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The Relation between Galaxy Activity and the Dynamics of Compact Groups of Galaxies
Using a sample of 91 galaxies distributed over 27 compact groups (CGs)of galaxies, we define an index that allows us to quantify their levelof activity due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or star formation.By combining the mean activity index with the mean morphological type ofthe galaxies in a group, we are able to quantify the evolutionary stateof the groups. We find that they span an evolutionary sequence thatcorrelates with the spatial configuration of the galaxies in the CG. Wedistinguish three main configuration types: A, B, and C. Type A CGs showpredominantly low velocity dispersions and are rich in late-type spiralsthat show active star formation or harbor an AGN. Type B groups haveintermediate velocity dispersions and contain a large fraction ofinteracting or merging galaxies. Type C comprises CGs with high velocitydispersions, which are dominated by elliptical galaxies that show noactivity. We suggest that evolution proceeds A==>B==>C. Mappingthe groups with different evolution levels in a diagram of radius versusvelocity dispersion does not reveal the pattern expected based on theconventional fast merger model for CGs, which predicts a direct relationbetween these two parameters. Instead, we observe a trend contrary toexpectation: the evolutionary state of a group increases with velocitydispersion. This trend seems to be related to the masses of thestructures in which CGs are embedded. In general, the evolutionary stateof a group increases with the mass of the structure. This suggestseither that galaxies evolve more rapidly in massive structures or thatthe formation of CGs embedded in massive structures predated theformation of CGs associated with lower mass systems. Our observationsare consistent with the structure formation predicted by the CDM model(or ΛCDM), only if the formation of galaxies is a biased process.

Seyfert galaxies in UZC-Compact Groups
We present results concerning the occurrence of Seyfert galaxies in anew automatically selected sample of nearby Compact Groups of galaxies(UZC-CGs). Seventeen Seyferts are found, constituting ˜3% of theUZC-CG galaxy population. CGs hosting and non-hosting a Seyfert memberexhibit no significant differences, except that a relevant number of Sy2is found in unusual CGs, all presenting large velocity dispersion(σ>400 km s-1), many neighbours and a high number ofellipticals. We also find that the fraction of Seyferts in CGs is 3times as large as that among UZC-single-galaxies, and results from anexcess of Sy2s. CG-Seyferts are not more likely than other CG galaxiesto present major interaction patterns, nor to display a bar. Our resultsindirectly support the minor-merging fueling mechanism.

Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the ˜9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35

The Unified Model and Evolution of Active Galaxies: Implications from a Spectropolarimetric Study
We extend the analysis presented in Paper I of a spectropolarimetricsurvey of the CfA and 12 μm samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). Weconfirm that polarized (hidden) broad-line region (HBLR) S2s tend tohave hotter circumnuclear dust temperatures, show mid-IR spectra morecharacteristic of Seyfert 1 galaxies (S1s), and are intrinsically moreluminous than non-HBLR S2s. The levels of obscuration and circumnuclearstar formation, however, appear to be similar between HBLR and non-HBLRS2 galaxies, based on an examination of various observationalindicators. HBLR S2s, on average, share many similar large-scale,presumably isotropic, characteristics with S1s, as would be expected ifthe unified model is correct, while non-HBLR S2s generally do not. Theactive nuclear engines of non-HBLR S2s, then, appear to be truly weakerthan HBLR S2s, which in turn are fully consistent with being S1s viewedfrom another direction. There is also evidence that the fraction ofdetected HBLRs increases with the radio power of the active galacticnucleus. Thus, all S2 galaxies may not be intrinsically similar innature, and we speculate that evolutionary processes may be at work.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Kinematics of AWM and MKW Poor Clusters
We have measured 1365 redshifts to a limiting magnitude of R~15.5 in 15AWM/MKW clusters and have collected another 203 from the literature inMKW 4s, MKW 2, and MKW 2s. In AWM 7 we have extended the redshift sampleto R~18 in the cluster center. We have identified 704 cluster members in17 clusters; 201 are newly identified. We summarize the kinematics anddistributions of the cluster galaxies and provide an initial discussionof substructure, mass and luminosity segregation, spectral segregation,velocity-dispersion profiles, and the relation of the central galaxy toglobal cluster properties. We compute optical mass estimates, which wecompare with X-ray mass determinations from the literature. The clustersare in a variety of dynamical states, reflected in the three classes ofbehavior of the velocity-dispersion profile in the core: rising,falling, or flat/ambiguous. The velocity dispersion of the emission-linegalaxy population significantly exceeds that of the absorption-linegalaxies in almost all of the clusters, and the presence ofemission-line galaxies at small projected radii suggests continuinginfall of galaxies onto the clusters. The presence of a cD galaxy doesnot constrain the global cluster properties; these clusters are similarto other poor clusters that contain no cD. We use the similarity of thevelocity-dispersion profiles at small radii and the cD-like galaxies'internal velocity dispersions to argue that cD formation is a localphenomenon. Our sample establishes an empirical observational baselineof poor clusters for comparison with simulations of similar systems.Observations reported in this paper were obtained at the Multiple MirrorTelescope Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the University ofArizona and the Smithsonian Institution; at the Whipple Observatory, afacility operated jointly by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatoryand Harvard University; and at the WIYN Observatory, a joint facility ofthe University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, YaleUniversity, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample
Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxycatalogue (Falco et al. \cite{Falco}) we have identified 291 compactgroups (CGs) with radial velocity between 1000 and 10 000 kms-1. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Tripletsdisplay kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higherorder CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute lowvelocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population andare typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multipletsshow higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and aregenerally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating thatTriplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond todifferent galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilstMultiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected orcollapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selectioneffects can only partially account for differences, but significantcontamination of Triplets by field galaxy interlopers could eventuallyinduce the observed dependences on multiplicity. Tables 1 and 2 are onlyavailable in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/35

A search for extragalactic H2O maser emission towards IRAS galaxies. Detection of a maser from an infrared-luminous merger, NGC 6240
We report the result of an on-going survey for 22 GHz H2Omaser emission towards infrared luminous galaxies. The observed galaxieswere selected primarily from the IRAS bright galaxy sample. The surveyhas resulted in the detection of one new maser. The new maser wasdiscovered towards the [U]LIRG/merger galaxy NGC 6240, which contains aLINER nucleus. This is the first detection of an H2O; masertowards this class of galaxy, they are traditionally associated with OHmegamaser sources. The detected maser emission is highly redshifted ( ~260-300 km s-1;ss) with respect to the adopted systemicvelocity of the galaxy, and we identified no other significant emissionat velocities la +/-500 km s-1; relative to the systemicvelocity. The presence of high-velocity maser emission implies thepossible existence of a rotating maser disk formed in the mergingprocess. The large maser luminosity ( ~ 40 Lsun) suggeststhat an active galactic nucleus could be the energy source that givesrise to the water emission. Alternatively, the maser emission could beassociated with the previously observed double radio source in thecentre of the galaxy. Interferometric observations with high angularresolution will be able to clarify the origin of the new maser.

High-resolution radio observations of Seyfert galaxies in the extended 12-μm sample - II. The properties of compact radio components
We discuss the properties of compact nuclear radio components in Seyfertgalaxies from the extended 12-μm AGN sample of Rush et al. Our mainresults can be summarized as follows. Type 1 and type 2 Seyferts producecompact radio components which are indistinguishable in strength andaspect, indicating that their central engines are alike, as proposed bythe unification model. Infrared IRAS fluxes are more closely correlatedwith low-resolution radio fluxes than high-resolution radio fluxes,suggesting that they are dominated by kiloparsec-scale, extranuclearemission regions; extranuclear emission may be stronger in type 2Seyferts. Early-type Seyfert galaxies tend to have stronger nuclearradio emission than late-type Seyfert galaxies. V-shaped extendedemission-line regions, indicative of `ionization cones', are usuallyfound in sources with large, collimated radio outflows. Hidden broadlines are most likely to be found in sources with powerful nuclear radiosources. Type 1 and type 2 Seyferts selected by their IRAS 12-μm fluxdensities have well-matched properties.

Hidden Broad-Line Seyfert 2 Galaxies in the CFA and 12 μM Samples
We report the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of the CfA and 12μm samples of Seyfert 2 (S2) galaxies. Polarized (hidden) broad-lineregions (HBLRs) are confirmed in a number of galaxies, and several newcases (F02581-1136, MCG -3-58-7, NGC 5995, NGC 6552, NGC 7682) arereported. The 12 μm S2 galaxy sample shows a significantly higherincidence of HBLRs (50%) than its CfA counterpart (30%), suggesting thatthe latter may be incomplete in hidden active galactic nuclei. Comparedto the non-HBLR S2 galaxies, the HBLR S2 galaxies display distinctlyhigher radio power relative to their far-infrared output and hotter dusttemperature as indicated by the f25/f60 color.However, the level of obscuration is indistinguishable between the twotypes of S2 galaxies. These results strongly support the existence oftwo intrinsically different populations of S2 galaxies: one harboring anenergetic, hidden S1 nucleus with a broad-line region and the other a``pure'' S2 galaxy, with a weak or absent S1 nucleus and a strong,perhaps dominating starburst component. Thus, the simple purelyorientation-based unification model is not applicable to all Seyfertgalaxies.

HI observations of loose galaxy groups. I. Data and global properties
At Nançay, 21-cm H I line observations were made of 15spiral-dominated loose groups of galaxies, divided into two samples: an``interacting'' sample containing at least one pair of interactinggalaxies, and a ``control'' sample having no optical evidence ofinteractions or morphological disturbances among the group members. Theinteracting sample consists of 62 galaxies representing 9 differentgroups, and the control sample contains 40 galaxies representing 6groups. Of the 91 galaxy and galaxy pairs observed, 74 were detected,while upper limits were placed on the remaining 17 objects. Thesehomogeneous H I data, which will be used in future analyses, providecomparative information on the H I content of groups and serve as aprobe of the vicinity of the target spirals for H I clouds or very lowsurface brightness gas-rich galaxies.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

The ROSAT/IRAS Galaxy Sample Revisited
Galaxies in the ROSAT/IRAS sample were selected by their soft X-ray(0.1-2.4 keV) and far-infrared (lambda = 60 μm) emission. Therelatively large uncertainties in the original ROSAT and IRAS positionscaused some contamination by close pairs and forced the exclusion ofmost ``high-flux'' (S > 10 Jy at lambda = 100 μm) IRAS sourcesfrom the original sample. We used new 1.4 GHz VLA images of all objectsnorth of delta = -45 deg along with improved X-ray and far-infraredpositions to eliminate incorrect identifications, many of which appearedto be starburst galaxies with high X-ray luminosities, log [X(ergs^-1)]> 43. We also used VLA images to search for new X-ray identificationsamong the ``high-flux'' sources with delta > -45 deg. Only two werefound, indicating that luminous starburst galaxies have relatively lowsoft X-ray luminosities, in part due to absorption by a denseinterstellar medium. No starburst galaxies in our revised sample haveX-ray luminosities approaching log [X(ergs^-1)] = 43. We conclude thatmost galaxies in the revised ROSAT/IRAS sample contain X-ray-emittingactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) residing in star-forming disks that emitmost of the lambda = 60 μm radiation. Normal and starburst galaxiesprobably do not account for a significant fraction of the soft X-raybackground.

The Interchangeability of CO and H I in the Tully-Fisher Relation
We investigate the viability and precision of using ^12CO (J = 1 -->0) emission lines from galaxies in lieu of 21 cm emission in theTully-Fisher distance indicator (TF). Here we combine CO data gatheredspecifically for Tully-Fisher analysis with I-band photometry (both newand from the literature) for cluster galaxies between 3500 and 8000 kms^-1 and compare the luminosity-line width relation using CO with theresults of recent, large TF surveys using H i and Hα. We cull someCO data as suggested by previously published numerical simulations andfind that CO line widths, with corrections for turbulence andnoise-broadening on the order of 35 km s^-1, behave identically to H iand Hα in luminosity-line width analyses. We also examine therelation between CO line shapes and other parameters of the galaxies.

Observations of (C-12)O (J = 1-0) in 44 cluster galaxies
We present (C-12)O (J = 10) (2.6 mm, 115 GHz) spectra from 44 galaxiesin clusters between 3500 and 8000 km/s. The data were obtained using theNRAO 12 m telescope at Kitt Peak. Forty galaxies are detected. We deducemolecular gas masses from the line integrated intensities and upperlimits for the four nondetections. Although the sample's first inclusioncriterion is that a source have 60 m flux greater than 350 mJy, thegalaxies in this survey are found to be neither ultraluminous in the FIRnor particularly rich in molecular gas, nor do they exhibit evidence ofinteractions. Neither the molecular gas mass nor the far-IR luminosityshows variations as functions of the galaxies' proximity to the clustercores. Because the CO line widths and central velocities agree overallwith the 21 cm widths and redshifts for these galaxies, we argue that COspectra could be used in lieu of H I spectra for Tully-Fishercalculations.

ROSAT All-Sky Survey observations of IRAS galaxies. I. Soft X-ray and far-infrared properties
The 120 000 X-ray sources detected in the RASS II processing of theROSAT All-Sky Survey are correlated with the 14 315 IRAS galaxiesselected from the IRAS Point Source Catalogue: 372 IRAS galaxies showX-ray emission within a distance of 100 arcsec from the infraredposition. By inspecting the structure of the X-ray emission in overlayson optical images we quantify the likelihood that the X-rays originatefrom the IRAS galaxy. For 197 objects the soft X-ray emission is verylikely associated with the IRAS galaxy. Their soft X-ray properties aredetermined and compared with their far-infrared emission. X-ray contourplots overlaid on Palomar Digitized Sky Survey images are given for eachof the 372 potential identifications. All images and tables displayedhere are also available in electronic form.

Molecular gas in galaxies of Hickson compact groups
We have observed 70 galaxies belonging to 45 Hickson compact groups inthe \CO{1}{0} and \CO{2}{1} lines, in order to determine their molecularcontent. We detected 57 galaxies, corresponding to a detection rate of81%. We compare the gas content relative to blue and L_FIR luminositiesof galaxies in compact groups with respect to other samples in theliterature, including various environments and morphological types. Wefind that there is some hint of enhanced MH_2/L_B andM_dust/L_B ratios in the galaxies from compact group with respect to ourcontrol sample, especially for the most compact groups, suggesting thattidal interactions can drive the gas component inwards, by removing itsangular momentum, and concentrating it in the dense central regions,where it is easily detected. The molecular gas content in compact groupgalaxies is similar to that in pairs and starburst samples. However, thetotal L_FIR luminosity of HCGs is quite similar to that of the controlsample, and therefore the star formation efficiency appears lower thanin the control galaxies. However this assumes that the FIR spatialdistributions are similar in both samples which is not the case at radiofrequencies. Higher spatial resolution FIR data are needed to make avalid comparison. Given their short dynamical friction time-scale, it ispossible that some of these systems are in the final stage beforemerging, leading to ultra-luminous starburst phases. We also find forall galaxy samples that the H_2 content (derived from CO luminosity andnormalised to blue luminosity) is strongly correlated to the L_FIRluminosity, while the total gas content (H_2+HI) is not.

Quasar Creation and Evolution into Galaxies
Building on evidence starting from 1966, X-ray observations have onceagain confirmed the association of quasars with low redshift galaxies.Enough examples of quasar-like objects ejected in opposite directionsfrom nearby, active galaxies have accumulated so that an empiricalevolutionary sequence can be outlined. The quasars start out with lowluminosity and high (z > 2) redshift. As they travel away from theirgalaxy of origin they grow in size and decay in redshift. The redshiftsdrop in steps and near the quantized values of z = 0.6, 0.3, and 0.06the quasars become particularly active, ejecting or breaking up intomany objects which evolve finally into groups and clusters of galaxies.The observations massively violate the assumptions of the Big Bang andrequire continuous, episodic creation in a non expanding universe ofindefinitely large size and age.

Recovering Galaxy Rotation Speeds from Irregular Emission Profiles
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2437L&db_key=AST

Polarimetry and modelling of narrow-line active galaxies
We present optical spectropolarimetry along with optical and infraredbroad-band filter polarimetry of selected warm [f(25 μm)/f(60μm)>=0.3] IRAS galaxies and other known Seyfert 2 galaxies. Broadlines in polarized flux have been detected in a number of type 2 IRASgalaxies. From a determination of the intrinsic polarization of thescattered radiation it has been possible to model the optical andnear-IR flux density and degrees of polarization, for a number ofobjects, with a cone-based scattering geometry. In all these cases anadditional polarizing mechanism was required to match the near-IR data,and this was successfully modelled by a dichroic view of the near-IRemitting regions through the postulated torus which surrounds the type 1core. For those objects which show broad lines in polarized flux, andfor which the intrinsic polarization of the scattered radiation could becalculated, the inclinations to the line of sight tend to be low. Thebroad Hα luminosities calculated for the IRAS galaxies are moretypical of QSOs than Seyfert 1 galaxies. Only a fraction of the IRASgalaxies observed exhibit broad lines in polarized flux indicating thateither the scattering region is also obscured, or the broad lines arethermally broadened and rendered unobservable, or the unified theory isincorrect. Evidence supporting the former case is presented.

Classification of IRAS-selected X-Ray Galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey
To explore the possibility that star-forming galaxies or obscuredSeyfert galaxies, both of which are known to be luminous infraredsources, contribute significantly to the cosmic X-ray background, wehave carried out an extensive program to obtain accurate spectroscopicclassifications of the BoIler et al. (1992) catalog of IRAS sourcesdetected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. This has involved careful opticalspectroscopy, a review of the literature, and efforts to reveal thecontaminants in the sample. Classifications have been determined for 210of the 241 X-ray sources in the catalog; 105 are presented here for thefirst time. A large number of IR/X-ray source chance coincidences arefound in this sample; of the 40-50 expected, we have identified 18firmly and have established strong cases for 29 others. Most chancecoincidences involve bright stars or Seyfert galaxies close (inprojection) to IR- bright H II galaxies. Although this work wasmotivated initially by the report that a new class of X-ray-luminous,normal spiral galaxies was to be found in this sample, we find noevidence for such a class. Most of the extragalactic X-ray sources areactive galactic nuclei (AGNs), consistent with the results of previousstudies of X-ray-selected objects. However, many of these AGNs exhibitweak or heavily reddened Seyfert features in their optical spectra. Inaddition, two rare types of AGNs are found in this sample withsurprising frequency: I Zw 1 objects (also called narrow-line Seyfert 1galaxies) and starburst/Seyfert composite galaxies, a new class ofluminous X-ray sources. We have shown that the Boller et al. object202103 - 223434 (= IRAS 20181-2244), reported to be the best example ofa narrow-line quasar, is actually a member of the I Zw 1 class. Theenigmatic starburst/Seyfert composite galaxies have optical spectradominated by the features of H II galaxies but X-ray luminositiestypical for Seyfert galaxies. Close examination of their optical spectrareveals subtle Seyfert signatures: [O III] lines broader than all otherlines in the spectrum and, in some cases, a weak, broad Hαcomponent. Obscuration of the active nucleus is likely to explain theX-ray and optical properties of these objects. We describe a scenario inwhich such optically innocuous, obscured AGNs could comprise animportant new component of the X-ray background.

Soft X-Ray Properties of Seyfert Galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey
We present the results of ROSAT All-Sky Survey observations of Seyfertand IR luminous galaxies from the extended 12 micron galaxy sample andthe optically selected CfA sample. Detections are available for 80%(44/55) of the Seyfert 1's and 34% (23/67) of the Seyfert 2's in the 12micron sample, and for 76% (26/34) of the Seyfert 1's and 38% (6/16) ofthe Seyfert 2's in the CfA sample. Roughly half of the Seyfert galaxies(mostly Seyfert 1's) have been fitted to an absorbed power-law model,yielding an average photon index of {GAMMA} = 2.26 +/- 0.11 for 43Seyfert 1's and {GAMMA} = 2.45 +/- 0.18 for 10 Seyfert 2's, with bothtypes having a median value of 2.3. The soft X-ray luminosity correlateswith the 12 micron luminosity, with Seyfert 1's having relatively moresoft X-ray emission than Seyfert 2's of similar mid-IR luminosities by afactor of 1.6 +/- 0.3. Several physical interpretations of these resultsare discussed, including the standard unified model for Seyfertgalaxies. Infrared luminous non- Seyferts are shown to have similardistributions of soft X-ray luminosity and X-ray-to-IR slope as Seyfert2's, suggesting that some of them may harbor obscured active nuclei (ashas already been shown to be true for several objects) and/or that thesoft X-rays from some Seyferts 2's may be nonnuclear. A soft X-rayluminosity function (XLF) is calculated for the 12 micron sample, whichis described well by a single power law with a slope of - 1.75. Thenormalization of this XLF agrees well with that of a hard X-ray selectedsample. Several of our results, related to the XLF and the X- ray-to-IRrelation, are shown to be consistent with the hard X-ray observations ofthe 12 micron sample by Barcons et al.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

Radio properties of spiral galaxies in high-density groups
Radio-continuum observations with the Very Large Array (VLA) of 133spiral galaxies in 68 Hickson Compact Groups are used to investigatepossible enhancement of the effects of interactions among galaxies insuch high-density groups. In most of the 56 HCG spirals that weredetected the radio radiation is confined to slightly extended nuclearregions suggestive of starburst activity. It is found that the totalradio radiation from compact group spirals is significantly lower thanfrom a comparison sample of isolated spirals. However, the radioradiation from the nuclear regions is more than 10 times that fromcomparable regions in the comparison sample. This effect is moredominant in late-type spirals than it is in early-type spirals. Theobservations are interpreted in a scenario, suggested by numericalsimulation studies by a number of authors, in which galaxy interactionsare shown to cause both massive inflows of gas towards the centres ofgalaxies and outflows from the outer regions. The resultant starformation activity at the centre leads to the formation of supernovaeand the subsequent radio radiation. On the other hand, the outflow fromthe outer regions may be expected to remove the gas and magnetic fieldsfrom the disc, resulting in reduced disc radio emission. Observations ofgaseous and molecular line distributions may be expected to providekinematic information for modelling of specific interacting systems.

The far-infrared-radio relation in cluster spiral galaxies
We present a study of the far-infrared (FIR) and radio emission in asample of group and cluster spiral galaxies. Galaxies are separated intorich and poor cluster samples based the value of the galaxy-galaxycorrelation coeffiient (Andersen & Owen 1994) of their parentcluster. Galaxies in the rich clusters have lower-FIR-radio ratios thana radio selected sample of field galaxies, while galaxies in poorclusters do not. We find that the degree of radio enhancement withrespect to FIR emission is consistent with a model where the radioemitting interstellar medium (ISM) is compressed by the ram pressure asthe galaxy moves through the intracluster medium. We suggest thatgalaxy-galaxy tidal interactions are important in the poorer clusters,but in general of much less importance in richer clusters.

Kinematics and dynamics of the MKW/AWM poor clusters
We report 472 new redshifts for 416 galaxies in the regions of the 23poor clusters of galaxies originally identified by Morgan, Kayser, andWhite (MKW), and Albert, White, and Morgan (AWM). Eighteen of the poorclusters now have 10 or more available redshifts within 1.5/h Mpc of thecentral galaxy; 11 clusters have at least 20 available redshifts. Basedon the 21 clusters for which we have sufficient velocity information,the median velocity scale is 336 km/s, a factor of 2 smaller than foundfor rich clusters. Several of the poor clusters exhibit complex velocitydistributions due to the presence of nearby clumps of galaxies. We checkon the velocity of the dominant galaxy in each poor cluster relative tothe remaining cluster members. Significantly high relative velocities ofthe dominant galaxy are found in only 4 of 21 poor clusters, 3 of whichwe suspect are due to contamination of the parent velocity distribution.Several statistical tests indicate that the D/cD galaxies are at thekinematic centers of the parent poor cluster velocity distributions.Mass-to-light ratios for 13 of the 15 poor clusters for which we havethe required data are in the range 50 less than or = M/LB(0)less than or = 200 solar mass/solar luminosity. The complex nature ofthe regions surrounding many of the poor clusters suggests that thesegroupings may represent an early epoch of cluster formation. Forexample, the poor clusters MKW7 and MKWS are shown to be gravitationallybound and likely to merge to form a richer cluster within the nextseveral Gyrs. Eight of the nine other poor clusters for which simpletwo-body dynamical models can be carried out are consistent with beingbound to other clumps in their vicinity. Additional complex systems withmore than two gravitationally bound clumps are observed among the poorclusters.

X-ray luminous non-Seyfert galaxies.
Not Available

The true nature of IRAS-selected, X-ray-luminous 'normal' galaxies in the ROSAT all-sky survey
Luminous star-forming galaxies have often been suggested as potentiallysignificant contributors to the cosmic X-ray background (XRB). Interestin this possibility has been rekindled by a recently published sample of244 IRAS/ROSAT galaxies that includes 20 with extreme X-ray luminosities(LX = 1042-44 ergs/s) that are claimed to be'normal' spiral galaxies. To investigate whether or not these 20X-ray-luminous spirals are truly normal star-forming galaxies, we havereexamined their classifications by obtaining new optical spectra of 13of them, and by locating spectra in the literature for four. Our resultsindicate that 13 of the 17 objects are previously unrecognized Seyfertgalaxies. Of the four star-forming non-Seyfert galaxies found in thissample, three are incorrectly identified as X-ray sources. Only one H IIgalaxy is a confirmed X-ray source, but it has LXapproximately equal to 1042 ergs/s and is only about twice asluminous as the most luminous normal spirals detected previously atX-ray wavelengths. Thus, there are no H II galaxies with LXsubstantially in excess of 1042 ergs/s, and claims of a newclass of X-ray-luminous spiral galaxies are not supported by this study.

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Right ascension:11h42m11.20s
Aparent dimensions:1.413′ × 0.741′

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