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|H I observations of galaxies. II. The Coma Supercluster|
High sensitivity 21-cm H i line observations with an rms noise level of~0.5 mJy were made of 35 spiral galaxies in the Coma Supercluster, usingthe refurbished Arecibo telescope, leading to detection of 25 objects.These data, combined with the measurements available in the literature,provide the set of H i data for 94% of all late-type galaxies in theComa Supercluster with an apparent photographic magnitude mp≤ 15.7 mag. We confirm that the typical scale of H i deficiencyaround the Coma cluster is 2 Mpc, i.e. one virial radius. Comparing theH i mass function (HIMF) of cluster with non-cluster members of the ComaSupercluster we detected a shortage of high H i mass galaxies amongcluster members that can be attributed to the pattern of H i deficiencyfound in rich clusters.
|The Active Galaxy NGC 3862 in a Compact Group in the Cluster A1367|
We study a compact group of 18 galaxies in the cluster A1367 withredshifts z = 0.0208 0.025. The group’s center of activity in theradio is the galaxy NGC 3862, whose radio flux is an order of magnitudestronger than for the other members of the group. We present coordinatesderived from the Palomar plate archive together with recessionalvelocities, and analyze other characteristics of the group’sgalaxies. The results of 1400 MHz observations of NGC 3862 with theRATAN-600 radio telescope are presented. These observations indicatethat the galaxy’s radio emission is variable.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|Hα surface photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster I. Observations with the San Pedro Martir 2.1 m telescope|
Hα imaging observations of 125 galaxies obtained with the 2.1 mtelescope of the San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM) (Baja California,Mexico) are presented. The observed galaxies are mostly Virgo clustermembers (77), with 36 objects in the Coma/A1367 supercluster and 12 inthe clusters A2197 and A2199 taken as fillers. Hα +[NII] fluxesand equivalent widths, as well as images of the detected targets arepresented. The observatory of San Pedro Martir (Mexico) belongs to theObservatorio Astronómico Nacional, UNAM. Figure 4 is onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org
|1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxies|
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the ``Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data|
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.
|Tidally induced star formation in Abell 1367|
Our principal aim is to compare global star formation rates betweencluster galaxies and field galaxies in order to clarify environmentalinfluence on star formation. We use an objective prism technique tosurvey over 200 Zwicky catalogue (CGCG) galaxies within ~2 deg.5 ofAbell 1367 for Hα emission. After a brief discussion of the surveycharacteristics, we consider first the dependence of Hα detection onHubble type, galaxy disturbance and the presence of a bar. As expected,we rarely detect early-type galaxies and consequently restrict furtherdiscussion to spirals (type S0/a and later), of which we detect ~35percent in Hα. We find that an extremely valuable distinction to makeis between galaxies with diffuse Hα and galaxies with compactHα. There is a very significant tendency for galaxies with compactHα emission to be disturbed, and there may be a weak tendency forthem to be barred. Neither of these tendencies is found for galaxieswith diffuse Hα emission. We infer that compact emission resultsfrom tidally induced star formation, while diffuse emission results frommore normal disc star formation. After considering field contamination,we adopt as a `predominantly cluster' sample the spiral populationinside 0.5 r_A; a `predominantly field' sample outside 0.5 r_A; and a`pure field' sample outside 1.5 r_A. We consistently find a much largerfraction of spirals detected with compact Hα in the cluster samplecompared to the field samples (e.g. 38 versus 0per cent detected incluster and `pure field' samples, chi^2 significance 3.6sigma). Thisincreased fraction detected in the cluster is found for early-, mid- andlate-type spirals separately. No such cluster/field differences arefound for galaxies with diffuse Hα emission. We conclude that tidalperturbations are more common in the cluster than in the field, leadingto a higher incidence of compact tidally triggered star formation. Bycombining information on galaxy disturbance, galaxy companions, and thelocation of galaxies within the cluster, we have tried to identify theorigin of the tidal perturbations. We find strong evidence thatnear-neighbour interaction plays a significant role in triggering starformation. However, we also find candidate objects near the cluster corewhich may be perturbed by the overall cluster tidal field, and candidateobjects which may be influenced by a higher speed `harassment'interaction between galaxies.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|21 CM H1 Line Spectra of Galaxies in Nearby Clusters|
A compilation of HI line fluxes, systemic velocities and line widths ispresented for \Ndet detected galaxies, mostly in the vicinities of 30nearby rich clusters out to a redshift of z ~ .04, specifically for usein applications of the Tully-Fisher distance method. New 21 cm HI lineprofiles have been obtained for ~ 500 galaxies in 27 Abell clustersvisible from Arecibo. Upper limits are also presented for \Nnod galaxiesfor which HI emission was not detected. In order to provide ahomogeneous line width determination optimized for Tully-Fisher studies,these new data are supplemented by the reanalysis of previouslypublished spectra obtained both at Arecibo and Green Bank that areavailable in a digital archive. Corrections for instrumental broadening,smoothing, signal-to-noise and profile shape are applied, and anestimate of the error on the width is given. When corrected forturbulent broadening and viewing angle, the corrected velocity widthspresented here will provide the appropriate line width parameter neededto derive distances via the Tully-Fisher relation.
|1.65μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. II. Observations of 297 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5m telescope.|
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65μm) surface photometry of 297galaxies (mostly) in the Coma Supercluster obtained with the ArcetriNICMOS3 camera, ARNICA, mounted on the Gornergrat Infrared Telescope.Magnitudes and diameters within the 21.5mag/arcsec^2^ isophote,concentration indices, and total H magnitudes are derived. Combiningthese observations with those obtained similarly using the Calar Altotelescopes (Paper I, 1996A&AS..120..489G) we find a strong positivecorrelation between the near-infrared concentration index and the galaxyH-band luminosity, and we analyze the consequent dependence ofnear-infrared growth-curves on H-band luminosity.
|Colors, luminosities, and masses of disk galaxies. 2: Environmental dependenceis|
The B-band and near-infrared (H) luminosity functions of spiral galaxiesare derived for the Coma and A1367 clusters and for a referencepopulation of 'field' galaxies in the Coma supercluster. They areconsistent at the bright end, but they differ significantly at the faintend, indicating an overdensity of spirals with blue color (B-H less than3.0) and faint H luminosity (H greater than -21.5) in clusters withrespect to the field. These objects have disturbed morphology andpeculiar velocities significantly larger than the rest of the clustersample. We discuss these results in the framework of a possibleenvironmental dependence of galaxy evolution, and we conclude thatenhanced current star formation in cluster spiral galaxies might occurdue to molecular gas collapse stimulated by the ram-pressure mechanism.
|Radio continuum survey of the Coma/A1367 supercluster. 5. The luminosity function of A1367|
Radio continuum observation of the cluster of galaxies A1367 obtained at1.4 GHz with the very large array (VLA) in various configurations arecombined in this work to produce a radio map of the central region ofthe cluster with an rms noise of 0.13 mJy. Using a digitized plate ofthe region on which all spiral+Irr galaxies with B less than 18.0 areselected, we find that 19 radio sources are identified with late-typegalaxies, 9 of which were previously unknown. By determining thefrequency distribution of the radio/optical and radio/IR ratio ofgalaxies in A1367 we confirm previous claims that spiral galaxies with ahigh radio/optical ratio in this cluster are approximately equals 10times more frequent than in a reference sample of 'field' galaxies ofsimilar morphological type and similar distance.
|21 centimeter study of spiral galaxies in the Coma supercluster|
High-sensitivity, 21 cm line observations of 130 galaxies in theComa/A1367 Supercluster region are presented and used to study thelarge-scale distribution of galaxies in the direction of the ComaSupercluster and the H I content in spiral galaxies as a function of thelocal galaxy density. Groups of galaxies are found to form aquasi-continuous structure that connects the Local Supercluster to theComa Supercluster. This structure is composed of real filaments only inthe vicinity of the Coma Cluster. Spiral galaxies in the surveyed groupsand multiple systems have H I content not dissimilar from that ofisolated galaxies. Galaxies within about 1 Abell radius from the ComaCluster contain about three times less hydrogen on average than isolatedgalaxies. There is a strong tendency for galaxies that are more severelyH I-depleted to be redder and of earlier Hubble type. In the ComaCluster a considerable fraction of late-type, blue galaxies have largedeficiency parameters.
|The evolution of galaxies in clusters. IV - Photometry of 10 low-redshift clusters|
Colors and magnitudes, obtained from Palomar 48 inch (1.2 m) Schmidtplates in the J and F bands, and morphological types are presented forgalaxies in the cores of 10 nearby clusters of galaxies. In the typicalcluster, the sample includes all galaxies within a radius of 1.5 Mpc(assuming H(0) = 50 km/s/Mpc) of the cluster center and brighter than J= 17.5.The accuracy of the photometry varies with cluster, but mostmagnitudes are accurate to 0.10 mag, and typical errors in the colorsare of the same order. As expected, the colors of the elliptical and S0galaxies show a narrow dispersion about a mean color which decreaseswith magnitude. However, the colors of the spiral galaxies are notentirely as expected, having a smaller dispersion than would have beenpredicted from their morphological types.
|A catalog of radio, optical, and infrared observations of spiral galaxies in clusters|
The results of a major observational program on the luminosities,colors, and gas contents of spiral galaxies in clusters of galaxies arepresented. The data have been used as part of a detailed investigationinto the nature of cluster spirals and for revisions of the distancescale using the infrared Tully-Fisher relation. The observationalstrategies, reduction procedures, and sources or error are brieflydiscussed. The data include 21-cm H I observations, UBVR multiaperturephotometry, and H-band photometry of several hunderd spiral galaxies in10 clusters.
|Gas deficiency in cluster galaxies - A comparison of nine clusters|
The available 21 cm line data in the literature for galaxies in nineclusters is combined with new high-sensitivity observations of 51galaxies in five of the nine clusters in order to test fordiscriminating circumstances between those clusters which show H Ideficiency among their spiral population and those which do not. An H Ideficiency for the complete cluster sample is derived employing acomparison sample of galaxies chosen from the Catalog of IsolatedGalaxies. The deficiency and its radial dependence is summarized foreach cluster and a composite. A comparison of the environments indifferent clusters leads to the conclusion that the occurrence of H Ideficiency is correlated with the presence of a hot X-ray intraclustermedium, and that an ongoing interaction process is active through thecores of X-ray clusters.
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