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|[O II] as a Star Formation Rate Indicator|
We investigate the [O II] emission line as a star formation rate (SFR)indicator using integrated spectra of 97 galaxies from the Nearby FieldGalaxies Survey (NFGS). The sample includes all Hubble types andcontains SFRs ranging from 0.01 to 100 Msolaryr-1. We compare the Kennicutt [O II] and Hα SFRcalibrations and show that there are two significant effects thatproduce disagreement between SFR([O II]) and SFR(Hα): reddeningand metallicity. Differences in the ionization state of the interstellarmedium do not contribute significantly to the observed differencebetween SFR([O II]) and SFR(Hα) for the NFGS galaxies withmetallicities log(O/H)+12>~8.5. The Kennicutt [O II]-SFR relationassumes a typical reddening for nearby galaxies; in practice, thereddening differs significantly from sample to sample. We derive a newSFR([O II]) calibration that does not contain a reddening assumption.Our new SFR([O II]) calibration also provides an optional correction formetallicity. Our SFRs derived from [O II] agree with those derived fromHα to within 0.03-0.05 dex. We show that the reddening, E(B-V),increases with intrinsic (i.e., reddening-corrected) [O II] luminosityfor the NFGS sample. We apply our SFR([O II]) calibration withmetallicity correction to two samples: high-redshift 0.8
|The Hα and Infrared Star Formation Rates for the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey|
We investigate the Hα and infrared star formation rate (SFR)diagnostics for galaxies in the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (NFGS). Forthe 81 galaxies in our sample, we derive Hα fluxes (included here)from integrated spectra. There is a strong correlation between the ratioof far-infrared to optical luminosities L(FIR)/L(Hα) and theextinction E(B-V) measured with the Balmer decrement. Before reddeningcorrection, the SFR(IR) and SFR(Hα) are related to each other by apower law: SFR(IR)=(2.7+/-0.3)SFR(Hα)1.30+/-0.06.Correction of the SFR(Hα) for extinction using the Balmerdecrement and a classical reddening curve both reduces the scatter inthe SFR(IR)-SFR(Hα) correlation and results in a much closeragreement between the two SFR indicators;SFR(IR)=(0.91+/-0.04)SFR(Hαcorr)1.07+/-0.03.SFR(IR) and SFR(Hα) agree to ~10%. This SFR relationship spans 4orders of magnitude and holds for all Hubble types with IRAS detectionsin the NFGS. A constant ratio between the SFR(IR) and SFR(Hα) forall Hubble types, including early types (S0-Sab), suggests that the IRemission in all these objects results from a young stellar population.
|Starbursts versus Truncated Star Formation in Nearby Clusters of Galaxies|
We present long-slit spectroscopy, B- and R-bandpass imaging, and 21 cmobservations of a sample of early-type galaxies in nearby clusters,which are known to be either in a star-forming phase or to have had starformation that recently terminated. From the long-slit spectra, obtainedwith the Blanco 4 m telescope, we find that emission lines in thestar-forming cluster galaxies are significantly more centrallyconcentrated than in a sample of field galaxies. The broadband imagingreveals that two currently star-forming early-type galaxies in thePegasus I cluster have blue nuclei, again indicating that recent starformation has been concentrated. In contrast, the two galaxies for whichstar formation has already ended show no central color gradient. ThePegasus I galaxy with the most evident signs of ongoing star formation(NGC 7648), exhibits signatures of a tidal encounter. Neutral hydrogenobservations of that galaxy with the Arecibo radio telescope reveal thepresence of ~4×108 Msolar of H I. Areciboobservations of other current or recent star-forming early-type galaxiesin Pegasus I indicate smaller amounts of gas in one of them, and onlyupper limits in others. These observations indicate that NGC 7648 in thePegasus I cluster owes its present star formation episode to some formof tidal interaction. The same may be true for the other galaxies withcentralized star formation, but we cannot rule out the possibility thattheir outer disks have been removed via ram pressure stripping, followedby rapid quenching of star formation in the central region.
|Spectrophotometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data|
We have obtained integrated and nuclear spectra as well as U, B, Rsurface photometry for a representative sample of 196 nearby galaxies.These galaxies span the entire Hubble sequence in morphological type, aswell as a wide range of luminosities (MB=-14 to -22). Here wepresent the spectrophotometry for these galaxies. The selection of thesample and the U, B, R surface photometry is described in a companionpaper. Our goals for the project include measuring the current starformation rates and metallicities of these galaxies, and elucidatingtheir star formation histories, as a function of luminosity andmorphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt to lower luminositysystems. We anticipate that our study will be useful as a benchmark forstudies of galaxies at high redshift. We describe the observing, datareduction, and calibration techniques and demonstrate that ourspectrophotometry agrees well with that of Kennicutt. The spectra spanthe range 3550-7250 Å at a resolution (FWHM) of ~6 Å andhave an overall relative spectrophotometric accuracy of ~+/-6%. Wepresent a spectrophotometric atlas of integrated and nuclear rest-framespectra as well as tables of equivalent widths and synthetic colors. Theatlas and tables of measurements will be made available electronically.We study the correlations of galaxy properties determined from thespectra and images. Our findings include: (1) galaxies of a givenmorphological class display a wide range of continuum shapes andemission-line strengths if a broad range of luminosities are considered,(2) emission-line strengths tend to increase and continua tend to getbluer as the luminosity decreases, and (3) the scatter on the generalcorrelation between nuclear and integrated Hα emission-linestrengths is large.
|Surface Photometry of Nearby Field Galaxies: The Data|
We have obtained integrated spectra and multifilter photometry for arepresentative sample of ~200 nearby galaxies. These galaxies span theentire Hubble sequence in morphological type, as well as a wide range ofluminosities (MB=-14 to -22) and colors (B-R=0.4-1.8). Herewe describe the sample selection criteria and the U, B, R surfacephotometry for these galaxies. The spectrophotometric results will bepresented in a companion paper. Our goals for the project includemeasuring the current star formation rates and metallicity of thesegalaxies, and elucidating their star formation histories, as a functionof luminosity and morphology. We thereby extend the work of Kennicutt tolower luminosity systems. We anticipate that our study will be useful asa benchmark for studies of galaxies at high redshift. We discuss theobserving, data reduction, and calibration techniques and show that ourphotometry agrees well with previous work in those cases in whichearlier data are available. We present an atlas of images, radialsurface brightness profiles, and color profiles as well as tables ofderived parameters. The atlas and tables of measurements will be madeavailable electronically. We study the correlations of galaxy propertiesdetermined from the galaxy images. Our findings include the following:(1) colors determined within the effective radius correlate better withmorphological type than with MB and (2) 50% of thelow-luminosity galaxies are bluest in their centers.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|The extended 12 micron galaxy sample|
We have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns.
|H I 21 centimeter observations and I-band CCD surface photometry of spiral galaxies behind the Virgo Cluster and toward its antipode|
Sample selection, radio and optical data acquisition and reduction, andobservation results are presented for spiral galaxies behind the VirgoCluster and toward its antipode. I-band CCD photometry was obtained forall the bright galaxies and part of the sample of faint galaxies in thetwo local volumes was studied. The statistical properties of the galaxysamples are discussed.
|A survey of small-scale extremes in extinction at low Galactic latitudes using IRAS galaxies|
Optical CCD and 21 cm H I data are combined here via the Tully-Fisherrelation to study the Galactic extinction in the V an I bands over anangular scale of a few arcmin at absolute Galactic latitudes between 2and 16 deg. Extinctions in V and I bands are found to be linearlycorrelated with A(I) about 0.58 A(V), with no noticeable environmentaldependence and consistent with existing results of Galactic reddening.There is a large scatter in the simple linear relation with csc /b/,confirming the existence of 'holes' and patches at low Galacticlatitudes. The mean correlation between Galactic extinction and H Icolumn density over a comparable angular scale is also found to beconsistent with those at high latitudes over large angular scales.Correlation is also found between optical extinction and the IRAS 100micron sky brightness, and this sky brightness is only slightly worsethan H I column density as an indicator for optical extinction.
|The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog|
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.
|Observations of galaxies in groups at 102 MHz|
Observations of 325 galaxies in groups were carried out at a frequencyof 102 MHz via the scintillation method. Radio emission was found in 42of these components. Eleven of these have a meridional component.
|High signal-to-noise ratio observations of H I in 243 galaxies|
The 21 cm spectral-line system of the Arecibo Observatory was used tomeasure neutral hydrogen emission from 243 faint galaxies. Most lie nearthe plane of the Local Supercluster. All observations reach anunsmoothed signal-to-noise ratio of at least 7.0; the average for theset is 23. The resulting data are used to estimate H I masses, systemicvelocities, and accurate profile widths at 20 percent, 25 percent, 50percent, and 80 percent of peak intensity levels. The widths are used tocalibrate directly the bias introduced by popular data-smoothingoperation. The data include observations of 65 objects with previouslyunknown redshifts.
|Radial velocities of galaxies in the neighborhood of groups of galaxies. III|
New determinations of the radial velocities for 31 galaxies in theneighborhood of groups of galaxies are reported. The observations aredescribed, and data are given for the galaxies in a table, including thenumber of spectra used, the radial velocity of each galaxy corrected forthe motion of the sun and the earth, the internal error in themeasurement, estimates of the quality of the spectra, the spectral linesused in the calculation of the velocities, the radial velocitiesdetermined by other authors, and the membership of the objects ingalactic systems. The data from other authors are used to determine thereal (external) accuracy of the present determinations, and goodagreement is found.
|Investigation of the Galaxies from the Byurakan Classification at a Frequency of 102-MHZ|
|A search for environmental effects on the optical properties of galaxies in groups|
Environmental density-related modifications of basic optical properties(luminosities, sizes, axial ratios, and colors) of galaxies belonging toGeller and Huchra's (1983) groups have been investigated. Remarkably, itis found that the broad maxima of the distributions of luminosities anddiameters of spirals and the whole corresponding distributions oflenticulars tend to move to lower values as one goes to groups of highcompactness, whereas the luminosity-diameter relationship of spiralstends to become flatter. No color and axial ratio differences betweengalaxies of high- and low-compactness groups have been detected.
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
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