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Magnetic Fields in Starburst Galaxies and the Origin of the FIR-Radio Correlation
We estimate minimum energy magnetic fields (Bmin) for asample of galaxies with measured gas surface densities, spanning morethan four orders of magnitude in surface density, from normal spirals toluminous starbursts. We show that the ratio of the minimum energymagnetic pressure to the total pressure in the ISM decreasessubstantially with increasing surface density. For the ultraluminousinfrared galaxy Arp 220, this ratio is ~10-4. Therefore, ifthe minimum energy estimate is applicable, magnetic fields in starburstsare dynamically weak compared to gravity, in contrast to normalstar-forming spiral galaxies. We argue, however, that rapid cooling ofrelativistic electrons in starbursts invalidates the minimum energyestimate. We assess a number of independent constraints on the magneticfield strength in starburst galaxies. In particular, we argue that theexistence of the FIR-radio correlation implies that the synchrotroncooling timescale for cosmic-ray electrons is much shorter than theirescape time from the galactic disk; this in turn implies that the truemagnetic field in starbursts is significantly larger thanBmin. The strongest argument against such large fields isthat one might expect starbursts to have steep radio spectra indicativeof strong synchrotron cooling, which is not observed. However, we showthat ionization and bremsstrahlung losses can flatten the nonthermalspectra of starburst galaxies even in the presence of rapid cooling,providing much better agreement with observed spectra. We furtherdemonstrate that ionization and bremsstrahlung losses are likely to beimportant in shaping the radio spectra of most starbursts at GHzfrequencies, thereby preserving the linearity of the FIR-radiocorrelation. We thus conclude that magnetic fields in starbursts aresignificantly larger than Bmin. We highlight severalobservations that can test this conclusion.

Molecular Gas, Kinematics, and OB Star Formation in the Spiral Arms of the Southern Milky Way
The rotation curve for the fourth Galactic quadrant within the solarcircle is derived from the Columbia University-Universidad de Chile CO(J=1-->0) survey of molecular gas. A new sampling, 4 times denser inlongitude than in our previous analysis, is used to compute kinematicalparameters that require derivatives with respect to galactocentricradius, the angular velocity Ω(R), the epicyclic frequencyκ(R), and the parameters A(R) and B(R) describing, respectively,gas shear and vorticity. The face-on surface density of molecular gas iscomputed from the CO data in galactocentric radial bins for thesubcentral vicinity, the same spectral region used to derive therotation curve, where the twofold ambiguity in kinematical distances isminimum. The rate of massive star formation per unit area is derived forthe same radial bins from the luminosity of IRAS pointlike sources withFIR colors of UC H II regions detected in the CS (J=2-->1) line.Massive star formation occurs preferentially in three regions of highmolecular gas density, coincident with lines of sight tangent to spiralarms. The molecular gas motion in these arms resembles that of a solidbody, characterized by constant angular velocity and by low shear andvorticity. The formation of massive stars in the arms follows theSchmidt law, ΣMSFR~[Σgas]n,with an index of n=1.2+/-0.2. Our results suggest that the large-scalekinematics, through shear, regulate global star formation in theGalactic disk.

Low-Luminosity Active Galaxies and Their Central Black Holes
Central black hole masses for 117 spiral galaxies representingmorphological stages S0/a through Sc and taken from the largespectroscopic survey of Ho et al. are derived using Ks-banddata from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Black hole masses are foundusing a calibrated black hole-Ks bulge luminosity relation,while bulge luminosities are measured by means of a two-dimensionalbulge-disk decomposition routine. The black hole masses are correlatedagainst a variety of parameters representing properties of the nucleusand host galaxy. Nuclear properties such as line width (FWHM [N II]), aswell as emission-line ratios (e.g., [O III]/Hβ, [O I]/Hα, [NII]/Hα, and [S II]/Hα), show a very high degree ofcorrelation with black hole mass. The excellent correlation with linewidth supports the view that the emission-line gas is in virialequilibrium with either the black hole or bulge potential. The very goodemission-line ratio correlations may indicate a change in ionizingcontinuum shape with black hole mass in the sense that more massiveblack holes generate harder spectra. Apart from theinclination-corrected rotational velocity, no excellent correlations arefound between black hole mass and host galaxy properties. Significantdifferences are found between the distributions of black hole masses inearly-, mid-, and late-type spiral galaxies (subsamples A, B, and C) inthe sense that early-type galaxies have preferentially larger centralblack holes, consistent with observations that Seyfert galaxies arefound preferentially in early-type systems. The line width distributionsshow a marked difference among subsamples A, B, and C in the sense thatearlier type galaxies have larger line widths. There are also cleardifferences in line ratios between subsamples A+B and C that likely arerelated to the level of ionization in the gas. Finally, aKs-band Simien & de Vaucouleurs diagram shows excellentagreement with the original B-band relation, although there is a largedispersion at a given morphological stage.

How large are the bars in barred galaxies?
I present a study of the sizes (semimajor axes) of bars in discgalaxies, combining a detailed R-band study of 65 S0-Sb galaxies withthe B-band measurements of 70 Sb-Sd galaxies from Martin (1995). As hasbeen noted before with smaller samples, bars in early-type (S0-Sb)galaxies are clearly larger than bars in late-type (Sc-Sd) galaxies;this is true both for relative sizes (bar length as fraction ofisophotal radius R25 or exponential disc scalelength h) andabsolute sizes (kpc). S0-Sab bars extend to ~1-10 kpc (mean ~ 3.3 kpc),~0.2-0.8R25 (mean ~ 0.38R25) and ~0.5-2.5h (mean ~1.4h). Late-type bars extend to only ~0.5-3.5 kpc,~0.05-0.35R25 and 0.2-1.5h their mean sizes are ~1.5 kpc, ~0.14R25 and ~0.6h. Sb galaxies resemble earlier-type galaxiesin terms of bar size relative to h; their smallerR25-relative sizes may be a side effect of higher starformation, which increases R25 but not h. Sbc galaxies form atransition between the early- and late-type regimes. For S0-Sbcgalaxies, bar size correlates well with disc size (both R25and h); these correlations are stronger than the known correlation withMB. All correlations appear to be weaker or absent forlate-type galaxies; in particular, there seems to be no correlationbetween bar size and either h or MB for Sc-Sd galaxies.Because bar size scales with disc size and galaxy magnitude for mostHubble types, studies of bar evolution with redshift should selectsamples with similar distributions of disc size or magnitude(extrapolated to present-day values); otherwise, bar frequencies andsizes could be mis-estimated. Because early-type galaxies tend to havelarger bars, resolution-limited studies will preferentially find bars inearly-type galaxies (assuming no significant differential evolution inbar sizes). I show that the bars detected in Hubble Space Telescope(HST) near-infrared(IR) images at z~ 1 by Sheth et al. have absolutesizes consistent with those in bright, nearby S0-Sb galaxies. I alsocompare the sizes of real bars with those produced in simulations anddiscuss some possible implications for scenarios of secular evolutionalong the Hubble sequence. Simulations often produce bars as large as(or larger than) those seen in S0-Sb galaxies, but rarely any as smallas those in Sc-Sd galaxies.

Dust-penetrated arm classes: insights from rising and falling rotation curves
In the last decade, near-infrared imaging has highlighted the decouplingof gaseous and old stellar discs: the morphologies of optical(Population I) tracers compared to the old stellar disc morphology, canbe radically different. Galaxies which appear multi-armed and evenflocculent in the optical may show significant grand-design spirals inthe near-infrared. Furthermore, the optically determined Hubbleclassification scheme does not provide a sound way of classifyingdust-penetrated stellar discs: spiral arm pitch angles (when measured inthe near-infrared) do not correlate with Hubble type. Thedust-penetrated classification scheme of Block & Puerari provides analternative classification based on near-infrared morphology, which isthus more closely linked to the dominant stellar mass component. Here wepresent near-infrared K-band images of 14 galaxies, on which we haveperformed a Fourier analysis of the spiral structure in order todetermine their near-infrared pitch angles and dust-penetrated armclasses. We have also used the rotation curve data of Mathewson et al.to calculate the rates of shear in the stellar discs of these galaxies.We find a correlation between near-infrared pitch angle and rate ofshear: galaxies with wide open arms (the γ class) are found tohave rising rotation curves, while those with falling rotation curvesbelong to the tightly wound α bin. The major determinant ofnear-infrared spiral arm pitch angle is the distribution of matterwithin the galaxy concerned. The correlation reported in this studyprovides the physical basis underpinning spiral arm classes in thedust-penetrated regime and underscores earlier spectroscopic findings byBurstein and Rubin that Hubble type and mass distributions areunrelated.

The Pattern Speeds of 38 Barred Galaxies
We estimate the pattern speeds of 38 barred galaxies by simulationmodeling. We construct the gravitational potentials of the galaxies fromnear-IR photometry by assuming that the mass-to-light ratio (M/L) isconstant in the H band and a single pattern speed dominates in thestellar disk. We use the response of gaseous and stellar particle disksto a rigidly rotating potential to determine the pattern speed. If ourassumptions are correct, then the pattern speed depends on themorphological type: the average value of the ratio of the corotationresonance radius to the bar radius, ℛ, increases from about 1.1 intype SB0/a to 1.4 in SBb and 1.7 in SBc. Within the error estimates, allthe bars in galaxies of type SBab or earlier are fast rotators, havingℛ<=1.4, whereas late-type galaxies include both fast and slowrotators.

The Central Region of Barred Galaxies: Molecular Environment, Starbursts, and Secular Evolution
Stellar bars drive gas into the circumnuclear (CN) region of galaxies.To investigate the fate of the CN gas and star formation (SF), we studya sample of barred nonstarbursts and starbursts with high-resolution CO,optical, Hα, radio continuum, Brγ, and HST data, and findthe following. (1) The inner kiloparsec of bars differs markedly fromthe outer disk. It hosts molecular gas surface densitiesΣgas-m of 500-3500 Msolar pc-2,gas mass fractions of 10%-30%, and epicyclic frequencies of several100-1000 km s-1 kpc-1. Consequently, in the CNregion gravitational instabilities can only grow at high gas densitiesand on short timescales, explaining in part why powerful starburstsreside there. (2) Across the sample, we find bar pattern speeds withupper limits of 43-115 km s-1 pc-1 and outer innerLindblad resonance radii of >500 pc. (3) Barred starbursts andnonstarbursts have CN SF rates of 3-11 and 0.1-2 Msolaryr-1, despite similar CN gas masses. TheΣgas-m value in the starbursts is larger (1000-3500Msolar pc-2) and close to the Toomre criticaldensity over a large region. (4) Molecular gas makes up 10%-30% of theCN dynamical mass and fuels large CN SF rates in the starbursts,building young, massive, high-V/σ components. Implications forsecular evolution along the Hubble sequence are discussed.

FUSE Observations of Interstellar and Intergalactic Absorption toward the X-Ray-bright BL Lacertae Object Markarian 421
High-quality Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observationsat 20 km s-1 resolution of interstellar and intergalacticabsorption from 910 to 1187 Å are presented for the X-ray-brightBL Lac object Mrk 421. These observations are supplemented with FUSEdata for the distant halo stars BD +38°2182 and HD 93521 near theMrk 421 line of sight, in order to obtain information about the distanceto absorbing structures in the Milky Way toward Mrk 421. The FUSE ISMobservations provide measures of absorption by O VI and many otherspecies commonly found in warm neutral and warm ionized gas, including HI, C II, C III, O I, N I, N II, Fe II, and Fe III. In this study weconsider the O VI absorption between -140 and 165 km s-1 andits relationship to the lower ionization absorption and strongabsorption produced by O VII and O VIII at X-ray wavelengths. The O VIabsorption extending from -140 to 60 km s-1 is associatedwith strong low-ionization gas absorption and originates in the Galacticthick disk/halo. This O VI appears to be produced by a combination ofprocesses, including conductive interfaces between warm and hot gas andpossibly cooling Galactic fountain gas and hot halo gas bubbles. The OVI absorption extending from 60 to 165 km s-1 has unusualionization properties in that there is very little associatedlow-ionization absorption, with the exception of C III. This absorptionis not observed toward the two halo stars, implying that it occurs ingas more distant than 3.5 kpc from the Galactic disk. Over the 60-165 kms-1 velocity range, O VI and C III absorption have the samekinematic behavior. The ratio N(OVI)/N(CIII)=10+/-3 over the 60-120 kms-1 velocity range. Given the association of O VI with C III,it is unlikely that the high-velocity O VI coexists with the hotter gasresponsible for the O VII and O VIII absorption. The O VI positivevelocity absorption wing might be tracing cooler gas entrained in a hotGalactic fountain outflow. The O VII and O VIII absorption observed byChandra and XMM-Newton may trace the hot gas in a highly extended (~100kpc) Galactic corona or hot gas in the Local Group. The low resolutionof the current X-ray observations (~750-900 km s-1) and thekinematical complexity of the O VI absorption along typical lines ofsight through the Milky Way halo make it difficult to clearly associatethe O VI absorption with that produced by O VII and O VIII. A search formetal lines associated with the Lyα absorber at z=0.01, which issituated in a galactic void, was unsuccessful.

The Distribution of Bar and Spiral Arm Strengths in Disk Galaxies
The distribution of bar strengths in disk galaxies is a fundamentalproperty of the galaxy population that has only begun to be explored. Wehave applied the bar-spiral separation method of Buta and coworkers toderive the distribution of maximum relative gravitational bar torques,Qb, for 147 spiral galaxies in the statistically well-definedOhio State University Bright Galaxy Survey (OSUBGS) sample. Our goal isto examine the properties of bars as independently as possible of theirassociated spirals. We find that the distribution of bar strengthdeclines smoothly with increasing Qb, with more than 40% ofthe sample having Qb<=0.1. In the context of recurrent barformation, this suggests that strongly barred states are relativelyshort-lived compared to weakly barred or nonbarred states. We do notfind compelling evidence for a bimodal distribution of bar strengths.Instead, the distribution is fairly smooth in the range0.0<=Qb<0.8. Our analysis also provides a first look atspiral strengths Qs in the OSUBGS sample, based on the sametorque indicator. We are able to verify a possible weak correlationbetween Qs and Qb, in the sense that galaxies withthe strongest bars tend to also have strong spirals.

Hα Imaging of Early-Type Sa-Sab Spiral Galaxies. II. Global Properties
New results, based on one of the most comprehensive Hα imagingsurveys of nearby Sa-Sab spirals completed to date, reveals early-typespirals to be a diverse group of galaxies that span a wide range inmassive star formation rates. While the majority of Sa-Sab galaxies inour sample are forming stars at a modest rate, a significant fraction(~29%) exhibit star formation rates greater than 1 Msolaryr-1, rivaling the most prolifically star-forming late-typespirals. A similar diversity is apparent in the star formation historyof Sa-Sab spirals as measured by their Hα equivalent widths.Consistent with our preliminary results presented in the first paper inthis series, we find giant H II regions [L(Hα)>=1039ergs s-1] in the disks of ~37% of early-type spirals. Wesuspect that recent minor mergers or past interactions are responsiblefor the elevated levels of Hα emission and, perhaps, for thepresence of giant H II regions in these galaxies. Our results, however,are not in total agreement with the Hα study of Kennicutt &Kent, who did not find any early-type spirals with Hα equivalentwidths >14 Å. A close examination of the morphologicalclassification of galaxies, however, suggests that systematicdifferences between the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog and the SecondReference Catalogue may be responsible for the contrasting results.Based on observations obtained with the 3.5 m telescope at Apache PointObservatory (APO) and the 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory (KPNO). The APO 3.5 m telescope is owned and operated by theAstrophysical Research Consortium.

Active and Star-forming Galaxies and Their Supernovae
To investigate the extent to which nuclear starbursts or other nuclearactivity may be connected with enhanced star formation activity in thehost galaxy, we perform a statistical investigation of supernovae (SNe)discovered in host galaxies from four samples: the Markarian galaxiessample, the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) sample, the north Galactic pole(NGP) sample of active or star-forming galaxies, and the NGP sample ofnormal galaxies. Forty-seven SNe in 41 Mrk galaxies, 10 SNe in six SBSgalaxies, 29 SNe in 26 NGP active or star-forming galaxies, and 29 SNein 26 NGP normal galaxies have been studied. We find that the rate ofSNe, particularly core-collapse (Types Ib/c and II) SNe, is higher inactive or star-forming galaxies in comparison with normal galaxies.Active or star-forming host galaxies of SNe are generally of latermorphological type and have lower luminosity and smaller linear sizethan normal host galaxies of SNe. The radial distribution of SNe inactive and star-forming galaxies shows a higher concentration toward thecenter of the active host galaxy than is the case for normal hostgalaxies, and this effect is more pronounced for core-collapse SNe.Ib/c-type SNe have been discovered only in active and star-forminggalaxies of our samples. About 78% of these SNe are associated with H IIregions or are located very close to the nuclear regions of these activegalaxies, which are in turn hosting AGNs or starburst nuclei. Besidesthese new results, our study also supports the conclusions of severalother earlier papers. We find that Type Ia SNe occur in all galaxytypes, whereas core-collapse SNe of Types Ib/c and II are found only inspiral and irregular galaxies. The radial distribution of Type Ib SNe intheir host galaxies is more centrally concentrated than that of Type IIand Ia SNe. The radial distances of Types Ib/c and II SNe, from thenuclei of their host galaxies, is larger for barred spiral hosts.Core-collapse SNe are concentrated in spiral arms and are often close toor in the H II regions, whereas Type Ia SNe show only a looseassociation with spiral arms and no clear association with H II regions.

Reconstruction of aperture-synthesis images from LBT LINC-NIRVANA data using the Richardson-Lucy and space-variant Building Block method
We present a new method, the regularized and space-variant BuildingBlock method, which is able to reconstruct diffraction-limitedaperture-synthesis images from Large Binocular Telescope (LBT)LINC-NIRVANA data. Images with the diffraction-limited resolution of a22.8 m single-dish telescope can be derived if raw images are taken atseveral different hour angles. We simulated computer-generated andlaboratory LBT interferograms that are similar to the data which can beobtained with the LINC-NIRVANA beam combiner instrument. From thesimulated data, diffraction-limited images were reconstructed with theregularized Building Block method, which is an extension of the BuildingBlock method (Hofmann & Weigelt 1993, A&A, 278, 328). We comparethe Building Block reconstructions to images obtained with theRichardson-Lucy (RL) method (Richardson 1972, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 62, 55;Lucy 1974, AJ, 79, 745) and the Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization(OSEM) method (Hudson & Larkin 1994, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., 13,601; Bertero & Boccacci 2000, A&AS, 144, 181). Our imagereconstruction studies were performed with computer-simulated J-band andlaboratory H-band raw data of a galaxy with simulated total magnitudesof J = 16m to 18m and H = 16m to 19^m,respectively. One of the faintest structures in the images has abrightness of J ˜ 25^m. The simulated reference stars within theisoplanatic patch have magnitudes of J = 20^m{-}21m and H =19^m. All three methods are able to reconstruct diffraction-limitedimages with almost the same quality. Furthermore, raw data withspace-variant point spread functions were simulated, anddiffraction-limited images were reconstructed using the space-variantversion of the Building Block method.

The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. III. HI observations of early-type disk galaxies
We present Hi observations of 68 early-type disk galaxies from the WHISPsurvey. They have morphological types between S0 and Sab and absoluteB-band magnitudes between -14 and -22. These galaxies form the massive,high surface-brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population, few ofwhich have been imaged in Hi before. The Hi properties of the galaxiesin our sample span a large range; the average values of MHI/LB and DH I/D25 are comparableto the ones found in later-type spirals, but the dispersions around themean are larger. No significant differences are found between the S0/S0aand the Sa/Sab galaxies. Our early-type disk galaxies follow the same Himass-diameter relation as later-type spiral galaxies, but theireffective Hi surface densities are slightly lower than those found inlater-type systems. In some galaxies, distinct rings of Hi emissioncoincide with regions of enhanced star formation, even though theaverage gas densities are far below the threshold of star formationderived by Kennicutt (1989, ApJ, 344, 685). Apparently, additionalmechanisms, as yet unknown, regulate star formation at low surfacedensities. Many of the galaxies in our sample have lopsided gasmorphologies; in most cases this can be linked to recent or ongoinginteractions or merger events. Asymmetries are rare in quiescentgalaxies. Kinematic lopsidedness is rare, both in interacting andisolated systems. In the appendix, we present an atlas of the Hiobservations: for all galaxies we show Hi surface density maps, globalprofiles, velocity fields and radial surface density profiles.

Bar-induced perturbation strengths of the galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey - I
Bar-induced perturbation strengths are calculated for a well-definedmagnitude-limited sample of 180 spiral galaxies, based on the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey. We use a gravitational torque method,the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetricradial force, as a quantitative measure of the bar strength. Thegravitational potential is inferred from an H-band light distribution byassuming that the M/L ratio is constant throughout the disc. Galaxiesare deprojected using orientation parameters based on B-band images. Inorder to eliminate artificial stretching of the bulge, two-dimensionalbar-bulge-disc decomposition has been used to derive a reliable bulgemodel. This bulge model is subtracted from an image, the disc isdeprojected assuming it is thin, and then the bulge is added back byassuming that its mass distribution is spherically symmetric. We findthat removing the artificial bulge stretch is important especially forgalaxies having bars inside large bulges. We also find that the massesof the bulges can be significantly overestimated if bars are not takeninto account in the decomposition.Bars are identified using Fourier methods by requiring that the phasesof the main modes (m= 2, m= 4) are maintained nearly constant in the barregion. With such methods, bars are found in 65 per cent of the galaxiesin our sample, most of them being classified as SB-type systems in thenear-infrared by Eskridge and co-workers. We also suggest that as muchas ~70 per cent of the galaxies classified as SAB-types in thenear-infrared might actually be non-barred systems, many of them havingcentral ovals. It is also possible that a small fraction of the SAB-typegalaxies have weak non-classical bars with spiral-like morphologies.

On the alignment between binary spiral galaxies
We show some significance against the null hypothesis of randominteractions of binary spiral galaxies, and in favour of the alternativethat more interactions than expected occur for axes either nearlyparallel (spins being parallel or anti-parallel) or nearly orthogonal.We discuss this in the context of similar prior studies, using adifferent statistical focus in such a way that we are able toincorporate additional data.

Secular Evolution and the Formation of Pseudobulges in Disk Galaxies
The Universe is in transition. At early times, galactic evolution wasdominated by hierarchical clustering and merging, processes that areviolent and rapid. In the far future, evolution will mostly be secularthe slow rearrangement of energy and mass that results from interactionsinvolving collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiralstructure, and triaxial dark halos. Both processes are important now.This review discusses internal secular evolution, concentrating on oneimportant consequence, the buildup of dense central components in diskgalaxies that look like classical, merger-built bulges but that weremade slowly out of disk gas. We call these pseudobulges.

Studies of Extragalactic Formaldehyde and Radio Recombination Lines
We present the most sensitive and extensive survey yet performed ofextragalactic H2CO 6 cm (4.829 GHz) emission/absorption.Sixty-two sources were observed with the C-band system of the AreciboTelescope to a 1 σ rms noise level of ~0.3 mJy. We report a newdetection of H2CO 6 cm absorption toward NGC 520 and theconfirmation of H2CO 6 cm absorption toward several sources.We report confirmation of H2CO 6 cm emission toward the OHmegamasers Arp 220, IC 860, and IRAS 15107+0724. At present these arethe only extragalactic H2CO 6 cm emitters independentlyconfirmed. A characterization of the properties of formaldehydeabsorbers and emitters based on infrared properties of the galaxies isdiscussed. We also conducted a simultaneous survey of the H110αhydrogen recombination line toward a sample of 53 objects. We report thedetection of H110α toward the giant extragalactic H II region NGC604 in M33.

Missing Massive Stars in Starbursts: Stellar Temperature Diagnostics and the Initial Mass Function
Determining the properties of starbursts requires spectral diagnosticsof their ultraviolet radiation fields, to test whether very massivestars are present. We test several such diagnostics, using new models ofline ratio behavior combining CLOUDY, Starburst99, and up-to-datespectral atlases. For six galaxies we obtain new measurements of He I1.7 μm/Br10, a difficult to measure but physically simple (andtherefore reliable) diagnostic. We obtain new measurements of He I 2.06μm/Brγ in five galaxies. We find that He I 2.06 μm/Brγand [O III]/Hβ are generally unreliable diagnostics in starbursts.The heteronuclear and homonuclear mid-infrared line ratios (notably [NeIII] 15.6 μm/[Ne II] 12.8 μm) consistently agree with each otherand with He I 1.7 μm/Br10 this argues that the mid-infrared lineratios are reliable diagnostics of spectral hardness. In a sample of 27starbursts, [Ne III]/[Ne II] is significantly lower than modelpredictions for a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) extending to 100Msolar. Plausible model alterations strengthen thisconclusion. By contrast, the low-mass and low-metallicity galaxies II Zw40 and NGC 5253 show relatively high neon line ratios, compatible with aSalpeter slope extending to at least ~40-60 Msolar. Onesolution for the low neon line ratios in the high-metallicity starburstswould be that they are deficient in >~40 Msolar starscompared to a Salpeter IMF. An alternative explanation, which we prefer,is that massive stars in high-metallicity starbursts spend much of theirlives embedded within ultracompact H II regions that prevent the near-and mid-infrared nebular lines from forming and escaping. Thishypothesis has important consequences for starburst modeling andinterpretation.

Star Formation History and Extinction in the Central Kiloparsec of M82-like Starbursts
We report on the star formation histories and extinction in the centralkiloparsec region of a sample of starburst galaxies that have similarfar-infrared (FIR), 10 μm, and K-band luminosities as those of thearchetype starburst M82. Our study is based on new optical spectra andpreviously published K-band photometric data, both sampling the samearea around the nucleus. Model starburst spectra were synthesized as acombination of stellar populations of distinct ages formed over theHubble time and were fitted to the observed optical spectra and K-bandflux. The model is able to reproduce simultaneously the equivalentwidths of emission and absorption lines, the continuum fluxes between3500 and 7000 Å, and the K-band and FIR flux. A good fit requiresa minimum of three populations: (1) a young population of age <=8Myr, with its corresponding nebular emission, (2) an intermediate-agepopulation (age <500 Myr), and (3) an old population that forms partof the underlying disk or/and bulge population. The birthrate parameter,which is defined as the ratio of the current star formation rate to theaverage past rate, is found to be in the range 1-12. The contribution ofthe old population to the K-band luminosity depends on the birthrateparameter and remains above 60% in the majority of the sample galaxies.Even in the blue band, the intermediate-age and old populationscontribute more than 40% of the total flux in all the cases. Arelatively high contribution from the old stars to the K-band nuclearflux is also apparent from the strength of the 4000 Å break andthe Ca II K line. The extinction of the old population is found to bearound half that of the young population. The contribution to thecontinuum from the relatively old stars has the effect of diluting theemission equivalent widths below the values expected for young bursts.The mean dilution factors are found to be 5 and 3 for the Hα andHβ lines, respectively.

Inner-truncated Disks in Galaxies
We present an analysis of the disk brightness profiles of 218 spiral andlenticular galaxies. At least 28% of disk galaxies exhibit innertruncations in these profiles. There are no significant trends oftruncation incidence with Hubble type, but the incidence among barredsystems is 49%, more than 4 times that for nonbarred galaxies. However,not all barred systems have inner truncations, and not allinner-truncated systems are currently barred. Truncations represent areal dearth of disk stars in the inner regions and are not an artifactof our selection or fitting procedures nor the result of obscuration bydust. Disk surface brightness profiles in the outer regions are wellrepresented by simple exponentials for both truncated and nontruncateddisks. However, truncated and nontruncated systems have systematicallydifferent slopes and central surface brightness parameters for theirdisk brightness distributions. Truncation radii do not appear tocorrelate well with the sizes or brightnesses of the bulges. Thissuggests that the low angular momentum material apparently missing fromthe inner disk was not simply consumed in forming the bulge population.Disk parameters and the statistics of bar orientations in our sampleindicate that the missing stars of the inner disk have not simply beenredistributed azimuthally into bar structures. The sharpness of thebrightness truncations and their locations with respect to othergalactic structures suggest that resonances associated with diskkinematics, or tidal interactions with the mass of bulge stars, might beresponsible for this phenomenon.

Deprojecting spiral galaxies using Fourier analysis. Application to the Ohio sample
We use two new methods developed recently (Barberàet al.\cite{bar03}, A&A, 415, 849), as well as information obtained fromthe literature, to calculate the orientation parameters of the spiralgalaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey. We comparethe results of these methods with data from the literature, and find ingeneral good agreement. We provide a homogeneous set of mean orientationparameters which can be used to approximately deproject the disks of thegalaxies and facilitate a number of statistical studies of galaxyproperties.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/421/595

Minor-axis velocity gradients in disk galaxies
We present the ionized-gas kinematics and photometry of a sample of 4spiral galaxies which are characterized by a zero-velocity plateau alongthe major axis and a velocity gradient along the minor axis,respectively. By combining these new kinematical data with thoseavailable in the literature for the ionized-gas component of the S0s andspirals listed in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies werealized that about 50% of unbarred galaxies show a remarkable gasvelocity gradient along the optical minor axis. This fraction rises toabout 60% if we include unbarred galaxies with an irregular velocityprofile along the minor axis. This phenomenon is observed all along theHubble sequence of disk galaxies, and it is particularly frequent inearly-type spirals. Since minor-axis velocity gradients are unexpectedif the gas is moving onto circular orbits in a disk coplanar to thestellar one, we conclude that non-circular and off-plane gas motions arenot rare in the inner regions of disk galaxies.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatoryin La Silla (Chile) (ESO 69.B-0706 and 70.B-0338), with the MultipleMirror Telescope which is a joint facility of the SmithsonianInstitution and the University of Arizona, and with the ItalianTelescopio Nazionale Galileo (AOT-5, 3-18) at the Observatorio del Roquede los Muchachos in La Palma (Spain).Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/507

Radio emission from AGN detected by the VLA FIRST survey
Using the most recent (April 2003) version of the VLA FIRST survey radiocatalog, we have searched for radio emission from >2800 AGN takenfrom the most recent (2001) version of the Veron-Cetty and Veron AGNcatalog. These AGN lie in the ˜9033 square degrees of sky alreadycovered by the VLA FIRST survey. Our work has resulted in positivedetection of radio emission from 775 AGN of which 214 are new detectionsat radio wavelengths.Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/35

Aperture Synthesis CO(J=1--0) Observations and Near-Infrared Photometry of the Non-Barred Seyfert Galaxy NGC 5033
Aperture synthesis observations of CO(J = 1 -- 0) emission andnear-infrared broad-band photometry of the non-barred Seyfert galaxy NGC5033 (D = 18.7 Mpc) were performed. Our 3".9 × 3".6 resolution COobservations reveal a perturbed distribution and the kinematics ofmolecular gas in the center of NGC 5033; we find the characteristicgaseous features that are widely observed in barred spiral galaxies,such as two bright CO peaks near the center (separated by ˜ 3" or270pc from the nucleus), two offset ridges of CO emission emanating fromthe CO peaks, and a CO ring (with a radius of ˜ 14" or 1.3kpc).Double-peaked velocity profiles are also evident near the two CO peaks,implying that these CO peaks are orbit crowding zones in a barred/ovalpotential. Although NIR data only give an upper limit of the possiblebar lengths due to a large inclination of the NGC 5033 disk (i =68°), our CO data clearly suggests the presence of a small (thesemi-major axis of about 12" -- 15" or 1.1-1.4kpc) nuclear bar (or ovalstructure) in the center of the ``non-barred'' galaxy NGC 5033. Ourresults demonstrate that high-resolution CO imaging-spectroscopy isuseful to search for nuclear bars, even in highly inclined systems whereisophoto fitting techniques are not applicable. We find that the gasmass-to-dynamical mass ratio, Mgas/Mdyn, is small(≤ 1%) within a radius of 2" or 180pc, in contrast to starburstnuclei. This implies that the starburst does not cohabitate in thetype-1.5 Seyfert nucleus of NGC 5033.

Multi-Line Observations of Molecular Gas in the Central Region of the Low Star-Formation Efficiency ``Starburst'' Galaxy NGC 4527
We performed high-resolution CO(J = 2 -- 1), CO(J = 1 -- 0), HCN(J = 1-- 0), HCO+(J = 1 --0), and 3mm continuum observations of thelow star formation efficiency (SFE) ``starburst'' galaxy NGC 4527 withthe Nobeyama Millimeter Array. From CO( J = 1 -- 0) observations, wefound two offset ridges with non-circular motion and a central gasconcentration. The distribution and kinematics of NGC 4527 are verysimilar to those of barred spiral galaxies. The distribution of CO(J = 2-- 1) emission resembles the features of the concentrated component ofCO(J = 1 -- 0). HCN(J = 1--0 ) and HCO+(J = 1--0 ) emissionsconcentrated toward the center have also been detected. The total massof molecular gas detected in the central r < 30" is 2.5 ×109 Mȯ. The HCN(J = 1--0 )/CO (J = 1--0 )integrated intensity ratio of 0.075 ± 0.008 in the central r<˜ 3" -- 4" region of NGC 4527 could suggest that the fraction ofdense molecular gas to the total molecular gas is small compared withthose of prototypical starburst galaxies, such as NGC 253. This suggeststhat the small dense gas fraction is responsible for the low SFE in thecenter of NGC 4527, though this interpretation could depend on aperturesizes of the observations. The ratio of the dynamical mass to moleculargas mass is 13% within the central region (r < 500 pc). This suggeststhat molecular gas within the r < 500 pc region could be in a stateof gravitational instability. The low SFE, the small dense gas fraction,and the large amount of gravitationally unstable molecular gas can beexplained if NGC 4527 is in the very early phase of starburst phenomenaor a pre-starburst phase, and the formation of dense molecular gas willbegin and the SFE will increase within a short time scale.

The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.

A Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Survey of Molecular Hydrogen in Intermediate-Velocity Clouds in the Milky Way Halo
Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) data are used toinvestigate the molecular hydrogen (H2) content ofintermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) in the lower halo of the Milky Way.We analyze interstellar absorption toward 56 (mostly extragalactic)background sources to study H2 absorption in the Lyman andWerner bands in 61 IVC components at H I column densities>=1019 cm-2. For data with good signal-to-noiseratio (S/N) (~9 per resolution element and higher), H2 in IVCgas is convincingly detected in 14 cases at column densities varyingbetween ~1014 and ~1017 cm-2. We findan additional 17 possible H2 detections in IVCs in FUSEspectra with lower S/N. The molecular hydrogen fractions, f, varybetween 10-6 and 10-3, implying a dense, mostlyneutral gas phase that is probably related to the cold neutral medium(CNM) in these clouds. If the H2 stays information-dissociation equilibrium, the CNM in these clouds can becharacterized by compact (D~0.1 pc) filaments with volume densities onthe order of nH~30 cm-3. The relatively highdetection rate of H2 in IVC gas implies that the CNM in theseclouds is ubiquitous. More dense regions with much higher molecularfractions may exist, but it would be difficult to detect them inabsorption because of their small size.

Companions of Bright Barred Shapley-Ames Galaxies
Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barredgalaxies from the Shapley-Ames Catalog is presented. Among the spiralbarred galaxies, there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclearstructures, galaxies not associated with any large-scale galaxy cloudstructure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms), andgalaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubbletypes. The companion galaxy list includes the number of companiongalaxies within 20 diameters, their Hubble type, and projectedseparation distance. In addition, the companion environment was searchedfor four known active spiral galaxies, three of them are Seyfertgalaxies, namely, NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5548, and one is astarburst galaxy, M82. Among the results obtained, it is noted that theonly spiral barred galaxy classified as Seyfert 1 in our list has nocompanions within a projected distance of 20 diameters; six out of 10Seyfert 2 bar galaxies have no companions within 10 diameters, six outof 10 Seyfert 2 galaxies have one or more companions at projectedseparation distances between 10 and 20 diameters; six out of 12 galaxieswith circumnuclear structures have two or more companions within 20diameters.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Leo Minor
Right ascension:11h03m11.00s
Aparent dimensions:2.57′ × 2.344′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 3504

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