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FUSE Observations of Interstellar and Intergalactic Absorption toward the X-Ray-bright BL Lacertae Object Markarian 421
High-quality Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observationsat 20 km s-1 resolution of interstellar and intergalacticabsorption from 910 to 1187 Å are presented for the X-ray-brightBL Lac object Mrk 421. These observations are supplemented with FUSEdata for the distant halo stars BD +38°2182 and HD 93521 near theMrk 421 line of sight, in order to obtain information about the distanceto absorbing structures in the Milky Way toward Mrk 421. The FUSE ISMobservations provide measures of absorption by O VI and many otherspecies commonly found in warm neutral and warm ionized gas, including HI, C II, C III, O I, N I, N II, Fe II, and Fe III. In this study weconsider the O VI absorption between -140 and 165 km s-1 andits relationship to the lower ionization absorption and strongabsorption produced by O VII and O VIII at X-ray wavelengths. The O VIabsorption extending from -140 to 60 km s-1 is associatedwith strong low-ionization gas absorption and originates in the Galacticthick disk/halo. This O VI appears to be produced by a combination ofprocesses, including conductive interfaces between warm and hot gas andpossibly cooling Galactic fountain gas and hot halo gas bubbles. The OVI absorption extending from 60 to 165 km s-1 has unusualionization properties in that there is very little associatedlow-ionization absorption, with the exception of C III. This absorptionis not observed toward the two halo stars, implying that it occurs ingas more distant than 3.5 kpc from the Galactic disk. Over the 60-165 kms-1 velocity range, O VI and C III absorption have the samekinematic behavior. The ratio N(OVI)/N(CIII)=10+/-3 over the 60-120 kms-1 velocity range. Given the association of O VI with C III,it is unlikely that the high-velocity O VI coexists with the hotter gasresponsible for the O VII and O VIII absorption. The O VI positivevelocity absorption wing might be tracing cooler gas entrained in a hotGalactic fountain outflow. The O VII and O VIII absorption observed byChandra and XMM-Newton may trace the hot gas in a highly extended (~100kpc) Galactic corona or hot gas in the Local Group. The low resolutionof the current X-ray observations (~750-900 km s-1) and thekinematical complexity of the O VI absorption along typical lines ofsight through the Milky Way halo make it difficult to clearly associatethe O VI absorption with that produced by O VII and O VIII. A search formetal lines associated with the Lyα absorber at z=0.01, which issituated in a galactic void, was unsuccessful.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

Nuclear Activity in Nearby Galaxies
I discuss some recent observational results in the research of nearbyactive galactic nuclei (AGN). These results cover three main topics: (i)evidences for the current paradigm for AGN's, which includes a nuclearsupermassive blackhole (SMBH) fed via an accretion disk; (ii) evidencethat this paradigm may also apply to LINER's, the lowest luminous AGN'sand to normal galaxies; (iii) evidences of how the fueling of the SMBHoccurs and its relation to recent and intermediate age (106to 108 yrs old) episodes of star formation.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles
We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it.

Lopsidedness in Early-Type Disk Galaxies
We quantify the mean asymmetry of 54 face-on, early-type disk galaxies(S0 to Sab) using the amplitude of the m = 1 azimuthal Fourier componentof the R-band surface brightness. We find that the median lopsidedness,, of our sample is 0.11 and that the most lopsided 20% ofour galaxies have >= 0.19. Asymmetries in early-typedisks appear to be of similar frequency and strength as in late-typedisk galaxies. We have observed our early-type disks in a bandpass (Rband) in which the light is dominated by stars with ages greater than10^9 yr and therefore are seeing azimuthal asymmetries in the stellarmass distribution. The similar degree of lopsidedness seen in disks ofvery different star formation rates indicates that the lopsidedness inall galactic disks is primarily due to azimuthal mass asymmetries.Hence, 20% of all disk galaxies (regardless of Hubble type) haveazimuthal asymmetries, >= 0.19, in their stellar diskmass distribution, confirming lopsidedness as a dynamical phenomenon.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

Velocity dispersions for elliptical galaxies. I. First set of measurements.
Measurements of central velocity dispersions and heliocentric radialvelocities are presented for 94 field galaxies. Among these, 5 newradial velocities and 80 new central velocity dispersions are obtained.Reduction was performed independently by cross-correlation,Fourier-quotient and Fourier-correlation-quotient methods.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

The origin of inner isophotal twists in elliptical galaxies
The analysis of the projected geometry of 99 elliptical galaxies listedin the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies reveals that 16of them have inner isophotal twists larger than 20 degrees, which cannotbe attributed to internal dust absorption. For 12 of them, the profilesof the position angle, ellipticity and axisymmetric coefficients of theFourier expansion of their isophotal contours, show features allcorrelated with each other, a result consistent with the assumption thatthese objects are at least two-component systems. Detailed features inthe profiles of these parameters resemble scale-down structures found ina comparison sample of SB0 galaxies, which indicates the presence ofbars generally accompanied with disks. It is suggested that: (a) asignificant fraction of isophotal twists, in relation with changes ofisophotal shapes and internal kinematics, is due to the SB0-like or(more generally) to the two-component nature of many E galaxies, (b)large-scale disks in E's are cold systems formed dissipatively at earlystages in the history of these galaxies and not in recent mergings, (c)there is a strong continuity in morphological properties between S0/SB0sand E's where bars and disks have been unambiguously detected, and (d) asignificant percentage of triaxial systems may not have the form of pureellipsoids.

Neutral hydrogen observations of galaxies in superclusters
Neutral hydrogen observations of spiral galaxies in the Uppsala GeneralCatalog were made with the 91 m telescope in Green Bank. Results of theH I observations are presented for 309 objects north of declination +38deg in the right ascension range between 10 h and 22 h and for a sampleof 46 objects just south of the equator in the region around R.A.between 0 h and 3 h. Many of these objects are outlying members ofsuperclusters and may be useful in the study of deviations from Hubbleflow on supercluster scales. Velocity widths as measured by fivedifferent algorithms are presented along with a profile quality index.

Isophotal shapes of early-type galaxies. I - Elongated ellipticals
Forty-three very elongated elliptical galaxies were observed in directB, V, R CCD imaging with the 2-m telescope of Pic-du-Midi Observatoryand with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope in fairly good seeingconditions. Five galaxies do not show an elliptical structure: threeclearly show spiral features and one is a dumbbell. The 38 othergalaxies were analyzed with an isophote-fitting procedure which allowsone to derive the deviations from pure ellipses in terms of thecoefficients of a Fourier series. The geometrical parameters of these 38elongated ellipticals are presented, with brief comments on theirpeculiarities.

Interstellar matter in early-type galaxies - Optical observations
Results of optical observations of 26 bright elliptical galaxiesselected on the basis of IRAS data are discussed. Optical broadbandimaging (using B and R filters) and narrow-band imaging (using H-alphainterference filters) have been performed to study dust patches andionized gas. Long-split spectroscopy has also been made to determine gaskinematics and relative line ratios. The spectroscopic data confirm thepresence and distribution of interstellar matter (dust lanes and ionizedgas) seen in the direct imaging. Decoupled kinematics of interstellargas and stars favors an external origin of the interstellar matter.However, for one isolated galaxy, an internal origin is not excluded.The rotation curves determined by optical emission lines are symmetricaround the center in most galaxies observed. Galaxy masses andmass-to-light ratios are estimated using the rotation curves of theionized gas.

Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.

Cool interstellar matter in early-type galaxies
IRAS fluxes of early-type galaxies have been examined. From studying amagnitude-limited sample, it seems that although the statistics arepoor, perhaps a third of these objects and possibly even more have anappreciable amount of dust. In general, the infrared emission isstrongest at 100 microns, and quite often the far-infrared luminosity ofan early-type galaxy can be well in excess of 10 to the 8th solarluminosities. The data are most easily understood if the infraredresults from dust reprocessing of starlight. Within 3 kpc of the centerof an early-type galaxy, there may be more cold matter than hot gas;recent models that the interstellar media of these objects are composedprimarily of hot gas appear to be oversimplifications. The X-ray data doindicate that the thermal pressure in the early-type galaxies often issufficiently high that in view of the expected low temperatures of theirinterstellar clouds, it can be speculated that the cold material that ispresent may be forming low-mass stars.

CCD surface photometry of field Galaxies. II - Bulge/disk decompositions
Major- and minor-axis profiles given previously for 105 galaxies of allmorphological types are decomposed into bulge and disk components. Inaddition, three model-independent parameters which measure the meansurface brightness, scale radius, and degree of light concentration arederived. The best correlations are found between Hubble type,concentration, bulge/disk ratio, and mean surface brightness.Correlations between the individual bulge and disk parameters generallyshow large scatter. The properties of S0 galaxies are inconsistent withtheir having been formed from spiral galaxies via gas depletion; theirproperties are intermediate between those of ellipticals and spirals.Most elliptical galaxies probably do not form by the merging of diskgalaxies. The difficulty of distinguishing between elliptical and S0galaxies in some cases is emphasized.

Supplement to the detailed bibliography on the surface photometry of galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...60..517P&db_key=AST

A survey of O II forbidden line emission in elliptical galaxies
A survey of elliptical galaxy spectra using image-tube spectrograms hasbeen carried out with the result that 40 percent of the galaxies havebeen found to contain ionized gas. Galaxies with intense nuclearemission also tend to have extended emission that appears to be confinedto a plane. Since there is a detectable velocity gradient for the gas inthose planes, the gas appears to be in a rotating disk.

CCD surface photometry of field galaxies. I - Observations
Images of 105 galaxies selected from a larger complete sample ofintrinsically luminous galaxies have been obtained for the purpose ofcomputing surface brightness profiles. The intensity profiles along themajor and minor axes are computed by a method in which ellipticalcontours whose position angle and ellipticity are allowed to vary withradius are fitted to the true isophotes of a galaxy. The resultingprofiles and ellipse parameters are listed for each object. An extensivecomparison of the present photometry with that of other workers is madeto assess the reliability of the data. For most objects, additionalphotometric information is given, including an isophotal radius andmagnitude within a limiting isophote of 24.0 mag/sq arcsec, anapproximate total magnitude, the effective radius containing one-halfthe total light, and the mean surface brightness inside this radius. Afull analysis of the data is deferred to a second paper where theprofiles will be decomposed into bulge and disk components.

A comparison of distance scales for early-type galaxies
The distance scales of elliptical and lenticular galaxies areintercompared, based on the velocity dispersion indicator derived from arevised Faber-Jackson relation. The scales are found to be in nearperfect agreement with scales derived from the luminosity index and fromthe 21 cm line width indicator. The scales are also in excellentagreement with the distance scale derived by Michard (1979). Additionsare offered for the general catalog of 424 early-type galaxies, and aseries of reduction equations is presented which reduces the externalerrors in the distance moduli.

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:10h51m42.30s
Aparent dimensions:1.585′ × 0.912′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 3415

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