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The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample
Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxycatalogue (Falco et al. \cite{Falco}) we have identified 291 compactgroups (CGs) with radial velocity between 1000 and 10 000 kms-1. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Tripletsdisplay kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higherorder CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute lowvelocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population andare typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multipletsshow higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and aregenerally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating thatTriplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond todifferent galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilstMultiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected orcollapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selectioneffects can only partially account for differences, but significantcontamination of Triplets by field galaxy interlopers could eventuallyinduce the observed dependences on multiplicity. Tables 1 and 2 are onlyavailable in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/35

X-ray luminosities of galaxies in groups
We have derived the X-ray luminosities of a sample of galaxies ingroups, making careful allowance for contaminating intragroup emission.The LX:LB and LX:LFIRrelations of spiral galaxies in groups appear to be indistinguishablefrom those in other environments, however the elliptical galaxies fallinto two distinct classes. The first class is central-dominant groupgalaxies, which are very X-ray luminous and may be the focus of groupcooling flows. All other early-type galaxies in groups belong to thesecond class, which populates an almost constant band ofLX/LB over the range9.8

Radio Emission of Shakhbazian Compact Galaxy Groups
We detect 353 radio sources from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and theFIRST Survey within the areas of 179 Shakhbazian compact groups (ShCGs)of galaxies. Ninety-three of them are identified with galaxies in 74ShCGs. Six radio sources have complex structure. The radio spectra of 22sources are determined. Radio luminosities of galaxies in ShCGs are ingeneral higher than those of galaxies in Hickson compact groups (HCGs).A comparison of radio (at 1.4 GHz) and FIR (at 60 μm) fluxes of ShCGgalaxies with those of HCG galaxies shows that galaxies in ShCGs arerelatively stronger emitters at radio wavelengths, while galaxies inHCGs have relatively stronger FIR emission. The reasons for suchdifferences are discussed.

The nature of discordant redshift galaxies in compact groups
We have analysed the sample of 92 compact groups in Hickson's revisedcatalogue to investigate whether the numbers and properties of thediscordant redshift galaxies in these groups are consistent with theprojection hypothesis. The main conclusion of our analysis is that thenumbers, sizes, magnitudes and morphological types of the discordantredshift galaxies in the Hickson compact groups are as expected if theseare due to chance projections of unrelated galaxies on the groups. Thedistribution of positions for the discordant galaxies in quintets,however, is more centrally concentrated than that predicted for auniform distribution of field interlopers. One of the possibleexplanations for this discrepancy is that compact groups can act asgravitational lenses, causing the brightening of background galaxiesthat would otherwise fall below the magnitude cut-off of the group.Distances to two galaxies in the Hickson compact group 61, one of them adiscordant redshift galaxy, have been determined using the Tully-Fisherrelation. Both objects were found to be at distances consistent withtheir redshifts and an expanding Universe. All these results support theview of a cosmological origin for galaxy redshifts.

Morphology of early-type galaxies in compact groups, 2.
This is the second paper of a series in which we study the morphology ofearly-type galaxies in compact groups (CGGs). Here we present newgeometrical and luminosity profiles of a sample of 47 early-typegalaxies belonging to 16 Hickson Compact Groups. These new data,together with those of the previous work, confirm the indication thatboxy ellipticals are less frequent in compact groups than in differentenvironments. More generally, the data available up to now seem toindicate that early-type galaxies in compact groups show less signatures(perturbed profiles, nuclear dust lanes, boxiness of the isophotes) ofhaving yet experienced close encounters and merging events, with respectto galaxies in other environments. A weak indication exists that, amongCGG ellipticals, boxiness of the isophotes is moere frequent in the morecompact groups.

New evidence for mergers in compact groups of galaxies
In the (logR_e_, μ_e_) plane defined by the logarithm of theeffective radius and the effective surface brightness, ellipticalgalaxies that are members of Hickson's compact groups turn out to belongto the bright family, thus suggesting that most of them have likelyexperiences subtantial secondary evolution.

Dynamical properties of compact groups of galaxies
Radial velocities are presented for 457 galaxies in the 100 Hicksoncompact groups. More than 84 percent of the galaxies measured havevelocities within 1000 km/s of the median velocity in the group.Ninety-two groups have at least three accordant members, and 69 groupshave at least four. The radial velocities of these groups range from1380 to 42,731 km/s with a median of 8889 km/s, corresponding to amedian distance of 89/h Mpc. The apparent space density of these systemsranges from 300 to as much as 10 exp 8 sq h/sq Mpc, which exceeds thedensities in the centers of rich clusters. The median projectedseparation between galaxies is 39/h kpc, comparable to the sizes of thegalaxies themselves. A significant correlation is found between crossingtime and the fraction of gas-rich galaxies in the groups, and a weakanticorrelation is found between crossing time and the luminositycontrast of the first-ranked galaxy.

Optical colors of early-type galaxies in compact groups
UBVRI colors of a sample of 55 elliptical galaxies as well as 21 S0galaxies in Hickson compact groups are presented. Four of the ellipticalgalaxies and one of the S0 galaxies in the compact groups aresignificantly bluer than normal for early-type galaxies of theirluminosity. A population of elliptical galaxies with blue optical colorsis predicted by standard models of the evolution of galaxies in compactgroups because of the favorable conditions for interactions and mergersin these regions. The brightest of the blue elliptical galaxies has anextensive shell system; however, the other two blue elliptical galaxiesfor which there is sufficient spatial resolution show no unusualmorphological features such as tails or shells. In addition to theircolor, the primary distinguishing feature of the blue ellipticalgalaxies is their color gradient, as they tend to be bluer in the centerthan at large radii, which is contrary to the usual trend in ellipticalgalaxies.

The luminosity function of compact groups of galaxies
An analysis of the luminosity function of 68 compact groups of galaxiescataloged by Hickson (1982) is presented. The luminosities of compactgroup galaxies are consistent with their being drawn from a Schechterluminosity function. Individual morphological-type luminosity functionsare also determined. Both the total and morphological-type specificluminosity functions of compact group galaxies are significantlydifferent from those of field, loose-group, and cluster galaxies. Inparticular, the luminosity function of HCG elliptical galaxies has amean magnitude which is significantly brighter than the mean magnitudeof Virgo cluster elliptical galaxies. The mean luminosity density ofgalaxies in compact groups is estimated. The obtained result isconsistent with the conventional scenario in which compact groups mergeto form elliptical galaxies on a relatively short time scale.

A photometric catalog of compact groups of galaxies
The paper presents astrometry, photometry, and morphological types,derived from CCD images, for 463 galaxies in the 100 compact groupsselected by Hickson. Some minor revisions to the membership of theoriginal catalog are made, based on these new images. The completenessof the catalog is considered as a function of group magnitude andGalactic latitude. At high Galactic latitude the catalog is estimated tobe 90 percent complete for groups with total B(T) magnitude 13.0 orless. It is less complete at lower Galactic latitude because ofobscuration and high stellar density.

Neutral hydrogen in compact groups of galaxies
Integrated H I profiles were detected for 34 of 51 Hickson compactgroups (HCGs) of galaxies, and sensitive upper limits to the H I fluxdensity were measured for the other 17. About 60 percent of the galaxieswithin compact groups are spirals, and a significant tendency exists forthe fraction of elliptical galaxies to increase with group surfacebrightness. The amount of dark matter within the compact group region isnegligibly small. An HCG on average contains half as much neutralhydrogen as a loose group with a similar spectrum of galaxy luminositiesand morphological types, implying that compact groups are independentdynamical entities and not transient or projected configurations ofloose groups. The observed fraction of galaxies which are luminousenough to be possible merger products of compact groups is smallcompared with the fraction required by the theory of dynamical friction.A clear discrepancy thus exists between solid empirical evidence and astraightforward prediction of Newtonian dynamical theory in a settingwhich does not permit a dark matter explanation.

A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.

Radio sources in dense groups
In order to investigate effects of galaxy environment on radio emission,88 compact groups of galaxies were observed, with densities as high asone million galaxies per cu Mpc, at a wavelength of 18 cm at the VLA.Forty-one sources were found above a flux limit of 1.5 mJy, with roughlyequal frequency in all galaxy types. Elliptical galaxies with detectableradio emission are almost always the first-ranked galaxies in opticalluminosity. They are less luminous than typical rich cluster radiogalaxies, are coincident with the optical nucleus, and do not showextended structure. Radio sources occurring in spiral galaxies show nostrong preference for optical rank. It is argued that this is strongevidence that the galaxy environment on large scales plays a crucialrole in the development and fueling of nuclear radio sources.

Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II - A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area.
The present catalog of 2096 galaxies within an area of about 140 sq degapproximately centered on the Virgo cluster should be an essentiallycomplete listing of all certain and possible cluster members,independent of morphological type. Cluster membership is essentiallydecided by galaxy morphology; for giants and the rare class of highsurface brightness dwarfs, membership rests on velocity data. While 1277of the catalog entries are considered members of the Virgo cluster, 574are possible members and 245 appear to be background Zwicky galaxies.Major-to-minor axis ratios are given for all galaxies brighter than B(T)= 18, as well as for many fainter ones.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:11h22m30.00s
Aparent dimensions:1.175′ × 0.661′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 3653

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