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The Infrared Ca II Triplet as Metallicity Indicator
From observations of almost 500 red giant branch stars in 29 Galacticopen and globular clusters, we have investigated the behavior of theinfrared Ca II triplet (8498, 8542, and 8662 Å) in the age range13 Gyr<=age<=0.25 Gyr and the metallicity range-2.2<=[Fe/H]<=+0.47. These are the widest ranges of ages andmetallicities in which the behavior of the Ca II triplet lines has beeninvestigated in a homogeneous way. We report the first empirical studyof the variation of the Ca II triplet lines' strength, for givenmetallicities, with respect to luminosity. We find that the sequencedefined by each cluster in the luminosity-ΣCa plane is not exactlylinear. However, when only stars in a small magnitude interval areobserved, the sequences can be considered as linear. We have studied theCa II triplet lines on three metallicity scales. While a linearcorrelation between the reduced equivalent width(W'V or W'I) and metallicityis found in the Carretta & Gratton and Kraft & Ivans scales, asecond-order term needs to be added when the Zinn & West scale isadopted. We investigate the role of age from the wide range of agescovered by our sample. We find that age has a weak influence on thefinal relationship. Finally, the relationship derived here is used toestimate the metallicities of three poorly studied open clusters:Berkeley 39, Trumpler 5, and Collinder 110. For the latter, themetallicity derived here is the first spectroscopic estimate available.

Stellar Populations in the Outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud: No Outer Edge Yet
We report the detection of intermediate-age and old stars belonging tothe SMC at 6.5 kpc from the SMC center in the southern direction. Weshow, from the analysis of three high-quality34'×33' CMDs, that the age composition ofthe stellar population is similar at galactocentric distances of ~4.7,~5.6, and ~6.5 kpc. The surface brightness profile of the SMC follows anexponential law, with no evidence of truncation, all the way out to 6.5kpc. These results, taken together, suggest that the SMC ``disk''population is dominating over a possible old Milky Way-like stellar haloand that the SMC may be significantly larger than previously thought.

Near-infrared observations of the Fornax dwarf galaxy. I. The red giant branch
Aims.We present a study of the evolved stellar populations in the dwarfspheroidal galaxy Fornax based on wide-area near-infrared observations,aimed at obtaining new independent estimates of its distance andmetallicity distribution. Assessing the reliability of near-infraredmethods is most important in view of future space- and ground-based deepnear-infrared imaging of resolved stellar systems. Methods: We haveobtained JHK imaging photometry of the stellar populations in Fornax.The observations cover an 18.5×18.5 arcmin2 centralarea with a mosaic of SOFI images at the ESO NTT. Our data sample allthe red giant branch (RGB) for the whole area. Deeeper observationsreaching the red clump of helium-burning stars have also been obtainedfor a 4.5×4.5 arcmin2 region. Results: Near-infraredphotometry led to measurements of the distance to Fornax based on theK-band location of the RGB tip and the red clump. Once corrected for themean age of the stellar populations in the galaxy, the derived distancemodulus is (m-M)0 = 20.74±0.11, corresponding to adistance of 141 Kpc, in good agreement with estimates from optical data.We have obtained a photometric estimate of the mean metallicity of redgiant stars in Fornax from their (J-K) and (V-K) colors, using severalmethods. The effect of the age-metallicity degeneracy on the combinedoptical-infrared colors is shown to be less important than for opticalor infrared colors alone. By taking age effects into account, we havederived a distribution function of global metallicity [M/H] fromoptical-infrared colors of individual stars. Our photometric MetallicityDistribution Function covers the range -2.0 < [M/H] < -0.6, with amain peak at [M/H]≃ -0.9 and a long tail of metal-poor stars, andless metal-rich stars than derived by recent spectroscopy. Ifmetallicities from Ca II triplet lines are correct, this result confirmsa scenario of enhanced metal enrichment in the last 1-4 Gyr.Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile, Proposals No. 65.N-0167, 66.B-0247. Full Tables 2 and 3 are onlyavailable in electronic format at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/467/1025

Where the Blue Stragglers Roam: Searching for a Link between Formation and Environment
The formation of blue stragglers is still not completely understood,particularly the relationship between formation environment andmechanism. We use a large, homogeneous sample of blue stragglers in thecores of 57 globular clusters to investigate the relationships betweenblue straggler populations and their environments. We use a consistentdefinition of ``blue straggler'' based on position in thecolor-magnitude diagram and normalize the population relative to thenumber of red giant branch stars in the core. We find that thepreviously determined anticorrelation between blue straggler frequencyand total cluster mass is present in the purely core population. We findsome weak anticorrelations with central velocity dispersion and withhalf-mass relaxation time. The blue straggler frequency does not showany trend with any other cluster parameter. Even though collisions maybe expected to be a dominant blue straggler formation process inglobular cluster cores, we find no correlation between the frequency ofblue stragglers and the collision rate in the core. We also investigatedthe blue straggler luminosity function shape and found no relationshipbetween any cluster parameter and the distribution of blue stragglers inthe color-magnitude diagram. Our results are inconsistent with somerecent models of blue straggler formation that include collisionalformation mechanisms and may suggest that almost all observed bluestragglers are formed in binary systems.

Different Characteristics of the Bright Branches of the Globular Clusters M15 and M92
We carried out relatively wide-field BVI CCD photometric observations ofthe globular clusters M15 (NGC 7078) and M92 (NGC 6341) using the 1.8 mtelescope of the Bohyun Optical Astronomy Observatory. We presentcolor-magnitude diagrams (V vs. B-V, V vs. V-I, and V vs. B-I) of M15and M92. We found asymptotic giant branch (AGB) bumps atVbumpAGB=15.20+/-0.05 mag andVbumpAGB=14.50+/-0.05 mag for M15 and M92,respectively. We identified the red giant branch (RGB) bumps of the twoclusters. We have estimated the population ratios R and R2for M15 and M92 in two cases: when only normal horizontal-branch (HB)stars are used and when all the HB stars are used. We have compared theobserved RGB luminosity functions of M15 and M92 with the theoreticalRGB luminosity functions of Bergbusch & VandenBerg and found nosignificant ``extra stars'' in the comparisons. This implies that the HBmorphology difference between M15 and M92 is not certain due to theresults of deep mixing in the RGB sequence.

RR Lyrae stars in the southern globular cluster NGC 362
Aims.NGC 362 is a bright southern globular cluster in the foreground ofthe Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), for which no extensive variabilitysurvey has ever been done. Finding regularly pulsating RR Lyrae stars inthe cluster can lead to improved metallicity and distance estimates ofthe system, while other types of variable objects may be used to confirmthe results. Methods: Time-series CCD photometric observations havebeen obtained. Light curves have been derived with both profile fittingphotometry and image subtraction. We developed a simple method toconvert flux phase curves to magnitudes, which allows the use ofempirical light curve shape vs. physical parameters calibrations.Periods and light curve parameters of the detected variable stars havebeen determined with Fourier analysis, phase dispersion minimization andstring-length minimization. Using the RR Lyrae metallicity andluminosity calibrations, we have determined the relative iron abundancesand absolute magnitudes of the stars. The color-magnitude diagram hasbeen fitted with Yale-Yonsei isochrones to determine reddening anddistance independently. For five RR Lyrae stars we obtained radialvelocity measurements from optical spectra. Results: We found 45 RR Lyrstars, of which the majority are new discoveries. While most of them arecluster members, as shown by their radial velocities and positions inthe color-magnitude diagram, we also see a few stars in the galacticfield and in the outskirts of the SMC. About half of the RR Lyraesexhibit light curve changes (Blazhko effect). The RR Lyrae-basedmetallicity of the cluster is [Fe/H]=-1.16±0.25, the meanabsolute magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars is M_V=0.82±0.04 magimplying a distance of 7.9±0.6 kpc. The mean period of RRab starsis 0.585±0.081 days. These properties place NGC 362 among theOosterhoff type I globular clusters. The isochrone fit implies aslightly larger distance of 9.2±0.5 kpc and an age of 11±1Gyr. We also found 11 eclipsing binaries, 14 pulsating stars of othertypes, including classical Cepheids in the SMC and 15 variable starswith no firm classification. Conclusions: .NGC 362 hosts a large numberof RR Lyrae stars, which makes the cluster a potentially important testobject for studying the Blazhko effect in a chemically homogeneousenvironment.Section 7 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgPhotometric data is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/463/589

K-band magnitude of the red clump as a distance indicator
We have investigated how the K-band magnitude of the red clump [M_K(RC)]depends on age and metallicity, using 2MASS infrared data for a sampleof 24 open clusters with known distances. We show that a constant valueof M_K(RC)=-1.57 ± 0.05 is a reasonable assumption to use indistance determinations for clusters with metallicity between -0.5 and+0.4 dex and age between 108.5 and 109.9 years.Figures 8 and 9 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Integrated-Light Two Micron All Sky Survey Infrared Photometry of Galactic Globular Clusters
We have mosaicked Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images to derivesurface brightness profiles in J, H, and Ks for 104 Galacticglobular clusters. We fit these with King profiles and show that thecore radii are identical to within the errors for each of these IRcolors and are identical to the core radii at V in essentially allcases. We derive integrated-light colors V-J, V-H, V-Ks, J-H,and J-Ks for these globular clusters. Each color shows areasonably tight relation between the dereddened colors and metallicity.Fits to these are given for each color. The IR - IR colors have verysmall errors, due largely to the all-sky photometric calibration of the2MASS survey, while the V-IR colors have substantially largeruncertainties. We find fairly good agreement with measurements ofintegrated-light colors for a smaller sample of Galactic globularclusters by M. Aaronson, M. Malkan, and D. Kleinmann from 1977. Ourresults provide a calibration for the integrated light of distantsingle-burst old stellar populations from very low to solarmetallicities. A comparison of our dereddened measured colors withpredictions from several models of the integrated light of single-burstold populations shows good agreement in the low-metallicity domain forV-Ks colors but also shows an offset at a fixed [Fe/H] of~0.1 mag in J-Ks, which we ascribe to photometric systemtransformation issues. Some of the models fail to reproduce the behaviorof the integrated-light colors of the Galactic globular clusters nearsolar metallicity.

The Orbits of 48 Globular Clusters in a Milky Way-like Barred Galaxy
The effect of a barred potential (such as the one of the Milky Way) onthe Galactic orbits of 48 globular clusters for which absolute propermotions are known is studied. The orbital characteristics are comparedwith those obtained for the case of an axisymmetric Galactic potential.Tidal radii are computed and discussed for both the better knownaxisymmetric case and that including a bar. The destruction rates due tobulge and disk shocking are calculated and compared in both Galacticpotentials.

Stellar Populations and Mass Loss in M15: A Spitzer Space Telescope Detection of Dust in the Intracluster Medium
We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of theGalactic globular cluster M15 (NGC 7078), one of the most metal-poorclusters, with a [Fe/H]=-2.4. Our Spitzer images reveal a population ofdusty red giants near the cluster center, a previously detectedplanetary nebula designated K648, and a possible detection of theintracluster medium arising from mass-loss episodes from the evolvedstellar population. Our analysis suggests that(9+/-2)×10-4 Msolar of dust is present inthe core of M15, and that this material has accumulated over a period of~106 yr, a timescale 10 times shorter than the last Galacticplane crossing event. We also present Spitzer IRS follow-up observationsof K648, including the detection of the [Ne II] 12.81 μm line, anddiscuss abundances derived from infrared fine-structure lines.

Global fitting of globular cluster age indicators
Context: .Stellar models and the methods for the age determinations ofglobular clusters are still in need of improvement. Aims: .Weattempt to obtain a more objective method of age determination based oncluster diagrams, avoiding the introduction of biases due to thepreference of one single age indicator. Methods: .We compute newstellar evolutionary tracks and derive the dependence of age indicatingpoints along the tracks and isochrone - such as the turn-off or bumplocation - as a function of age and metallicity. The same criticalpoints are identified in the colour-magnitude diagrams of globularclusters from a homogeneous database. Several age indicators are thenfitted simultaneously, and the overall best-fitting isochrone isselected to determine the cluster age. We also determine thegoodness-of-fit for different sets of indicators to estimate theconfidence level of our results. Results: .We find that ourisochrones provide no acceptable fit for all age indicators. Inparticular, the location of the bump and the brightness of the tip ofthe red giant branch are problematic. On the other hand, the turn-offregion is very well reproduced, and restricting the method to indicatorsdepending on it results in trustworthy ages. Using an alternative set ofisochrones improves the situation, but neither leads to an acceptableglobal fit. Conclusions: .We conclude that evolutionary tracks oflow-mass metal-poor stars are far from reproducing all aspects ofglobular cluster colour-magnitude diagrams and that the determination ofcluster ages still depends on the favourite method or indicator chosen.

Dynamical Formation of Close Binaries in Globular Clusters: Cataclysmic Variables
We answer the long-standing question of which production mechanism isresponsible for the cataclysmic variables (CVs) in globular clusters.Arguments have been given that range from mostly primordial presence toa significant contribution of later dynamical formation in close stellarencounters. We conclude, based on a thorough analysis of a homogeneousChandra data set, that the majority of CVs in dense globular clustershave a dynamical origin.

Manganese Abundances in Cluster and Field Stars
We have derived Mn abundances for more than 200 stars in 19 globularclusters. In addition, Mn abundance determinations have been made for acomparable number of halo field and disk stars possessing an overlappingrange of metallicities and stellar parameters. Our primary data set wascomprised of high-resolution spectra previously acquired at theMcDonald, Lick, and Keck Observatories. To enlarge our data pool, weacquired globular and open cluster spectra from several otherinvestigators. Data were analyzed using synthetic spectra of the 6000Å Mn I triplet. Hyperfine structure parameters were included inthe synthetic spectra computations. Our analysis shows that for themetallicity range -0.7>[Fe/H]>-2.7, stars of 19 globular clustershave a mean relative abundance of <[Mn/Fe]>=-0.37+/-0.01(σ=0.10), a value in agreement with that of the field stars,<[Mn/Fe]>=-0.36+/-0.01 (σ=0.08). Despite the 2 orders ofmagnitude span in metallicity, the <[Mn/Fe]> ratio remainsconstant in both stellar populations. Our Mn abundance data indicatethat there is no appreciable variation in the relative nucleosyntheticcontribution from massive stars that undergo core-collapse supernovaeand thus no significant change of the associated initial mass functionin the specified metallicity range.

Multivariate analysis of globular cluster horizontal branch morphology: searching for the second parameter
Aims.The interpretation of globular cluster horizontal branch (HB)morphology is a classical problem that can significantly blur ourunderstanding of stellar populations. Methods: .We present a newmultivariate analysis connecting the effective temperature extent of theHB with other cluster parameters. The work is based on Hubble SpaceTelescope photometry of 54 Galactic globular clusters. Results: .The present study reveals the important role of the total mass of theglobular cluster on its HB morphology. More massive clusters tend tohave HBs more extended to higher temperatures. For a set of three inputvariables including the temperature extension of the HB, [Fe/H] and M_V,the first two eigenvectors account for 90% of the total samplevariance. Conclusions: . Possible effects of clusterself-pollution on HB morphology, stronger in more massive clusters,could explain the results derived here.

CN Abundance Inhomogeneities in the Globular Cluster Messier 13 (NGC 6205): Results Based on Merged Data Sets from the Literature
The globular cluster Messier 13 (NGC 6205) has been shown by a number ofdifferent studies to be chemically inhomogeneous with regard to elementsranging from C through Al. A database of λ3883 CN-band indices,carbon, oxygen, and sodium abundances for red giants in M13 has beencompiled and homogenized from a variety of literature sources. The dataare used to document the distribution of CN band strength among both redgiant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars brighter thanMV=+0.8, as well as the relationships between the CNinhomogeneities and the dispersions in other elements. The CNdistribution among the M13 RGB stars is bimodal, although a fewintermediate-CN red giants are present in the cluster. The AGB starsshow uniformly weak CN bands. The spread in CN band strength, onceempirically corrected for effective temperature and gravity differencesamong the red giants, is very well correlated with the sodium abundanceand is anticorrelated with oxygen. Above MV=+0.8, the carbonabundance of red giants decreases with increasing luminosity, as firstfound by N. Suntzeff. There is a rather modest anticorrelation betweenCN band strength and [C/Fe] among RGB stars of comparable magnitude. Theabundance patterns within M13 can be interpreted as a primordial (orpre-RGB phase) abundance spread, coupled with the later effects of deepmixing within the red giants. In the CN-weak giants and those CN-strongstars with [O/Fe]~-0.2+/-0.2 dex on the upper RGB, deep mixing seems tohave been limited largely to the dredge-up of C-->N-processedmaterial. By contrast, there are some M13 stars, most notably a group ofvery oxygen-deficient giants near the RGB tip, but perhaps also afraction of CN-strong giants with lesser oxygen depletions, in whichsome measure of O-->N-processed material also appears to have beenbrought to the surface.

A Large Stellar Evolution Database for Population Synthesis Studies. II. Stellar Models and Isochrones for an α-enhanced Metal Distribution
We present a large, new set of stellar evolution models and isochronesfor an α-enhanced metal distribution typical of Galactic halo andbulge stars; it represents a homogeneous extension of our stellar modellibrary for a scaled-solar metal distribution already presented byPietrinferni et al. The effect of the α-element enhancement hasbeen properly taken into account in the nuclear network, opacity,equation of state, and for the first time in the bolometric correctionsand color transformations. This allows us to avoid the inconsistentuse-common to all α-enhanced model libraries currentlyavailable-of scaled-solar bolometric corrections and colortransformations for α-enhanced models and isochrones. We show howbolometric corrections to magnitudes obtained for the U, B portion ofstellar spectra for Teff<=6500 K are significantlyaffected by the metal mixture, especially at the higher metallicities.Our models cover both an extended mass range (between 0.5 and 10Msolar, with a fine mass spacing) and a broad metallicityrange, including 11 values of the metal mass fraction Z, correspondingto the range -2.6<=[Fe/H]<=0.05. The initial He mass fraction isY=0.245 for the most metal-poor models, and it increases with Z,according to ΔY/ΔZ=1.4. Models with and without theinclusion of overshoot from the convective cores during the centralH-burning phase are provided, as well as models with different mass lossefficiencies. We also provide complete sets of evolutionary models forlow-mass, He-burning stellar structures cover the whole metallicityrange. This database, used in combination with our scaled-solar modellibrary, is a valuable tool for investigating both Galactic andextragalactic simple and composite stellar populations, using stellarpopulation synthesis techniques.

An Empirical Calibration of the Mixing-Length Parameter α
We present an empirical calibration of the mixing-length free parameterα based on a homogeneous infrared database of 28 Galactic globularclusters spanning a wide metallicity range (-2.15<[Fe/H]<-0.2).Empirical estimates of the red giant effective temperatures have beenobtained from infrared colors. Suitable relations linking thesetemperatures to the cluster metallicity have been obtained and comparedto theoretical predictions. An appropriate set of models for the Sun andPopulation II giants has been computed by using both the standard solarmetallicity (Z/X)solar=0.0275 and the most recently proposedvalue (Z/X)solar=0.0177. We find that when the standard solarmetallicity is adopted, a unique value of α=2.17 can be used toreproduce both the solar radius and the Population II red gianttemperature. Conversely, when the new solar metallicity is adopted, twodifferent values of α are required: α=1.86 to fit the solarradius and α~2.0 to fit the red giant temperatures. However, itmust be noted that regardless the adopted solar reference, theα-parameter does not show any significant dependence onmetallicity.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla, Chile. Also based on observations made with the ItalianTelescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma bythe Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale diAstrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos ofthe Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

Na-O anticorrelation and HB. I. The Na-O anticorrelation in NGC 2808
We derived the atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances of Fe, O,and Na for about 120 red giant stars in the Galactic globular clusterNGC 2808. Our results are based on the analysis of medium-highresolution (R=22 000{-}24 000) GIRAFFE spectra acquired with the FLAMESspectrograph at VLT-UT2 as a part of a project aimed at studying theNa-O anticorrelation as a function of physical parameters in globularclusters. We present the anticorrelation of Na and O abundances in NGC2808 here, and discuss the distribution function of stars along thisrelation. Besides a bulk of O-normal stars with the typical compositionof field halo stars, NGC 2808 seems to host two other groups of O-poorand super O-poor stars. In this regard, NGC 2808 is similar to M 13, thetemplate cluster for the Na-O anticorrelation. However, in contrast to M13, most stars in NGC 2808 are O-rich. This might be related to thehorizontal branch morphologies that are very different in these twoclusters. The average metallicity we found for NGC 2808 is [Fe/H]=-1.10(rms = 0.065 dex, from 123 stars). We also found some evidence of asmall intrinsic spread in metallicity, but more definitive conclusionsare hampered by the presence of a small differential reddening.

Chemical Compositions of Red Giant Stars in Old Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters
We have observed 10 red giant stars in four old Large Magellanic Cloudglobular clusters with the high-resolution spectrograph MIKE on theMagellan Landon Clay 6.5 m telescope. The stars in our sample have up to20 elemental abundance determinations for the α-, iron peak, andneutron-capture element groups. We have also derived abundances for thelight odd-Z elements Na and Al. We find NGC 2005 and NGC 2019 to be moremetal-rich than previous estimates from the Ca II triplet, and we derive[Fe/H] values closer to those obtained from the slope of the red giantbranch. However, we confirm previous determinations for Hodge 11 and NGC1898 to within 0.2 dex. The LMC cluster [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] ratios arecomparable to the values observed in old Galactic globular clusterstars, as are the abundances [Y/Fe], [Ba/Fe], and [Eu/Fe]. The LMCclusters do not share the low-Y behavior observed in some dwarfspheroidal galaxies. [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [V/Fe] in the LMC, however,are significantly lower than what is seen in the Galactic globularcluster system. Neither does the behavior of [Cu/Fe] as a function of[Fe/H] in our LMC clusters match the trend seen in the Galaxy, stayinginstead at a constant value of roughly -0.8. Because not all[α/Fe] ratios are suppressed, these abundance ratios cannot beattributed solely to the injection of Type Ia supernova material andinstead reflect the differences in star formation history of the LMCversus the Milky Way. An extensive numerical experimental study wasperformed, varying both input parameters and stellar atmosphere models,to verify that the unusual abundance ratios derived in this study arenot the result of the adopted atomic parameters, stellar atmospheres, orstellar parameters. We conclude that many of the abundances in the LMCglobular clusters we observed are distinct from those observed in theMilky Way, and these differences are intrinsic to the stars in thosesystems.

Globular cluster system and Milky Way properties revisited
Aims.Updated data of the 153 Galactic globular clusters are used toreaddress fundamental parameters of the Milky Way, such as the distanceof the Sun to the Galactic centre, the bulge and halo structuralparameters, and cluster destruction rates. Methods: .We build areduced sample that has been decontaminated of all the clusters youngerthan 10 Gyr and of those with retrograde orbits and/or evidence ofrelation to dwarf galaxies. The reduced sample contains 116 globularclusters that are tested for whether they were formed in the primordialcollapse. Results: .The 33 metal-rich globular clusters([Fe/H]≥-0.75) of the reduced sample basically extend to the Solarcircle and are distributed over a region with the projected axial-ratiostypical of an oblate spheroidal, Δ x:Δ y:Δz≈1.0:0.9:0.4. Those outside this region appear to be related toaccretion. The 81 metal-poor globular clusters span a nearly sphericalregion of axial-ratios ≈1.0:1.0:0.8 extending from the central partsto the outer halo, although several clusters in the external regionstill require detailed studies to unravel their origin as accretion orcollapse. A new estimate of the Sun's distance to the Galactic centre,based on the symmetries of the spatial distribution of 116 globularclusters, is provided with a considerably smaller uncertainty than inprevious determinations using globular clusters, R_O=7.2±0.3 kpc.The metal-rich and metal-poor radial-density distributions flatten forR_GC≤2 kpc and are represented well over the full Galactocentricdistance range both by a power-law with a core-like term andSérsic's law; at large distances they fall off as ˜R-3.9. Conclusions: .Both metallicity components appearto have a common origin that is different from that of the dark matterhalo. Structural similarities between the metal-rich and metal-poorradial distributions and the stellar halo are consistent with a scenariowhere part of the reduced sample was formed in the primordial collapseand part was accreted in an early period of merging. This applies to thebulge as well, suggesting an early merger affecting the central parts ofthe Galaxy. The present decontamination procedure is not sensitive toall accretions (especially prograde) during the first Gyr, since theobserved radial density profiles still preserve traces of the earliestmerger(s). We estimate that the present globular cluster populationcorresponds to ≤23±6% of the original one. The fact that thevolume-density radial distributions of the metal-rich and metal-poorglobular clusters of the reduced sample follow both a core-likepower-law, and Sérsic's law indicates that we are dealing withspheroidal subsystems at all scales.

Optical/near-infrared colours of early-type galaxies and constraints on their star formation histories
We introduce and discuss the properties of a theoretical (B-K)(J-K)integrated colour diagram for single-age, single-metallicity stellarpopulations. We show how this combination of integrated colours is ableto largely disentangle the well-known age-metallicity degeneracy whenthe age of the population is greater than ~300Myr, and thus providesvaluable estimates of both age and metallicity of unresolved stellarsystems. We discuss in detail the effect on this colour-colour diagramof α-enhanced metal abundance ratios (typical of the oldestpopulations in the Galaxy), the presence of blue horizontal branch starsunaccounted for in the theoretical calibration and of statistical colourfluctuations in low-mass stellar systems. In the case of populationswith multiple stellar generations, the luminosity-weighted mean ageobtained from this diagram is shown to be heavily biased towards theyoungest stellar components. We then apply this method to several datasets for which optical and near-infrared photometry are available in theliterature. We find that Large Magellanic Cloud and M31 clusters havecolours which are consistent with the predictions of the models, butthese do not provide a sensitive test due to the fluctuations which arepredicted by our modelling of the Poisson statistics in such low-masssystems. For the two Local Group dwarf galaxies NGC 185 and 6822, themean ages derived from the integrated colours are consistent with thestar formation histories inferred independently from photometricobservations of their resolved stellar populations.The methods developed here are applied to samples of nearby early-typegalaxies with high-quality aperture photometry in the literature. Asample of bright field and Virgo cluster elliptical galaxies is found toexhibit a range of luminosity-weighted mean ages from 3 to 14Gyr, with amean of ~8Gyr, independent of environment, and mean metallicities at orjust above the solar value. Colour gradients are found in all of thegalaxies studied, in the sense that central regions are redder. Apartfrom two radio galaxies, where the extreme central colours are clearlydriven by the active galactic nucleus, and one galaxy which also shows aradial age gradient, these colour changes appear consistent withmetallicity changes at a constant mean age. Finally, aperture data forfive Virgo early-type dwarf galaxies show that these galaxies appear tobe shifted to lower mean metallicities and lower mean ages (range1-6Gyr) than their higher luminosity counterparts.

Abundances in Red Giant Stars of NGC 2808 and Correlations between Chemical Anomalies and Global Parameters in Globular Clusters
We present the abundance analysis of stars from the tip of the red giantbranch (RGB) to below the RGB bump in the globular cluster NGC 2808based on high-resolution echelle spectra. We derive abundances of Al,α-process elements (Si I, Ca I, Ti I, and Ti II), and Fe-groupelements (Sc II, V I, Cr I, Cr II, Mn I, Co I, and Ni I). Apart from Mgbeing somewhat reduced, likely because it has been depleted at theexpense of Al in the MgAl cycle, the other α-element ratios showthe overabundance typical of halo stars of similar metallicity. Mn isunderabundant, whereas Fe-group elements have typical abundance ratiosnear the solar value. We detect star-to-star differences in Alabundances from the RGB tip down to the faintest star below the RGBbump, correlated with Na abundances at all luminosities. The slope ofthe Na-Al correlation is similar to the one found in M13 by Sneden etal., but it is different from those in other globular clusters ofsimilar metallicity. We find that the amount of chemical inhomogeneitiesalong the Na-O and Mg-Al anticorrelations in globular cluster red giantsis correlated with the present-day cluster mass and ellipticity.Moreover, we find for the first time a correlation between the spread inproton-capture elements and orbital parameters of clusters. The chemicalanomalies are more extended in clusters having large-sized orbits andlonger periods and those with larger inclination angles of the orbitwith respect to the Galactic plane.Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile,during the FLAMES Science Verification program with the Ultraviolet andVisual Echelle Spectrograph at the VLT-UT2.

Nearby Spiral Globular Cluster Systems. I. Luminosity Functions
We compare the near-infrared (JHK) globular cluster luminosity functions(GCLFs) of the Milky Way, M31, and the Sculptor Group spiral galaxies.We obtained near-infrared photometry with the Persson's AuxiliaryNasmyth Infrared Camera on the Baade Telescope for 38 objects (mostlyglobular cluster candidates) in the Sculptor Group. We also havenear-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)-6Xdatabase for 360 M31 globular cluster candidates and aperture photometryfor 96 Milky Way globular cluster candidates from the 2MASS All-Sky andSecond Incremental Release databases. The M31 6X GCLFs peak at absolutereddening-corrected magnitudes of MJ0=-9.18,MH0=-9.73, and MK0=-9.98.The mean brightness of the Milky Way objects is consistent with that ofM31 after accounting for incompleteness. The average Sculptor absolutemagnitudes (correcting for relative distance from the literature andforeground reddening) are MJ0=-9.18,MH0=-9.70, and MK0=-9.80.NGC 300 alone has absolute foreground-dereddened magnitudesMJ0=-8.87, MH0=-9.39, andMK0=-9.46 using the newest Gieren et al. distance.This implies either that the NGC 300 GCLF may be intrinsically fainterthan that of the larger galaxy M31 or that NGC 300 may be slightlyfarther away than previously thought. Straightforward application of ourM31 GCLF results as a calibrator gives NGC 300 distance moduli of26.68+/-0.14 using J, 26.71+/-0.14 using H, and 26.89+/-0.14 using K.Data for this project were obtained at the Baade 6.5 m telescope, LasCampanas Observatory, Chile.

Central energy equipartition in multimass models of globular clusters
In the construction of multimass King-Michie models of globularclusters, an approximated central energy equipartition between stars ofdifferent mass is usually imposed by scaling the velocity parameter ofeach mass class inversely with the stellar mass, as if the distributionfunction were isothermal. In this paper, this `isothermal approximation'has been checked and its consequences on the model parameters studied bya comparison with models including central energy equipartitioncorrectly. It is found that, under the isothermal approximation, the`temperatures' of a pair of components can differ to a non-negligibleamount for low concentration distributions. It is also found that, ingeneral, this approximation leads to a significantly reduced masssegregation in comparison with that given under the exact energyequipartition at the centre. As a representative example, an isotropicthree-component model fitting a given projected surface brightness andline-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles is discussed. In thisexample, the isothermal approximation gives a cluster envelope much moreconcentrated (central dimensionless potential W= 3.3) than under thetrue equipartition (W= 5.9 × 10-2), as well as a highermass function logarithmic slope. As a consequence, the inferred totalmass (and then the global mass-to-light ratio) is a factor of 1.4 timeslower than the correct value and the amount of mass in heavy darkremnants is 3.3 times smaller. Under energy equipartition, the fate ofstars having a mass below a certain limit is to escape from the system.This limit is derived as a function of the mass and W of the componentof giant and turn-off stars.

RR Lyrae-based calibration of the Globular Cluster Luminosity Function
We test whether the peak absolute magnitude MV(TO) of theGlobular Cluster Luminosity Function (GCLF) can be used for reliableextragalactic distance determination. Starting with the luminosityfunction of the Galactic Globular Clusters listed in Harris catalogue,we determine MV(TO) either using current calibrations of theabsolute magnitude MV(RR) of RR Lyrae stars as a function ofthe cluster metal content [Fe/H] and adopting selected cluster samples.We show that the peak magnitude is slightly affected by the adoptedMV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation, with the exception of that based onthe revised Baade-Wesselink method, while it depends on the criteria toselect the cluster sample. Moreover, grouping the Galactic GlobularClusters by metallicity, we find that the metal-poor (MP) ([Fe/H]<-1.0, <[Fe/H]>~-1.6) sample shows peak magnitudes systematicallybrighter by about 0.36mag than those of the metal-rich (MR) ([Fe/H]>-1.0, (<[Fe/H]>~-0.6) one, in substantial agreement with thetheoretical metallicity effect suggested by synthetic Globular Clusterpopulations with constant age and mass function. Moving outside theMilky Way, we show that the peak magnitude of the MP clusters in M31appears to be consistent with that of Galactic clusters with similarmetallicity, once the same MV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation is used fordistance determination. As for the GCLFs in other external galaxies,using Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) measurements we giveevidence that the luminosity functions of the blue (MP) GlobularClusters peak at the same luminosity within ~0.2mag, whereas for the red(MR) samples the agreement is within ~0.5mag even accounting for thetheoretical metallicity correction expected for clusters with similarages and mass distributions. Then, using the SBF absolute magnitudesprovided by a Cepheid distance scale calibrated on a fiducial distanceto Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we show that the MV(TO)value of the MP clusters in external galaxies is in excellent agreementwith the value of both Galactic and M31 ones, as inferred by an RR Lyraedistance scale referenced to the same LMC fiducial distance. Eventually,adopting μ0(LMC) = 18.50mag, we derive that the luminosityfunction of MP clusters in the Milky Way, M31, and external galaxiespeak at MV(TO) =-7.66 +/- 0.11, - 7.65 +/- 0.19 and -7.67 +/-0.23mag, respectively. This would suggest a value of -7.66 +/- 0.09mag(weighted mean), with any modification of the LMC distance modulusproducing a similar variation of the GCLF peak luminosity.

Stellar mass loss and the intracluster medium in Galactic globular clusters: a deep radio survey for HI and OH
We present the results of a survey, the deepest to date, for HI emissionat 21 cm and OH emission at 18 cm (lines at 1612, 1665, 1667 and 1720MHz) in the direction towards the Galactic globular clusters M15, M2,NGC6934, NGC7006 and Pal13. The aim is to measure the amount of hydrogenin the intracluster medium, and to find OH masers in the circumstellarenvelopes of globular cluster red giants. We present a tentativedetection of 0.3Msolar of neutral hydrogen in M15 andpossible detections of neutral hydrogen in M2 and Pal13. We derive upperlimits to the neutral hydrogen content of NGC6934 and 7006. No OHemission is detected. We also present deep HI data of the northern tipof the Magellanic Stream behind Pal13.

Hot Populations in M87 Globular Clusters
To explore the production of UV-bright stars in old, metal-richpopulations like those in elliptical galaxies, we have obtained HubbleSpace Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph far- andnear-UV photometry of globular clusters (GCs) in four fields in thegiant elliptical (gE) galaxy M87. To a limit of mFUV~25 wedetect a total of 66 GCs in common with the deep HST optical-band studyof Kundu et al. Despite strong overlap in V- and I-band properties, theM87 GCs have UV-optical properties that are distinct from clusters inthe Milky Way and in M31. M87 clusters, especially metal-poor ones,produce larger hot horizontal-branch populations than do Milky Wayanalogs. In color plots including the near-UV band, the M87 clustersappear to represent an extension of the Milky Way sequence. Cluster massis probably not a factor in these distinctions. The most metal-rich M87GCs in our sample are near solar metallicity and overlap the local Egalaxy sample in estimated Mg2 line indices. Nonetheless, theclusters produce much more UV light at a given Mg2, being upto 1 mag bluer than any gE galaxy in (FUV-V) color. The M87 GCs do notappear to represent a transition between Milky Way-type clusters and Egalaxies. The differences are in the correct sense if the clusters aresignificantly older than the E galaxies.Comparisons with Galactic open clusters indicate that the hot stars lieon the extreme horizontal branch, rather than being blue stragglers, andthat the extreme horizontal branch becomes well populated for ages>~5 Gyr. Existing model grids for clusters do not match theobservations well, due to poorly understood giant branch mass loss orperhaps high helium abundances. We find that 41 of our UV detectionshave no optical-band counterparts. Most appear to be UV-brightbackground galaxies seen through M87. Eleven near-UV variable sourcesdetected at only one epoch in the central field are probably classicalnovae. Two recurrent variable sources have no obvious explanation butcould be related to activity in the relativistic jet.

Color functions of stellar systems
Model calculations of the photometric evolution of rather dense stellarsystems, such as globular clusters, are presented. On“luminosity-effective temperature” diagrams of thesesystems, low-mass stars are concentrated near the minimum and maximumtemperatures for a given luminosity and are deficient in theintermediate region. This sort of double-peaked distribution of thestars can be avoided in open models with ejection of excess metals intothe surrounding medium. The distributions of the stars with respect toeffective temperature on a “ luminosity-effectivetemperature” diagram are sensitive to the history of starformation in the system and to possible time variations in the initialmass function. In open systems with a single-peak distribution function,the asymmetry in the distribution varies over wide limits with the lowerbound for the initial mass function and this can be used to establishwhether the first generations of stars might have been more massive thanin the present epoch.

A comprehensive survey of variable stars in the globular cluster NGC 362.
We present the first results of our variability survey for the globularcluster NGC 362. We found numerous variable stars in the field including23 RR Lyr stars, 4 eclipsing binaries and 5 other pulsating stars. Fourof the RR Lyrae stars are located behind the cluster, possibly in thefarthest extensions of the SMC.

Resolved Massive Star Clusters in the Milky Way and Its Satellites: Brightness Profiles and a Catalog of Fundamental Parameters
We present a database of structural and dynamical properties for 153spatially resolved star clusters in the Milky Way, the Large and SmallMagellanic Clouds, and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal. This databasecomplements and extends others in the literature, such as those ofHarris and Mackey & Gilmore. Our cluster sample comprises 50 ``youngmassive clusters'' in the LMC and SMC, and 103 old globular clustersbetween the four galaxies. The parameters we list include central andhalf-light-averaged surface brightnesses and mass densities; core andeffective radii; central potentials, concentration parameters, and tidalradii; predicted central velocity dispersions and escape velocities;total luminosities, masses, and binding energies; central phase-spacedensities; half-mass relaxation times; and ``κ-space'' parameters.We use publicly available population-synthesis models to computestellar-population properties (intrinsic B-V colors, reddenings, andV-band mass-to-light ratios) for the same 153 clusters plus another 63globulars in the Milky Way. We also take velocity-dispersionmeasurements from the literature for a subset of 57 (mostly old)clusters to derive dynamical mass-to-light ratios for them, showing thatthese compare very well to the population-synthesis predictions. Thecombined data set is intended to serve as the basis for futureinvestigations of structural correlations and the fundamental plane ofmassive star clusters, including especially comparisons between thesystemic properties of young and old clusters.The structural and dynamical parameters are derived from fitting threedifferent models-the modified isothermal sphere of King; an alternatemodified isothermal sphere based on the ad hoc stellar distributionfunction of Wilson; and asymptotic power-law models withconstant-density cores-to the surface-brightness profile of eachcluster. Surface-brightness data for the LMC, SMC, and Fornax clustersare based in large part on the work of Mackey & Gilmore, but includesignificant supplementary data culled from the literature and importantcorrections to Mackey & Gilmore's V-band magnitude scale. Theprofiles of Galactic globular clusters are taken from Trager et al. Weaddress the question of which model fits each cluster best, finding inthe majority of cases that the Wilson models-which are spatially moreextended than King models but still include a finite, ``tidal'' cutoffin density-fit clusters of any age, in any galaxy, as well as or betterthan King models. Untruncated, asymptotic power laws often fit about aswell as Wilson models but can be significantly worse. We argue that theextended halos known to characterize many Magellanic Cloud clusters maybe examples of the generic envelope structure of self-gravitating starclusters, not just transient features associated strictly with youngage.

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Right ascension:01h03m14.27s
Apparent magnitude:6.6

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NGC 2000.0NGC 362

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