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 Globular cluster systems in low-luminosity early-type galaxies near the Fornax cluster centreWe present a photometric study of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) ofthe Fornax cluster galaxies NGC1374, NGC1379 and NGC1387. The dataconsist of images from the wide-field MOSAIC imager of the Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4-m telescope, obtained withWashington C and Kron-Cousins R filters. The images cover a field of 36× 36arcmin2, corresponding to 200 ×200kpc2 at the Fornax distance. Two of the galaxies, NGC1374and NGC1379, are low-luminosity ellipticals while NGC1387 is alow-luminosity lenticular. Their cluster systems are still embedded inthe cluster system of NGC1399. Therefore, the use of a large field iscrucial and some differences to previous work can be explained by this.The colour distributions of all GCSs are bimodal. NGC1387 presents aparticularly distinct separation between red and blue clusters and anoverproportionally large population of red clusters. The radialdistribution is different for blue and red clusters, red clusters beingmore concentrated towards the respective galaxies. The different colourand radial distributions point to the existence of two globular clustersubpopulations in these galaxies. Specific frequencies are in the rangeSN= 1.4-2.4, smaller than the typical values for ellipticalgalaxies. These galaxies might have suffered tidal stripping of blueglobular clusters by NGC1399. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies: Bimodal Metallicity Distributions and the Nature of the High-Luminosity ClustersWe present new (B, I) photometry for the globular cluster systems ineight brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), obtained with the ACS/WFCcamera on the Hubble Space Telescope. In the very rich cluster systemsthat reside within these giant galaxies, we find that all have stronglybimodal color distributions that are clearly resolved by themetallicity-sensitive (B-I) index. Furthermore, the mean colors andinternal color range of the blue subpopulation are remarkably similarfrom one galaxy to the next, to well within the +/-0.02-0.03 maguncertainties in the foreground reddenings and photometric zero points.By contrast, the mean color and internal color range for the redsubpopulation differ from one galaxy to the next by twice as much as theblue population. All the BCGs show population gradients, with muchhigher relative numbers of red clusters within 5 kpc of their centers,consistent with their having formed at later times than the blue,metal-poor population. A striking new feature of the color distributionsemerging from our data is that for the brightest clusters(MI<-10.5) the color distribution becomes broad and lessobviously bimodal. This effect was first noticed by Ostrov et al. andDirsch et al. for the Fornax giant NGC 1399; our data suggest that itmay be a characteristic of many BCGs and perhaps other large galaxies.Our data indicate that the blue (metal-poor) clusters brighter thanMI~=-10 become progressively redder with increasingluminosity, following a mass/metallicity scaling relationZ~M0.55. A basically similar relation has been found for M87by Strader et al. (2005). We argue that these GCS characteristics areconsistent with a hierarchical-merging galaxy formation picture in whichthe metal-poor clusters formed in protogalactic clouds or densestarburst complexes with gas masses in the range107-1010 Msolar, but where the moremassive clusters on average formed in bigger clouds with deeperpotential wells where more preenrichment could occur. The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Is there a miniature radio-galaxy in every "core" galaxy?This is the second of a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. We selected two sampleswith 5 GHz VLA radio flux measurements down to 1 mJy, reaching levels ofradio luminosity as low as 1036 erg s-1. In PaperI we presented a study of the surface brightness profiles for the 65objects with available archival HST images out of the 116 radio-detectedgalaxies. We classified early-type galaxies into "core" and "power-law"galaxies, discriminating on the basis of the slope of their nuclearbrightness profiles, following the Nukers scheme. Here we focus on the29 core galaxies (hereafter CoreG). We used HST and Chandra data toisolate their optical and X-ray nuclear emission. The CoreG invariablyhost radio-loud nuclei, with an average radio-loudness parameter of LogR = L5 {GHz} / LB  3.6. The optical and X-raynuclear luminosities correlate with the radio-core power, smoothlyextending the analogous correlations already found for low luminosityradio-galaxies (LLRG) toward even lower power, by a factor of 1000, covering a combined range of 6 orders of magnitude. This supportsthe interpretation of a common non-thermal origin of the nuclearemission also for CoreG. The luminosities of the nuclear sources, mostlikely dominated by jet emission, set firm upper limits, as low asL/L_Edd  10-9 in both the optical and X-ray band, on anyemission from the accretion process. The similarity of CoreG and LLRGwhen considering the distributions host galaxies luminosities and blackhole masses, as well as of the surface brightness profiles, indicatesthat they are drawn from the same population of early-type galaxies.LLRG represent only the tip of the iceberg associated with (relatively)high activity levels, with CoreG forming the bulk of the population. Wedo not find any relationship between radio-power and black hole mass. Aminimum black hole mass of M_BH = 108 Mȯ isapparently associated with the radio-loud nuclei in both CoreG and LLRG,but this effect must be tested on a sample of less luminous galaxies,likely to host smaller black holes. In the unifying model for BL Lacsand radio-galaxies, CoreG likely represent the counterparts of the largepopulation of low luminosity BL Lac now emerging from the surveys at lowradio flux limits. This suggests the presence of relativistic jets alsoin these quasi-quiescent early-type "core" galaxies. Detection of Radial Surface Brightness Fluctuations and Color Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies with the Advanced Camera for SurveysWe study surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) in a sample of eightelliptical galaxies using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) WideField Channel (WFC) data drawn from the Hubble Space Telescope archive.SBF magnitudes in the F814W bandpass and galaxy colors from F814W,F435W, and F606W images, when available, are presented. Galaxy surfacebrightness profiles are determined as well. We present the firstSBF-broadband color calibration for the ACS WFC F814W bandpass and(relative) distance moduli estimates for seven of our galaxies. Wedetect and study in detail the SBF variations within individual galaxiesas a probe of possible changes in the underlying stellar populations.Inspecting both the SBF and color gradients in comparison to modelpredictions, we argue that SBFs and SBF gradients can in principle beused for unraveling the different evolutionary paths taken by galaxies,although a more comprehensive study of this issue would be required. Weconfirm that the radial variation of galaxy stellar populationproperties is mainly connected to the presence of radial chemicalabundance gradients, with the outer galaxy regions being more metal-poorthan the inner ones.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations areassociated with programs 9427, 9293, and 9399. A Tiny Galactic Dust Cloud Projected onto NGC 3269?We report on new observations obtained with the Magellan Clay telescopeof a tiny dust patch in the Sa galaxy NGC 3269, in the Antlia galaxycluster. It has already been suspected to be a projected Galacticforeground cloud. In this case, a size of about 4" and a maximumabsorption of ~1 mag in the B band would make it unique so far. Wepresent further evidence for its Galactic nature from imaging underexcellent seeing conditions (0.3"-0.6"). This dust cloud could be thefirst optically identified counterpart of a new type of molecular cloudrecently discovered by Heithausen. The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Sample selection and hosts brightness profilesThis is the first of a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGNs in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. We selected twosamples, both with high resolution 5 GHz VLA observations available andproviding measurements down to 1 mJy level, reaching radio-luminositiesas low as 1019 W Hz-1. We focus on the 116radio-detected galaxies as to boost the fraction of AGN with respect toa purely optically selected sample. Here we present the analysis of theoptical brightness profiles based on archival HST images, available for65 objects. We separate early-type galaxies on the basis of the slope oftheir nuclear brightness profiles, into core and power-law galaxiesfollowing the Nuker's scheme, rather than on the traditionalmorphological classification (i.e. into E and S0 galaxies). Our sampleof AGN candidates is indistinguishable, when their brightness profilesare concerned, from galaxies of similar optical luminosity but hostingweaker (or no) radio-sources. We confirm previous findings thatrelatively bright radio-sources (Lr > 1021.5 WHz-1) are uniquely associated to core galaxies. However,below this threshold in radio-luminosity core and power-law galaxiescoexist and they do not show any apparent difference in theirradio-properties. Not surprisingly, since our sample is deliberatelybiased to favour the inclusion of active galaxies, we found a higherfraction of optically nucleated galaxies. Addressing the multiwavelengthproperties of these nuclei will be the aim of the two forthcomingpapers. Formation and evolution of dwarf elliptical galaxies. I. Structural and kinematical propertiesThis paper is the first in a series in which we present the results ofan ESO Large Program on the kinematics and internal dynamics of dwarfelliptical galaxies (dEs). We obtained deep major and minor axis spectraof 15 dEs and broad-band imaging of 22 dEs. Here, we investigate therelations between the parameters that quantify the structure (B-bandluminosity L_B, half-light radius R_e, and mean surface brightnesswithin the half-light radius Ie = LB / 2 πR_e^2) and internal dynamics (velocity dispersion σ) of dEs. Weconfront predictions of the currently popular theories for dE formationand evolution with the observed position of dEs in log LB vs.log σ, log LB vs. log R_e, log LB vs. logI_e, and log Re vs. log Ie diagrams and in the(log σ,log R_e,log I_e) parameter space in which bright andintermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies and bulges of spirals definea Fundamental Plane (FP). In order to achieve statistical significanceand to cover a parameter interval that is large enough for reliableinferences to be made, we merge the data set presented in this paperwith two other recently published, equally large data sets. We show thatthe dE sequences in the various univariate diagrams are disjunct fromthose traced by bright and intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxiesand bulges of spirals. It appears that semi-analytical models (SAMs)that incorporate quiescent star formation with an essentiallyz-independent star-formation efficiency, combined with post-mergerstarbursts and the dynamical response after supernova-driven gas-loss,are able to reproduce the position of the dEs in the various univariatediagrams. SAMs with star-formation efficiencies that rise as a functionof redshift are excluded since they leave the observed sequences tracedby dEs virtually unpopulated. dEs tend to lie above the FP and the FPresidual declines as a function of luminosity. Again, models that takeinto account the response after supernova-driven mass-loss correctlypredict the position of dEs in the (log σ,log R_e,log I_e)parameter space as well as the trend of the FP residual as a function ofluminosity. While these findings are clearly a success for thehierarchical-merging picture of galaxy formation, they do notnecessarily invalidate the alternative “harassment”scenario, which posits that dEs stem from perturbed and strippedlate-type disk galaxies that entered clusters and groups of galaxiesabout 5 Gyr ago. Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas. I. Line-strength indices of the underlying stellar populationWith the aim of building a data-set of spectral properties of wellstudied early-type galaxies showing emission lines, we presentintermediate resolution spectra of 50 galaxies in the nearby Universe.The sample, which covers several of the E and S0 morphologicalsub-classes, is biased toward objects that might be expected to haveongoing and recent star formation, at least in small amounts, because ofthe presence of the emission lines. The emission is expected to comefrom the combination of active galactic nuclei and star formationregions within the galaxies. Sample galaxies are located in environmentscorresponding to a broad range of local galaxy densities, althoughpredominantly in low density environments. Our long-slit spectra coverthe 3700-7250 Å wavelength range with a spectral resolution of≈7.6 Å at 5550 Å. The specific aim of this paper, and ourfirst step in the investigation, is to map the underlying galaxy stellarpopulation by measuring, along the slit positioned along the galaxymajor axis, line-strength indices at several, homogeneousgalacto-centric distances. For each object we extracted 7luminosity-weighted apertures (with radii 1.5´´,2.5´´, 10´´, r_e/10, r_e/8, r_e/4 and r_e/2)corrected for the galaxy ellipticity and 4 gradients (0 ≤ r ≤r_e/16, r_e/16 ≤ r ≤ r_e/8, r_e/8 ≤ r ≤ r_e/4 and r_e/4≤ r ≤ r_e/2). For each aperture and gradient we measured 25line-strength indices: 21 of the set defined by the Lick-IDS“standard” system (Trager et al. [CITE], ApJS, 116, 1) and 4introduced by Worthey & Ottaviani ([CITE], ApJS, 111, 377).Line-strength indices have been transformed to the Lick-IDS system.Indices derived then include Hβ, Mg1, Mg2, Mgb, MgFe, Fe5270,Fe5335 commonly used in classic index-index diagrams. The paperintroduces the sample, presents the observations, describes the datareduction procedures, the extraction of apertures and gradients, thedetermination and correction of the line-strength indices, the procedureadopted to transform them into the Lick-IDS System and the proceduresadopted for the emission correction. We finally discuss the comparisonsbetween our dataset and line-strength indices available in theliterature. A significant fraction, about 60%, of galaxies in thepresent sample has one previous measurement in the Lick-IDS system butbasically restricted within the r_e/8 region. Line-strength measuresobtained both from apertures and gradients outside this area and withinthe r_e/8 region, with the present radial mapping, are completely new.Full appendix and Figs. 8 to 13 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Full Tables 6, 7, 9 and 10 are only availableat the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/433/497 Based onobservations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile (Programs Nr. 60.A-0647 and 61.A-0406). A wide-field photometric study of the globular cluster system of NGC 4636Previous smaller-scale studies of the globular cluster system of NGC4636, an elliptical galaxy in the southern part of the Virgo cluster,have revealed an unusually rich globular cluster system. Were-investigate the cluster system of NGC 4636 with wide-field Washingtonphotometry. The globular cluster luminosity function can be followedroughly 1 mag beyond the turn-over magnitude found at {V} =23.31±0.13 for the blue cluster sub-population. This correspondsto a distance modulus of ({m}-{M})=31.24±0.17, 0.4 mag largerthan the distance determined from surface brightness fluctuations. Thehigh specific frequency is confirmed, yet the exact value remainsuncertain because of the uncertain distance: it varies between5.6±1.2 and 8.9±1.2. The globular cluster system has aclearly bimodal color distribution. The color peak positions show noradial dependence and are in good agreement with the values found forother galaxies studied in the same filter system. However, a luminositydependence is found: brighter clusters with an“intermediate” color exist. The clusters exhibit a shallowradial distribution within 7´, represented by a power-law with anexponent of -1.4. Within the same radial interval, the galaxy light hasa distinctly steeper profile. Because of the difference in the clusterand light distribution the specific frequency increases considerablywith radius. At 7´ and 9´ the density profiles of the redand blue clusters, respectively, change strongly: the power-law indicesdecrease to around -5 and become similar to the galaxy profile. Thissteep profile indicates that we reach the outer rim of the clustersystem at approximately 11´. This interpretation is supported bythe fact that in particular the density distribution of the blue clusterpopulation can be well fit by the projection of a truncated power-lawmodel with a core. This feature is seen for the first time in a globularcluster system. While the radial distribution of the cluster and fieldpopulations are rather different, this is not true for the ellipticityof the system: the elongation as well as the position angle of thecluster system agree well with the galaxy light. We compare the radialdistribution of globular clusters with the light profiles for a sampleof elliptical galaxies. The difference observed in NGC 4636 is typicalof an elliptical galaxy of this luminosity. The intrinsic specificfrequency of the blue population is considerably larger than that of thered one.Tables A.1 to A.6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/433/43 ASCA Compilation of X-Ray Properties of Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies and Galaxy Clusters: Two Breaks in the Temperature DependencesUtilizing ASCA archival data of about 300 objects of ellipticalgalaxies, groups, and clusters of galaxies, we performed systematicmeasurements of the X-ray properties of hot gas in their systems, andcompiled them in this paper. The steepness of the luminosity-temperature(LT) relation, LiX ∝ (kT)α, in therange of kT  1.5 ‑ 15 keV is α = 3.17 ± 0.15,consistent with previous measurements. In the relation, we find twobreaks at around ICM temperatures of 1 keV and 4 keV: α = 2.34± 0.29 above 4 keV, 3.74 ± 0.32 in 1.5-5 keV, and 4.03± 1.07 below 1.5keV. Such two breaks are also evident in thetemperature and size relation. The steepness in the LT relation at kT> 4 keV is consistent with the scale-relation derived from the CDMmodel, indicating that the gravitational effect is dominant in richerclusters, while poorer clusters suffer non-gravity effects. The steep LTrelation below 1keV is almost attributed to X-ray faint systems ofelliptical galaxies and galaxy groups. We found that the ICM mass withinthe scaling radius R1500 follows the relation ofMgas ∝ T2.33±0.07 from X-ray faintgalaxies to rich clusters. Therefore, we speculate that even such X-rayfaint systems contain a large-scale hot gas, which is too faint todetect. Modelling galactic spectra - II. Simultaneous study of stellar dynamics and stellar mix in NGC 3258In this paper we adopt a method to analyse absorption-line spectra fromelliptical galaxies that determines the dynamics of the galaxy and atthe same time offers a way to study the stellar populations in thatgalaxy by a direct fit to the spectra. The result of the modelling is adistribution function for each stellar population that is considered inthe fit. The method is described in detail in the accompanying paper.This paper reports on a dynamical stellar population study in NGC 3258,based on spectra in two different wavelength regions, the near-infraredCa II triplet around 8600 Å and the Ca H and K lines around 3900Å. These absorption lines have discriminating power towardsvarious stellar types. The dynamical model shows an increase in dwarfs(represented by G2V stars) towards the centre. Most of the rotation inthe model is delivered by the giants (represented by M1III stars).Moreover, the different models that were considered indicate thatestablishing a potential for a galaxy is dependent on the wavelengthrange used for the modelling. Modelling galactic spectra - I. A dynamical model for NGC 3258We present a method to analyse absorption-line spectra of a galaxydesigned to determine the stellar dynamics and the stellar populationsby a direct fit to the spectra. This paper is the first to report on theapplication of the method to data. The modelling results in theknowledge of distribution functions that are sums of basis functions.The practical implementation of the method is discussed and a new typeof basis function is introduced.With this method, a dynamical model for NGC 3258 is constructed. Thisgalaxy can be modelled successfully with a potential containing 30 percent dark matter within 1re with a mass of 1.6 ×1011 Msolar. The total mass within 2reis estimated as 5 × 1011 Msolar, containing63 per cent dark matter. The model is isotropic in the centre, isradially anisotropic between 0.2 and 2 kpc (0.88re), andbecomes tangentially anisotropic further on. The photometry reveals thepresence of a dust disc near the centre. Dwarf elliptical galaxies with kinematically decoupled coresWe present, for the first time, photometric and kinematical evidence,obtained with FORS2 on the VLT, for the existence of kinematicallydecoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf elliptical galaxies; FS76 in the NGC5044 group and FS373 in the NGC 3258 group. Both kinematically peculiarsubcomponents rotate in the same sense as the main body of their hostgalaxy but betray their presence by a pronounced bump in the rotationvelocity profiles at a radius of about 1''. The KDC in FS76 rotates at10 ± 3 km s-1, with the host galaxy rotating at 15± 6 km s-1; the KDC in FS373 has a rotation velocityof 6 ± 2 km s-1 while the galaxy itself rotates at 20± 5 km s-1. FS373 has a very complex rotation velocityprofile with the velocity changing sign at 1.5 Re. Thevelocity and velocity dispersion profiles of FS76 are asymmetric atlarger radii. This could be caused by a past gravitational interactionwith the giant elliptical NGC 5044, which is at a projected distance of50 kpc. We argue that these decoupled cores are most likely not producedby mergers in a group or cluster environment because of theprohibitively large relative velocities. A plausible alternative isoffered by flyby interactions between a dwarf elliptical or its diskyprogenitor and a massive galaxy. The tidal forces during an interactionat the relative velocities and impact parameters typical for a groupenvironment exert a torque on the dwarf galaxy that, according toanalytical estimates, transfers enough angular momentum to its stellarenvelope to explain the observed peculiar kinematics. Peculiarities and populations in elliptical galaxies. I. An old question revisitedMorphological peculiarities, as defined from isophote asymmetries andnumber of detected shells, jets or similar features, have been estimatedin a sample of 117 E classified galaxies, and qualified by an ad hocΣ2 index. The overall frequency of peculiar'' objects(Pec subsample) is 32.5%. It decreases with the cosmic density of theenvironment, being minimal for the Virgo cluster, the densestenvironment in the sampled volume. This environmental effect is strongerfor galaxies with relatively large Σ2.The Pec subsample objects are compared with normal'' objects (Nopsubsample) as regards their basic properties. Firstly, theysystematically deviate from the Fundamental Plane and the Faber-Jacksonrelation derived for the Nop subsample, being too bright for their mass.Secondly, the dust content of galaxies, as estimated from IRAS fluxes,are similar in both subsamples. Third, the same is true of the frequencyof Kinematically Distinct cores (KDC), suggesting that KDC andmorphological peculiarities do not result from the same events in thehistory of E-galaxies.Using the Nop sample alone, we obtain very tight reference relationsbetween stellar population indicators (U-B, B-V, B-R, V-I,Mg2, Hβ, , Mgb) and the central velocitydispersion σ0. The discussion of the residuals of theserelations allows us to classify the Pec galaxies in two families i.e.the YP or NGC 2865 family, and the NP or NGC 3923 one. Galaxies in thefirst group show consistent evidence for a younger stellar populationmixed with the old one, in agreement with classical results (Schweizeret al. \cite{Schweizer1990}; Schweizer & Seitzer\cite{Schweizer1992}). The second group, however, has normal, orreddish, populations. It is remarkable that a fraction (circa 40%) ofmorphologically perturbed objects do not display any signature of ayoung population, either because the event responsible for thepecularity is too ancient, or because it did not produce significantstar formation (or eventually that the young sub-population has highmetallicity).A preliminary attempt is made to interpret the populations of Pecobjects by combining a young Single Stellar Population with a Nopgalaxy, with only limited success, perhaps largely due to uncertaintiesin the SSP indices used.Based in part on observations collected at the Observatoire deHaute-Provence.Figures \ref{fig1}-\ref{fig3} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgTable 10 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/833 The Birmingham-CfA cluster scaling project - I. Gas fraction and the M-TX relationWe have assembled a large sample of virialized systems, comprising 66galaxy clusters, groups and elliptical galaxies with high-quality X-raydata. To each system we have fitted analytical profiles describing thegas density and temperature variation with radius, corrected for theeffects of central gas cooling. We present an analysis of the scalingproperties of these systems and focus in this paper on the gasdistribution and M-TX relation. In addition to clusters andgroups, our sample includes two early-type galaxies, carefully selectedto avoid contamination from group or cluster X-ray emission. We comparethe properties of these objects with those of more massive systems andfind evidence for a systematic difference between galaxy-sized haloesand groups of a similar temperature.We derive a mean logarithmic slope of the M-TX relationwithin R200 of 1.84 +/- 0.06, although there is some evidenceof a gradual steepening in the M-TX relation, with decreasingmass. We recover a similar slope using two additional methods ofcalculating the mean temperature. Repeating the analysis with theassumption of isothermality, we find the slope changes only slightly, to1.89 +/- 0.04, but the normalization is increased by 30 per cent.Correspondingly, the mean gas fraction within R200 changesfrom (0.13 +/- 0.01) h-3/270 to (0.11+/- 0.01) h-3/270, for the isothermalcase, with the smaller fractional change reflecting different behaviourbetween hot and cool systems. There is a strong correlation between thegas fraction within 0.3R200 and temperature. This reflectsthe strong (5.8σ) trend between the gas density slope parameter,β, and temperature, which has been found in previous work.These findings are interpreted as evidence for self-similarity breakingfrom galaxy feedback processes, active galactic nuclei heating orpossibly gas cooling. We discuss the implications of our results in thecontext of a hierarchical structure formation scenario. Realistic error estimates on kinematic parametersCurrent error estimates on kinematic parameters are based on theassumption that the data points in the spectra follow a Poissondistribution. For realistic data that have undergone several steps in areduction process this is generally not the case, neither is the noisedistribution independent in adjacent pixels. Hence, the error estimateson the derived kinematic parameters will (in most cases) be smaller thanthe real errors. In this paper we propose a method that makes adiagnosis of the characteristics of the observed noise. The method alsooffers the possibility to calculate more realistic error estimates onkinematic parameters. The method was tested on spectroscopicobservations of NGC 3258. In this particular case, the realistic errorsare almost a factor of 2 larger than the errors based on least-squaresstatistics. Line-of-Sight Reddening Predictions: Zero Points, Accuracies, the Interstellar Medium, and the Stellar Populations of Elliptical GalaxiesRevised (B-V)0-Mg2 data, which are used to testreddening predictions, are presented for 402 elliptical galaxies. Thesereddening predictions can tell us both what the intrinsic errors are inthis relationship among gE galaxy stellar populations as well as detailsof nearby structure in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy, andof the intrinsic errors in reddening predictions. Using least-squaresfits, the explicit 1 σ errors in reddenings predicted by theBurstein-Heiles (BH) method and the Schlegel and coworkers (IR) methodare calculated, as well as the 1 σ observational error in the(B-V)0-Mg2 for gE galaxies. It is found that indirections with E(B-V)<0.100 mag (where most of these galaxies lie),1 σ errors in the IR reddening predictions are 0.006-0.009 mag inE(B-V), those for BH reddening predictions are 0.011 mag, and the 1σ agreement between the two reddening predictions is 0.007 mag.The IR predictions have an accuracy of 0.010-0.011 mag in directionswith E(B-V)>=0.100 mag, significantly better than those of the BHpredictions (0.024-0.025). Both methods yield good evidence thatgas-to-dust variations that vary by a factor of 3, both high and low,exist along many lines of sight in our Galaxy. Both methods also predictmany directions with E(B-V)<0.015 mag, despite the difference in zeropoint that each has assumed. The ~0.02 higher reddening zero point inE(B-V) previously determined by Schlegel and coworkers is confirmed,primarily at the Galactic poles. Independent evidence of reddening atthe north Galactic pole (NGP) is reviewed, with the conclusion thatdirections still exist at the NGP that have E(B-V)<<0.01. Twolines of evidence suggest that IR reddenings are overpredicted indirections with high gas-to-dust ratios. As high gas-to-dust directionsin the ISM also include the Galactic poles, this overprediction is thelikely cause of the E(B-V)~0.02 mag larger IR reddening zero pointrelative to that of BH. Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture PhotometryWe present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak. The globular cluster systems of NGC 3258 and NGC 3268 in the Antlia clusterThe Antlia galaxy cluster is the third nearest galaxy cluster afterVirgo and Fornax. We used the wide-field MOSAIC camera of the 4-m CTIOtelescope to search in the brightest cluster galaxies for globularcluster systems, which were detected in the two larger ellipticals - NGC3258 and NGC 3268. These galaxies each contain several thousandclusters; NGC 3258 more than NGC 3268. The color distributions of theglobular cluster systems are clearly bimodal. The peak colors agree withthose of other ellipticals. The radial number density profiles of theglobular cluster systems are indistinguishable for the two galaxies andno difference in the distribution of red and blue clusters - as observedin other elliptical galaxies - can be seen. The light profile of NGC3268 appears to be similar to that of NGC 1399, the central galaxy ofthe Fornax cluster. NGC 3258 has a light profile which is steeper atlarge radii. Both galaxies exhibit color gradients, becoming blueroutwards. In NGC 3268, the color and morphology in the inner 3 arcsecindicate the presence of an inner dusty disk. The globular clustersystems closely trace the galaxy light in the studied radial regime. Theelongation of the cluster systems of both galaxies is approximatelyaligned at large radii with the connecting axis of the two galaxies. Wefind specific frequencies within a radial range of 4 arcmin ofSN=3.0+/-2.0 for NGC 3268 and SN=6.0+/-2.5 for NGC3258.As a byproduct resulting from surveying our wide-field frames, wedescribe a strange absorption feature in the Antlia spiral galaxy NGC3269, which we argue might be a tiny galactic dust cloud projected ontoNGC 3269.Based on observations collected at the Cerro Tololo Inter-AmericanObservatory (CTIO). A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxiesWe have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of normality''. Thedefinition of a normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5 ASCA Observations of Groups at Radii of Low Overdensity: Implications for the Cosmic PreheatingThrough a three-dimensional modeling of ASCA observations, we performeda spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopic study, extending to radiiexceeding 150 kpc, for a sample of nine groups of galaxies. Combinedwith published ROSAT results, we conclude that these systems generallyexhibit a strong temperature decline at outer radii. In our best case,NGC 3268, this corresponds to a flattening of the entropy profile at alevel of ~400 keV cm2. This value is high compared both tothe observed entropy floor of ~100 keV cm2 and to theexpected value from gravitational heating. We suggest that the observedentropy profile in most groups at densities exceeding 500 times thecritical is driven purely by nongravitational heating processes. Aftercomparison with a larger sample of groups and clusters, we conclude thatthere is a variation in the level of nongravitational heating between~100 and ~400 keV cm2 within every system. Using models ofcluster formation as a reference frame, we established that the accretedgas reaches an entropy level of 400 keV cm2 by redshift2.0-2.5, while such high entropies where not present at redshifts higherthan 2.8-3.5, favoring nearly instantaneous preheating. Adoptinggalactic winds as a source of preheating and scaling the released energyby the observed metal abundance, the variation in the preheating couldbe ascribed mostly to variation in the typical overdensity of the energyinjection, from ~30 for an entropy floor of 100 keV cm2 to ~5for an entropy of 400 keV cm2. Survey of the ISM in early-type galaxies. IV. The hot dust componentWe present mid-IR photometric properties for a sample of 28 early-typegalaxies observed at 6.75, 9.63 and 15 mu m with the ISOCAM instrumenton board the ISO satellite. We find total mid-IR luminosities in therange (3-42) x 108 Lsun. The spectral energydistributions (SED) of the galaxies were derived using the mid-IR datatogether with previously published UV, optical and near-IR data. TheseSEDs clearly show a mid-IR emission coming from dust heated at T =~ 260K. Dust grains properties are inferred from the mid-IR colors. Themasses of the hot dust component are in the range 10-400Msun. The relationship between the masses derived from mid-IRobservations and those derived from visual extinction are discussed. Thepossible common heating source for the gas and dust is investigatedthrough the correlations between Hα and mid-IR luminosities. Basedon observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESAmember states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, theNetherlands and the UK) and with participation of ISAS and NASA. A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxiesWe present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations. A synthesis of data from fundamental plane and surface brightness fluctuation surveysWe perform a series of comparisons between distance-independentphotometric and spectroscopic properties used in the surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) and fundamental plane (FP) methods of early-typegalaxy distance estimation. The data are taken from two recent surveys:the SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances and the Streaming Motions of AbellClusters (SMAC) FP survey. We derive a relation between(V-I)0 colour and Mg2 index using nearly 200galaxies and discuss implications for Galactic extinction estimates andearly-type galaxy stellar populations. We find that the reddenings fromSchlegel et al. for galaxies with E(B-V)>~0.2mag appear to beoverestimated by 5-10 per cent, but we do not find significant evidencefor large-scale dipole errors in the extinction map. In comparison withstellar population models having solar elemental abundance ratios, thegalaxies in our sample are generally too blue at a given Mg2;we ascribe this to the well-known enhancement of the α-elements inluminous early-type galaxies. We confirm a tight relation betweenstellar velocity dispersion σ and the SBF `fluctuation count'parameter N, which is a luminosity-weighted measure of the total numberof stars in a galaxy. The correlation between N and σ is eventighter than that between Mg2 and σ. Finally, we deriveFP photometric parameters for 280 galaxies from the SBF survey data set.Comparisons with external sources allow us to estimate the errors onthese parameters and derive the correction necessary to bring them on tothe SMAC system. The data are used in a forthcoming paper, whichcompares the distances derived from the FP and SBF methods. The LX-σ Relation for Galaxies and Clusters of GalaxiesWe demonstrate that individual elliptical galaxies and clusters ofgalaxies form a continuous X-ray luminosity-velocity dispersion(LX-σ) relation. Our samples of 280 clusters and 57galaxies have LX~σ4.4 andLX~σ10, respectively. This unifiedLX-σ relation spans 8 orders of magnitude inLX and is fully consistent with the observed and theoreticalluminosity-temperature scaling laws. Our results support the notion thatgalaxies and clusters of galaxies are the luminous tracers of similardark matter halos. The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and DistancesWe report data for I-band surface brightness fluctuation (SBF)magnitudes, (V-I) colors, and distance moduli for 300 galaxies. Thesurvey contains E, S0, and early-type spiral galaxies in the proportionsof 49:42:9 and is essentially complete for E galaxies to Hubblevelocities of 2000 km s-1, with a substantial sampling of Egalaxies out to 4000 km s-1. The median error in distancemodulus is 0.22 mag. We also present two new results from the survey.(1) We compare the mean peculiar flow velocity (bulk flow) implied byour distances with predictions of typical cold dark matter transferfunctions as a function of scale, and we find very good agreement withcold, dark matter cosmologies if the transfer function scale parameterΓ and the power spectrum normalization σ8 arerelated by σ8Γ-0.5~2+/-0.5. Deriveddirectly from velocities, this result is independent of the distributionof galaxies or models for biasing. This modest bulk flow contradictsreports of large-scale, large-amplitude flows in the ~200 Mpc diametervolume surrounding our survey volume. (2) We present adistance-independent measure of absolute galaxy luminosity, N and showhow it correlates with galaxy properties such as color and velocitydispersion, demonstrating its utility for measuring galaxy distancesthrough large and unknown extinction. Observations in part from theMichigan-Dartmouth-MIT (MDM) Observatory. Details of the mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxiesWe present results on the total mass and temperature determination usingtwo samples of clusters of galaxies. One sample is constructed withemphasis on the completeness of the sample, while the advantage of theother is the use of the temperature profiles, derived with ASCA. Weobtain remarkably similar fits to the M-T relation for both samples,with the normalization and the slope significantly different from bothprediction of self-similar collapse and hydrodynamical simulations. Wediscuss the origin of these discrepancies and also combine the X-raymass with velocity dispersion measurements to provide a comparison withhigh-resolution dark matter simulations. Finally, we discuss theimportance of a cluster formation epoch in the observed M-T relation. ASCA Observations of a Near-by Cluster in AntliaThe Antlia cluster is a near-by poor cluster which has a redshift of z =0.0087. X-ray observations with ASCA have revealed that the cluster isalmost isothermal in the X-ray with a temperature of kT ~ 2.0 keV. Themetal abundance is Z ~ 0.35\ ZSolar , and the 0.5-10.0 keVcluster luminosity is ~ 3.4 x 1042\h75-2 erg s-1 within r < 250\h-175 kpc. There was no X-ray central excessbrightness and little central cool component, which are frequently seenin near-by poor clusters. The Antlia cluster is the nearest poor clusterwithout these central features. Line-of-sight velocity distributions of 53 early-type galaxies55 long-slit spectra of 53 early-type galaxies were observed at LaSilla/ESO and reduced using standard methods. The line-of-sight velocitydistributions (LOSVDs) were measured using the fourier quotient methodand the fourier fitting method as described by van der Marel et al.(\cite{vdmarel93}). 32% of the examined galaxies contain kinematicallydecoupled stellar omponents, the size of these cores was 0.40 +/- 0.28kpc, in each case the core was smaller than 1 kpc. Analysis of thekinematics reveals in 49% of the sample galaxies the signature of astellar disk component, in 15% this is uncertain. There is evidence thatthe phenomenon of kinematically decoupled components is present in thewhole class of early-type galaxies. Several correlations betweenphotometric and kinematic parameters like the (v/sigma )* vs.epsilon diagram, the anisotropy - luminosity correlation or kappa -spacewere as well examined using measurement results for spectroscopic dataand photometric data out of literature. It is also shown that thosesample galaxies with kinematically decoupled components are more likelyto be found in groups of high density, strengthening the assumption thatsuch components are remnants of merging events. Full Fig. 6 is onlyavailable at http://www.edpsciences.org A Test for Large-Scale Systematic Errors in Maps of Galactic ReddeningAccurate maps of Galactic reddening are important for a number ofapplications, such as mapping the peculiar velocity field in the nearbyuniverse. Of particular concern are systematic errors which vary slowlyas a function of position on the sky, as these would induce spuriousbulk flow. We have compared the reddenings of Burstein & Heiles (BH)and those of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (SFD) to independentestimates of the reddening, for Galactic latitudes |b|>10^deg. Ourprimary source of Galactic reddening estimates comes from comparing thedifference between the observed B-V colors of early-type galaxies, andthe predicted B-V color determined from the B-V-Mg_2 relation. We havefitted a dipole to the residuals in order to look for large-scalesystematic deviations. There is marginal evidence for a dipolar residualin the comparison between the SFD maps and the observed early-typegalaxy reddenings. If this is due to an error in the SFD maps, then itcan be corrected with a small (13%) multiplicative dipole term. Weargue, however, that this difference is more likely to be due to a small(0.01 mag) systematic error in the measured B-V colors of the early-typegalaxies. This interpretation is supported by a smaller, independentdata set (globular cluster and RR Lyrae stars), which yields a resultinconsistent with the early-type galaxy residual dipole. BH reddeningsare found to have no significant systematic residuals, apart from theknown problem in the region 230^deg
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