelescopes. This luminous galaxy (M_V_= -22.8 for H_0_ = 50) atcz_hel_=5926 +/- 15 km s^-1^ features a single nucleus, a main body withcomplex fine structure (ripples, loops, fan-shaped protrusions), and apair of ~100 kpc long, crossed tidal tails indicative of two former diskgalaxies of near-equal mass. These galaxies have essentially merged. Themain body of the remnant shows a typical post-starburst spectrumdominated in the blue by A 3-5 V stars. The inferred burst age is 0.5-1Gyr and the burst strength ~10% (by mass). Surrounding the nucleus isextremely centrally concentrated ionized gas that can be traced out to~12" (7 kpc), emits ~> 1.5 x 10^41^ ergs s^-1^ in Hα, and showssigns of both rotational and chaotic motions. The bright semistellarnucleus appears strikingly off-centered relative to the main body, whichitself features "sloshing" isophotes. That is, the centers of successiveisophotes shift position by ~>2 kpc, causing the nucleus to appeareccentric by up to 23% relative to a nearly half-light isophote. Theluminous matter has clearly not yet equilibrated, and this mergerremnant is dynamically young. Nevertheless, the mean light distributionof the main body is already well described by an r^1/4^ law. Thisdistribution plus the luminosity, UBV colors, color gradients, velocitydispersion, spectroscopic line strengths, and fine-structure index allagree with the notion that NGC 3921, which is a member of a small, tightgroup of four galaxies, is a 0.7+/-0.3 Gyr old protoelliptical (reckonedsince close passage that started the merger). Both it and its kin NGC7252 are nearby analogs of distant galaxies with "E+A"-type spectra inButcher-Oemler clusters. A search for star clusters and associations inNGC 3921 reveals 19 candidate OB associations, but only five candidateyoung globular clusters with M_V_ = -12 to -14. Thus, NGC 3921 appearsto have distinctly fewer and certainly less luminous young globularclusters than NGC 7252. This less extreme population of young globularsmay reflect a paucity of gas in one of the two merging component disksof this suspected S0-Sc or Sa-Sc merger (Hibbard & van Gorkom, AJ,in press). Such gas paucity may explain the weaker starburst and mayhave supplied fewer giant molecular clouds for globular clusterformation. Hence, the Hubble types and gas contents of componentgalaxies appear to play an important role in determining the clusterpopulations in merger remnants.

The radial distribution of supernovae in spiral galaxies.
Not Available

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

The Hubble Diagram for Supernovae of Type Ia. II. The Effect on the Hubble Constant of a Correlation between Absolute Magnitude and Light Decay Rate
New Hubble diagrams in B and V are derived for supernovae of type Ibased on light curves from the archive literature plus 13 new lightcurves with superior modern photometry observed in the CerroTololo/University of Chile program (Hamuy et al, 1995). The sample isrestricted to SNe Ia whose light curves are defined by photometrybeginning 5 days or less after maximum light and with (B - V)max <0.5 mag. Supernovae of known type Ib or Ic are also excluded. Theresulting Hubble diagrams, extending to redshifts of 30,00 km s^- 1^,have dispersions in absolute magnitude of 0.34 mag in B and 0.33 mag inV, confirming that spectroscopically "normal" (Branch et al. 1993) SNeIa are among the best standard candles known. A solution for the slopeof the Hubble diagram gives n(B) = 0.977 +/- 0.025 and n(V) = 1.020 +/-0.024 for the exponent in ν~D^n^, proving linearity of the expansionfield to a high level. The residuals in magnitude from the ridge line ofthe Hubble diagram are compared with the light decay rate during thefirst 15 days to test the correlation between the two suggested byPskovskii and by Phillips. The strongest possible correlation using theextant data has a slope 3 times smaller than that derived by Phillips,and 2 times smaller than suggested by Hamuy et al., leading to adecrease of less than 10% in the distance scale based on the present(1995) SNe Ia calibration by means of three supernovae whose distancesare known from Cepheids in their parent galaxies. Applying the maximumpossible correction to M(max) for a Psko'vskii- Phillips effect wouldgive Hubble constants of H_0_(B)<= 54 +/- 4 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^, andH_0_(V) <= 59 +/- 4 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^, where the errors are internal.It is argued that the absence of measurable bias effects in the Hubblediagrams shows that the three local (nearest) SNe Ia presentlycalibrated via Cepheid distances cannot all be overluminous relative tothe average of more distant SNe. If they are underluminous, which mustbe the case by the statistics of the Malmquist effect if the largedispersion in M(max) for SNe Ia claimed by Hamuy et al. applies to thecalibrators, then the value of H_0_ = 52 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^ given by Sahaet al. is an upper limit to the Hubble constant.

The orientation of spin vectors of galaxies in the Ursa Major filament
Spin vectors of 60 galaxies in the 'Ursa Major filament' are obtainedfrom CCD images and spectroscopic determinations of the directions ofrotation. These data are used to remove the fourfold degeneracyintroduced by the projected images of galaxies, making possible thecomplete reconstruction of the galaxy spin vectors. Several possibleorganizations of spin vectors are investigated by means of statisticalanalyses of the three-dimensional spin vector maps. The results indicatethat there exists no significant alignment of galaxy spin vectors withrespect to the supergalactic plane, the supergalactic axis, or thecylindrical axis of the filament itself. No tendency for linearalignment of spin vectors toward any specific direction was detected. Wealso obtain a statistically negative result for azimuthal, radial, andcircular-helical orientation of spin vectors.

The UV properties of normal galaxies. III. Standard luminosity profiles and total magnitudes.
In the previous papers of this series we collected and reduced to thesame system all the available photometric data obtained in theultraviolet (UV) range for normal (i.e. non active) galaxies. Here weuse these data to derive standard UV luminosity profiles for threemorphological bins (E/S0; Sa/Sb; Sc/Sd) and extrapolated totalmagnitudes for almost 400 galaxies. We find that: 1) the UV growthcurves are well matched by the B-band revised standard luminosityprofiles, once a proper shift in the effective radius is applied, and 2)the UV light in early-type galaxies is more centrally concentrated thanthe visible light.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:11h50m38.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.995′ × 1.738′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 3913
ICIC 740

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