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|Evolution of Star-forming and Active Galaxies in Nearby Clusters|
We have used optical spectroscopy to investigate the active galaxypopulations in a sample of 20 nearby Abell clusters. The targets wereidentified on the basis of 1.4 GHz radio emission, which identifies themas either active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or galaxies forming stars atrates comparable to or greater than that of the Milky Way. The spectrawere used to characterize the galaxies via their emission and absorptionfeatures. The spectroscopy results reveal a significant population ofstar-forming galaxies with large amounts of nuclear dust extinction.This extinction eliminates bluer emission lines such as [O II] from thespectra of these galaxies, meaning their star formation could easily beoverlooked in studies that focus on such features. Around 20% of thecluster star-forming galaxies have spectra of this type. The radialdistributions of active galaxies in clusters show a strong segregationbetween star-forming galaxies and AGNs, with star-forming galaxiesbroadly distributed and AGNs preferentially in the cluster cores. Theradial distribution of the dusty star-forming galaxies is more centrallyconcentrated than the star-forming galaxies in general, which arguesthat they are a consequence of some cluster environmental effect.Furthermore, we note that such galaxies may be identified using their4000 Å break strengths. We find that discrepancies in reportedradio luminosity functions for AGNs are likely the result ofclassification differences. There exists a large population of clustergalaxies whose radio fluxes, far-infrared fluxes, and optical magnitudessuggest their radio emission may be powered by stars yet whose spectralack emission lines. Understanding the nature of these galaxies iscritical to assessing the importance of AGNs in the radio luminosityfunction at low luminosities. We also find that regardless of thispopulation, the crossover point where the radio luminosity function iscomposed equally of star-forming galaxies and AGNs occurs at lowerluminosities in clusters than in the field. This is likely a simpleconsequence of the reduction in star formation in cluster galaxies andthe morphological mix in clusters compared with the field.Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory(APO) 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the AstrophysicalResearch Consortium.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|The Radio Galaxy Populations of Nearby Northern Abell Clusters|
We report on the use of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to identify radiogalaxies in 18 nearby Abell clusters. The listings extend from the coresof the clusters out to radii of 3 h-175 Mpc, whichcorresponds to 1.5 Abell radii and approximately 4 orders of magnitudein galaxy density. To create a truly useful catalog, we have collectedoptical spectra for nearly all of the galaxies lacking public velocitymeasurements. Consequently, we are able to discriminate between thoseradio galaxies seen in projection on the cluster and those that are inactuality cluster members. The resulting catalog consists of 329 clusterradio galaxies plus 138 galaxies deemed foreground or backgroundobjects, and new velocity measurements are reported for 273 of theseradio galaxies. The motivation for the catalog is the study of galaxyevolution in the cluster environment. The radio luminosity function is apowerful tool in the identification of active galaxies, as it isdominated by star-forming galaxies at intermediate luminosities andactive galactic nuclei (AGNs) at higher luminosities. The flux limit ofthe NVSS allows us to identify AGNs and star-forming galaxies down tostar formation rates less than 1 Msolar yr-1. Thissensitivity, coupled with the all-sky nature of the NVSS, allows us toproduce a catalog of considerable depth and breadth. In addition tothese data, we report detected infrared fluxes and upper limits obtainedfrom IRAS data. It is hoped that this database will prove useful in anumber of potential studies of the effect of environment on galaxyevolution. Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache PointObservatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by theAstrophysical Research Consortium (ARC).
|Investigation of galaxies in and near the cluster A1185|
Results of optical, radio, and submillimeter studies of the nearbygalaxy cluster A1185 are presented. Coordinates have been obtained for115 galaxies that are either cluster members or field galaxies in thedirection of A1185. Radio spectra for a number of galaxies in thiscluster have been derived using observations on the RATAN-600 radiotelescope at 2.7, 3.9, 7.6, 13, and 31 cm, together with data publishedin other studies. At the cluster center, some of the galaxies haveeither flat or inverted spectra. The vast majority of the galaxiesdisplay a uniform brightness distribution; i.e., they do not show anysigns of structure. Sixty-four percent of the galaxies are elliptical,and 31% are spherical. The total number of blue galaxies is 22%.
|The Dynamics of Poor Systems of Galaxies|
We assemble and observe a sample of poor galaxy systems that is suitablefor testing N-body simulations of hierarchical clustering and otherdynamical halo models. We (1) determine the parameters of the densityprofile rho(r) and the velocity dispersion profile sigma_p(R), (2)separate emission-line galaxies from absorption-line galaxies, examiningthe model parameters and as a function of spectroscopic type, and (3)for the best-behaved subsample, constrain the velocity anisotropyparameter, beta, which determines the shapes of the galaxy orbits. Oursample consists of 20 systems, 12 of which have extended X-ray emissionin the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. We measure the 877 optical spectra ofgalaxies brighter than m_R~15.4 within 1.5 h^-1 Mpc of the systemcenters (we take H_0=100 h km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thus, we sample the systemmembership to a radius typically three times larger than other recentoptical group surveys. The average system population is 30 galaxies, andthe average line-of-sight velocity dispersion is ~300 km s^-1. TheNavarro, Frenk, & White universal profile and the Hernquist modelboth provide good descriptions of the spatial data. In most cases anisothermal sphere is ruled out. Systems with declining sigma_p(R) arewell-matched by theoretical profiles in which the star-forming galaxieshave predominantly radial orbits (beta>0) many of these galaxies areprobably falling in for the first time. There is significant evidencefor spatial segregation of the spectroscopic classes regardless ofsigma_p(R).
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The Lumpy Cluster Abell 1185|
Abell 1185, a richness class 1 cluster of galaxies (cz = 9800 km s^-1^),has kinematic and x-ray substructure. We measure 39 new velocities inits field, bringing the known cluster population to 82 galaxies within1.4 h^-1^ Mpc of the cluster center. The sample has a depth of m_R_ ~15.8, and no substantial spatial bias. In addition to the optical datawe reanalyze a deep (11459 s) Einstein x-ray observation. Clumps in thevelocity distribution of A1185 are localized on the sky. The Dressler-Shectman test confirms the existence of subclumps with >99%confidence. X-ray emission from the cluster also appears complex;contributions from individual galaxies within A1185 are detectable. Thebrightest unresolved x-ray source coincides with an elliptical galaxywhich contains an active LINER nucleus. Throughout the paper we defineH_0_= 100 h km s^-1^ Mpc^- -1^, and unless otherwise indicated, weassume h = 1.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies|
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.
|The far-infrared-radio relation in cluster spiral galaxies|
We present a study of the far-infrared (FIR) and radio emission in asample of group and cluster spiral galaxies. Galaxies are separated intorich and poor cluster samples based the value of the galaxy-galaxycorrelation coeffiient (Andersen & Owen 1994) of their parentcluster. Galaxies in the rich clusters have lower-FIR-radio ratios thana radio selected sample of field galaxies, while galaxies in poorclusters do not. We find that the degree of radio enhancement withrespect to FIR emission is consistent with a model where the radioemitting interstellar medium (ISM) is compressed by the ram pressure asthe galaxy moves through the intracluster medium. We suggest thatgalaxy-galaxy tidal interactions are important in the poorer clusters,but in general of much less importance in richer clusters.
|The kinematics of dense clusters of galaxies. I - The data|
We have measured redshifts in the fields of the 31 R greater than 1Abell clusters with z of 0.02-0.05 and absolute b exp II above 30 deg.At least ten of the fields are severely contaminated by superimposedvelocity peaks. We derive the mean velocities and velocity dispersionsof the 25 dense peaks in the sample. The abundance of peaks, 6.6 x 10exp -6 h-cubed Mpc exp -3, is consistent with the mean number density ofR above 1 Abell clusters. The range of velocity dispersions is 304-1346km/s. The median dispersion is 718 km/s. The subset of eight systemswith cD galaxies has a median velocity dispersion of 792 km/s, close tothat of non-cD systems (626 km/s). When these data are combined with 16cD cluster velocity dispersions from our previous study (Zabludoff etal., 1990, or ZHG) and Dunn (1991), eight of 25 cD galaxies havepeculiar motions larger than half the cluster velocity dispersions.These findings further support the conclusions of Beers and Geller(1983), ZHG, and Dunn (1991), who argue that cD galaxies do not lie inthe global kinematic center, but in local potential minima. If so,systems with speeding cD's are probably a guide to substructure indynamically evolving systems.
|The surface brightness test for the expansion of the universe. III - Reduction of data for the several brightest galaxies in clusters to standard conditions and a first indication that the expansion is real|
Petrosian radii, effective radii, apparent magnitudes, and averagesurface brightnesses are presented for the first few ranked galaxies in56 nearby clusters and groups. The correlations between (SB) and both Mand R are derived from the data, and a selection effect that imitates aTolman signal in these data but which is an artifact of the sample isdiscussed. Correction procedures are applied to the high-redshift galaxysample of Djorgovski and Spinrad (1981), and a well-defined Tolmansignal is found in the data. Although this appears to be strong proofthat the universe expands and therefore that the conventionalinterpretation of the redshift is correct, the reliability of theconclusion is cautioned. Methods to optimize the Tolman test in futureobservational programs are discussed.
|A dynamical analysis of twelve clusters of galaxies|
Four-hundred-twenty-eight new redshift measurements for galaxies in thevicinity of 12 Abell clusters are presented. The data are supplementedby previously published data with 3 deg of each cluster center. Thecluster selection, the variety of telescopes and instrumentation used toobtain the galaxy redshifts, and the available X-ray observations arediscussed. Each cluster is exmained in some detail, with the emphasisplaced on the nature of the observed velocity distributions. Robust andresistant estimators of the velocity location and scale are applied inorder to quantify these distributions. The offset in velocity space ofthe dominant galaxy in each cluster or subcluster is considered withrespect to the central location in the velocity space of the cluster asa whole, and the physical implications of significant offsets found inseveral clusters are discussed. Dynamical estimates of the masses ofclusters and/or subclusters are obtained; for clearly bimodal systems,two-body models are employed to specify their likely dynamical state.
|Associations between quasi-stellar objects and galaxies|
A table is presented here listing all close pairs of QSOs and galaxiesthat were found in a computer-aided search of catalogs of QSOs andbright galaxies and an extensive search of the literature. There is alarge excess of pairs with separations of 2 arcmin lor less, or about 60kpc, over the numbers expected if the configurations were accidental.The angular separation for 392 pairs adds to the evidence for physicalassociation, and it is shown that selection effects are not important. Ageneral rule is stated that QSOs tend to lie in the vicinity of normalgalaxies much more often than is expected by chance whether or not thegalaxies and the QSOs have the same redshifts. It is emphasized thatthis rule cannot be explained in terms of gravitational microlensing,and it is concluded that some part of the redshift of all classes ofactive nuclei is not associated with the expansion of the universe.
|Groups of galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey|
By applying the Huchra and Geller (1982) objective group identificationalgorithm to the Center for Astrophysics' redshift survey, a catalog of128 groups with three or more members is extracted, and 92 of these areused as a statistical sample. A comparison of the distribution of groupcenters with the distribution of all galaxies in the survey indicatesqualitatively that groups trace the large-scale structure of the region.The physical properties of groups may be related to the details oflarge-scale structure, and it is concluded that differences among groupcatalogs may be due to the properties of large-scale structures andtheir location relative to the survey limits.
|The structure of brightest cluster members. II - Mergers|
Surface photometry of 342 bright elliptical galaxies in 103 clusters isanalyzed for evidence of mergers. Structural differences betweenbrightest cluster members (BCMs) and normal ellipticals can besummarized as having enlarged characteristic radii and shallow profileslopes (beta greater than -1.7). Profile morphology criteria for theelliptical types gE, D, and cD are outlined. Comparison of observationswith numerical simulations of mergers strongly suggests a past historyof dynamical growth for BCMs. Weak correlations of global clusterproperties to BCMs supports the hypothesis proposed by Merritt (1984)that mergers are important in early subgroups before virialization andformation of a cluster identity.
|A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies|
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.
|Neutral hydrogen in starburst galaxies|
A survey of neutral-hydrogen 21 cm emission from a sample of starburstgalaxies was conducted in order to derive their global properties. Ofthe 72 galaxies surveyed, H I was detected in 47. Average mass-to-lightratios log (MH/Lpg) = -0.7 + or - 0.4 and log (MT/Lpg) = 0.5 + or - 0.4.The masses and luminosities span the range 10 to the 10th-12th solarmasses and 10 to the 9th-11th solar luminosities, typical of normal latespirals. The starburst activity, as measured by the luminosity of theH-alpha line, correlates roughly with the mass of atomic hydrogen, thetotal mass, and the total photographic luminosity of the host galaxy. Itis suggested that the occurrence of a nuclear starburst and the strengthof such an event probably do not depend strongly on the large-scaleproperties of the galaxy.
|A catalog of Markarian galaxies|
A catalog of Markarian galaxies is presented which tabulates redshifts,spectral and morphological classifications, magnitudes, infrared andradio flux densities, and over 600 references to available datapublished before January 1, 1986. Redshifts are now available for 1228objects with strong ultraviolet continua, and follow-up spectroscopicand photometric observations of Markarian galaxies have providedclassifications of 115 Seyfert 1, 43 Seyfert 2, and 137 starburst and HII-type galaxies. After a description of the Markarian survey and thecurrent catalog, a summary of the general results obtained from the datais presented. A preliminary study of the infrared properties ofMarkarian galaxies as measured by IRAS reveals a number of interestingresults, including the existence of a sample of elliptical andlenticular galaxies with appreciable infrared emission.
|On the relation of Markarian galaxies with Zwicky clusters. I - Data|
In the area covered by the survey of Markarian et al. (1967-1981) andthe CGCG of Zwicky et al. (1961-1968) there are 1344 Markarian galaxies,of which 597 are positioned inside the contours of Zwicky clusters. Dataon these galaxies and respective clusters are presented in differenttables, according to whether they are galaxies which are members ofclusters, or probable or possible members; projection cases areconsidered separately.
|Spectra of galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. V|
The results are given of spectral observations of 88 objects from thelists of galaxies with ultraviolet continuum; the observations were madeusing the 6-m telescope. Most of the investigated galaxies exhibitemission lines in the red and blue regions of the spectrum. The redshifts and luminosities of all the galaxies have been determined. Fourof the galaxies exhibit Seyfert features. Two of them - Markaryan 670and 822 - are classified as type 2 Seyferts, and the other two Markaryan864 and 1400 - as type 1 Seyferts.
|Cluster galaxies with Seyfert properties|
At least four of the Seyfert galaxies listed in the Zwicky catalog (NGC1275, Mrk 298, Mrk 423, III Zw 77) belong to rich Abell clusters. Thisproportion would agree with the relative abundance of cluster membersand field galaxies if both populations have the same percentage ofSeyferts. The Seyferts in clusters may form a special subgroup ofobjects, differing from other Seyferts in their morphological propertiesand perhaps their line-broadening mechanism.
|A catalog of morphological types in 55 rich clusters of galaxies|
Data are presented from a study of 55 rich clusters of galaxies. Thedata include positions, morphological types, estimated total magnitudes,bulge sizes, and ellipticities for about 6000 galaxies, as determinedfrom high scale photographic plates. Data reduction procedures aredescribed, and a brief analysis of cluster richness, which indicatesthat Abell richness classes are only rough indicators of total clustermembership, is included.
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