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# NGC 3239 (Loony Galaxy)

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 The Molecular Interstellar Medium of Dwarf Galaxies on Kiloparsec Scales: A New Survey for CO in Northern, IRAS-detected Dwarf GalaxiesWe present a new survey for CO in dwarf galaxies using the ARO Kitt Peak12 m telescope. This survey consists of observations of the centralregions of 121 northern dwarfs with IRAS detections and no known COemission. We detect CO in 28 of these galaxies and marginally detectanother 16, increasing by about 50% the number of such galaxies known tohave significant CO emission. The galaxies we detect are comparable instellar and dynamical mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud, althoughsomewhat brighter in CO and fainter in the far-IR. Within dwarfs, wefind that the CO luminosity LCO is most strongly correlatedwith the K-band and the far-infrared luminosities. There are also strongcorrelations with the radio continuum (RC) and B-band luminosities andlinear diameter. Conversely, we find that far-IR dust temperature is apoor predictor of CO emission within the dwarfs alone, although a goodpredictor of normalized CO content among a larger sample of galaxies. Wesuggest that LCO and LK correlate well because thestellar component of a galaxy dominates the midplane gravitational fieldand thus sets the pressure and density of the atomic gas, which controlthe formation of H2 from H I. We compare our sample with moremassive galaxies and find that dwarfs and large galaxies obey the samerelationship between CO and the 1.4 GHz RC surface brightness. Thisrelationship is well described by a Schmidt law withΣRC~Σ1.3CO. Therefore,dwarf galaxies and large spirals exhibit the same relationship betweenmolecular gas and star formation rate (SFR). We find that this result isrobust to moderate changes in the RC-to-SFR and CO-to-H2conversion factors. Our data appear to be inconsistent with large (orderof magnitude) variations in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor inthe star-forming molecular gas. Neutral Hydrogen in Arp 158We present 21 cm observations of Arp 158. We have performed a study ofthe neutral hydrogen (H I) to help us understand the overall formationand evolution of this system. This is a disturbed system with distinctoptical knots connected by a linear structure embedded in luminousmaterial. There is also a diffuse spray to the southeast. The H I seemsto be made up of three distinct, kinematically separate systems. Arp 158bears a certain optical resemblance to NGC 520 (Arp 157), which has beenidentified as a mid-stage merger. From our 21 cm observations of Arp158, we also see a comparable H I content with NGC 520. Thesesimilarities suggest that Arp 158 is also an intermediate-stage merger. The Hα galaxy survey. I. The galaxy sample, Hα narrow-band observations and star formation parameters for 334 galaxiesWe discuss the selection and observations of a large sample of nearbygalaxies, which we are using to quantify the star formation activity inthe local Universe. The sample consists of 334 galaxies across allHubble types from S0/a to Im and with recession velocities of between 0and 3000 km s-1. The basic data for each galaxy are narrowband H\alpha +[NII] and R-band imaging, from which we derive starformation rates, H\alpha +[NII] equivalent widths and surfacebrightnesses, and R-band total magnitudes. A strong correlation is foundbetween total star formation rate and Hubble type, with the strongeststar formation in isolated galaxies occurring in Sc and Sbc types. Moresurprisingly, no significant trend is found between H\alpha +[NII]equivalent width and galaxy R-band luminosity. More detailed analyses ofthe data set presented here will be described in subsequent papers.Based on observations made with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.The full version of Table \ref{tab3} is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/23 Reduced image datafor this survey can be downloaded fromhttp://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/HaGS/ A search for Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the near-infrared. I. Selection of the sampleA sample of about 3800 Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies wasselected using the all-sky near-infrared (J, H and Ks-band)2MASS survey. The selected objects have a mean central surfacebrightness within a 5'' radius around their centre fainter than 18 magarcsec-2 in the Ks band, making them the lowestsurface brightness galaxies detected by 2MASS. A description is given ofthe relevant properties of the 2MASS survey and the LSB galaxy selectionprocedure, as well as of basic photometric properties of the selectedobjects. The latter properties are compared to those of other samples ofgalaxies, of both LSBs and classical'' high surface brightness (HSB)objects, which were selected in the optical. The 2MASS LSBs have aBT_c-KT colour which is on average 0.9 mag bluerthan that of HSBs from the NGC. The 2MASS sample does not appear tocontain a significant population of red objects.All tables and Figs. 2a-c are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org HI observations of loose galaxy groups. I. Data and global propertiesAt Nançay, 21-cm H I line observations were made of 15spiral-dominated loose groups of galaxies, divided into two samples: aninteracting'' sample containing at least one pair of interactinggalaxies, and a control'' sample having no optical evidence ofinteractions or morphological disturbances among the group members. Theinteracting sample consists of 62 galaxies representing 9 differentgroups, and the control sample contains 40 galaxies representing 6groups. Of the 91 galaxy and galaxy pairs observed, 74 were detected,while upper limits were placed on the remaining 17 objects. Thesehomogeneous H I data, which will be used in future analyses, providecomparative information on the H I content of groups and serve as aprobe of the vicinity of the target spirals for H I clouds or very lowsurface brightness gas-rich galaxies. ROSAT-HRI observations of six southern galaxy pairsWe present the detailed analysis of the X-ray data for 6 pairs, isolatedor in poor groups, observed at high resolution with the ROSAT HRI . Inall cases, the stronger X-ray source is associated with the brighterearly-type member and is extended. The extent varies from galactic togroup scale, from 3 (RR 210b) to 182 kpc( RR 22a). The fainter membersare detected only in two pairs, RR 210 and RR 259. Except for one case,no significant substructures have been detected in the X-ray maps,possibly also as a consequence of the poor statistics. The core radii ofthe X-ray surface brightness profiles are in the range 1-3 kpc. Thedistribution of the luminosities of galaxies in pairs encompasses a verywide range of both luminosities and LX / LBratios, in spite of the very small number of objects studied so far. Ourdata provide no evidence that pair membership affects the X-rayproperties of galaxies. Observation are discussed in the context of thepair/group evolution. Mapping Infrared Enhancements in Closely Interacting Spiral-Spiral Pairs. I. ISO CAM and ISO SWS ObservationsMid-infrared (MIR) imaging and spectroscopic observations are presentedfor a well-defined sample of eight closely interacting (CLO) pairs ofspiral galaxies that have overlapping disks and show enhancedfar-infrared (FIR) emission. The goal is to study the star formationdistribution in CLO pairs, with special emphasis on the role ofoverlap starbursts.'' Observations were made with the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO) using the CAM and SWS instruments. The ISO CAM maps,tracing the MIR emission of warm dust heated by young massive stars, arecompared to new ground-based Hα and R-band images. We identifythree possible subgroups in the sample, classified according to the starformation morphology: (1) advanced mergers (Arp 157, Arp 244, and Arp299), (2) severely disturbed systems (Arp 81 and Arp 278), and (3) lessdisturbed systems (Arp 276, KPG 347, and KPG 426). Localized starburstsare detected in the overlap regions in all five pairs of subgroups (1)and (2), suggesting that they are a common property in collidingsystems. Except for Arp 244, the overlap starburst'' is usuallyfainter than the major nuclear starburst in CLO pairs. Star formation inless disturbed systems'' is often distributed throughout the disks ofboth galaxies with no overlap starburst'' detected in any of them.These systems also show less enhanced FIR emission, suggesting that theyare in an earlier interaction stage when the direct disk collisions haveprobably not yet occurred. Based on observations made with ISO, an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA Member States and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. Arcsecond Positions of UGC GalaxiesWe present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only. Internal Kinematics of Blue Canada-France Redshift Survey Galaxies at Z ~ 0.6We present the results of a study of the internal kinematics of luminousstar-forming galaxies in the 0=0.5. New kinematic data areanalyzed for a sample of 24 galaxies from the Canada-France RedshiftSurvey (CFRS), most of them with rest-frame (U-V)_AB <= 1.14. Unlikemost previous studies, target galaxies were selected regardless of sizeand morphology, from a well-studied magnitude-limited survey (the CFRS).Our sample is therefore representative of the most rapidly changingone-third of the galaxy population in the 00.45 have sizes (from Hubble Space Telescope images)and velocity widths sigma_v (from emission lines) similar to those oftypical local irregular galaxies. This is consistent with theirmorphologies and rest-frame colors; however, these galaxies are asbright as the brightest local irregular galaxies and roughly 2 magbrighter than the typical irregular galaxies known nearby. We concludethat the increase in the number density of luminous blue galaxies atz>=0.5 is mainly due to a population of small and unusually brightlate-type galaxies. Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxiesWe present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory. On the Size and Formation Mechanism of Star Complexes in Sm, Im, and BCD GalaxiesThe diameters D_c_ of the largest star-forming complexes in 67Magellanic spiral and irregular galaxies and 16 blue compact dwarf (BCD)galaxies are found to scale approximately with the square root of thegalaxy luminosity for each type, i.e., smaller galaxies haveproportionately smaller star-forming regions. This is the same relationas for the largest complexes in bright spiral galaxies found previously,although Sm/Im galaxies have complexes that, on average, are a factor of2 larger than the extrapolation for spiral galaxies at the same absolutemagnitude, and the BCD galaxies have complexes that are ~2 times largerthan those typical of the Sm/Im galaxies at the same absolute magnitude.These results are consistent with the interpretation that the largestcomplexes form at the gravitational length scale in a marginally stableinterstellar medium with a nearly constant velocity dispersion c ~ 5-10km s^-1^. The luminosity scaling is then the result of higher averagetotal densities in smaller galaxies compared with the outer regions ofgiant spirals. This total density correlation is shown using published HI line widths and optical galaxy sizes. The implication of these resultsis that star formation begins when the ratio of the gas density ρ tothe total density (gas + stars + dark matter) exceeds several tenths. Ifstar formation lasts for a time scaling with (Grho_)^-1/2^ ~D_c_/c, then the main morphological differences between star formationin galaxies of various sizes can be explained: large galaxies have largestar complexes that form groups of OB associations slowly for up to 50Myr; small galaxies have small complexes (in terms of absolute size)that form dense associations quickly, in bursts spanning less than 5Myr. Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV systemThe photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3. Mean morphological types of bright galaxiesThe revised Hubble classifications provided in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on nine lists andcatalogues, both published and unpublished, from five observers. Thispaper describes the procedures that were used to combine theseclassifications into mean classifications including the family, variety,and stage. The best classifications in RC3 are based on large-scalephotographic images taken with 1.5-5 m class reflectors. However, mostof the types in RC3 are based on the small-scale prints, plates, andfilms of the first Palomar Sky Survey and the UK Schmidt IIIa-J SouthernSky Survey. The overlap between the different observers, samples alloweddetermination of the reliability of sky survey types and the effects ofdiameter and inclination on the accuracy of these types. We find thatfor a typical galaxy having isophotal diameter D25approximately = 2 min and inclined by approximately 50 degs, types Tfrom the sky surveys have a mean error (averaged over all of theobservers) of sigma(T) = 0.7 step on the numerical scale of the revisedHubble system. With the new database of classifications, we rederive theclassical relations between Hubble type and integrated colors, surfacebrightnesses, and hydrogen index (hydrogen flux to blue light ratio) fora large sample of galaxies. We also present a table of galaxies which weconsider to be representative examples of each type. Global properties of dwarf galaxies. I. Galaxy sample and IRAS infrared flux-densitiesWe have selected a sample of 278 dwarf galaxies for which at least Bmagnitudes and preferably also optical colour information are available.For those galaxies that have no previously published IRAS fluxes, wehave used the IRAS database to extract fluxes or upper limits tosensitivity levels significantly better than those of the IRAS PointSource Catalog. New IRAS data include 79 galaxies detected in at leastone band, and 66 galaxies with good upper limits. In total, about 60% ofall dwarf galaxies in the sample now have been detected at 60/100μm. Global properties of dwarf galaxies II. Colours and luminositiesWe have used a previously determined sample of 278 dwarf galaxies formost of which B magnitudes, optical colours, HI fluxes and IRASflux-densities are known, in order to derive luminosities, colours andsurface brightnesses. Dwarf galaxy properties are compared to those of acontrol sample of 228 larger spiral galaxies. The dwarf galaxies have onaverage higher 60/100μm flux ratios and lower 12/25μm flux ratiosthan the spiral galaxies, indicating that the contribution of `cirrus'to the infrared emission from dwarf galaxies is relativelyinsignificant. In the dwarf galaxies, the 60/100μm flux ratioincreases with increasing optical blueness; spiral galaxies show theopposite. Dwarf galaxies with a low optical surface brightness have low100μm/HI ratios, but the converse is not true. Galaxies with high100μm/HI ratios (indicative of high dust-to-gas ratios) also havehigh FIR/B ratios as well as high 60/100μm flux-density ratios.Although this is true for both spiral and dwarf galaxies, at given100μm/HI ratios the dwarf galaxies have both a lower FIR/B ratio anda higher 60/100μm flux-density ratio. This result is of importance inthe interpretation of FIR/B - 60/100μm diagrams in terms of starformation activity. Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group membersThis paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent. The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalogIRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths. The H II regions of the irregular galaxy, NGC 3239The luminosities of the 88 H II regions of NGC 3239, very likely amerging galaxy system, were measured by digital analysis of aphotographic plate (20 A bandwidth filter). Despite evidence for earlierstarburst activity, the present H II luminosity function is very similarto that for the LMC, including a supergiant H II region of 0.76 theluminosity of 30 Dor. The measured H II regions of NGC 3239 have anH-alpha total luminosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 40th erg/s. Evidence for redshift periodicity in nearby field galaxiesThe present study investigates the notion that extragalactic redshiftsare periodic in ranges around 24.2, 36.3, or 72.5 km/s for anindependent sample of 89 nearby spirals, in the general field, withaccurately determined heliocentric redshifts. A strong periodicity ofabout 37.2 km/s is found, against a white noise background, for anassumed solar vector coincidental, within the uncertainties, with thatcorresponding to the sun's probable motion around the Galactic Center.Comparison with sets of synthetic data simulating the overallcharacteristics of the real data show the periodicity to be present at ahigh confidence level. As an independent test, the sample was dividedinto two groups of 40 and 49 galaxies with more and less accuratelydetermined redshifts, respectively. The measured strength of theperiodicity is significantly greater for the group of 40 galaxies. Theoverall probability that the periodicity of 37.2 km/s arises by chanceis in the range of 3 x 10 exp -6 and exp -4. The HII Regions of the Merging Galaxy System, NGC 3239Not Available The structure of the irregular galaxy, NGC 3239UBVR surface photometry of the irregular galaxy, NGC 3239, has beencombined with H-alpha and neutral hydrogen data to show it to be agalaxy with new star formation, a possible remnant of disk structure,tails, and separate kinematical systems of gas and luminous matter. NGC3239 also has many H II regions including a giant H II region, andcolors appropriate to a late Hubble type. The model of merging galaxiesfits NGC 3239 very well. A search for megamaser galaxiesThe results of a search for OH megamaser emission from a sample of 32galaxies selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog on the basis oftheir IR properties are presented. For each galaxy (other than those fewalready observed elsewhere), an optical redshift is obtained and both OHand H I emission are sought. The search yielded one new OH megamasergalaxy, and H I was detected toward nine objects. There are unlikely tobe any OH megamasers in the Southern Hemisphere with flux densitiescomparable to that of Arp 220 (280 mJy), although there may be apopulation of weaker megamasers. No special conditions are required toexplain the known OH megamasers other than those expected in a cool,dusty, active galaxy. An extragalactic database. I - The Catalogue of Principal GalaxiesThe Catalogue of Principal Galaxies is described, which lists equatorialcoordinates (for the equinoxes 1950 and 2000) and cross-identificationsfor 73,197 galaxies. The 40,932 coordinates have standard deviationssmaller than 10 arcsec. A total of 131,601 names from the 38 most commonsources are listed. In addition, mean data for each object are givenwhen available: 49,102 morphological descriptions, 52,954 apparent majorand minor axes, 67,116 apparent magnitudes, 20,046 radial velocities and24,361 position angles. This information was used for facilitatingproper identification. Finally, distribution options are explained. Observations of galaxies in groups at 102 MHzObservations of 325 galaxies in groups were carried out at a frequencyof 102 MHz via the scintillation method. Radio emission was found in 42of these components. Eleven of these have a meridional component. Uncertainties in 21 centimeter redshifts. I - DataHigh-precision data on the 21-cm redshifts, profile widths, and shapesfor 625 galaxies are presented. Each galaxy is listed in across-identification and morphology table. High-resolution spectra arealso given for each galaxy. Internal redshift consistency is roughly 1km/s for galaxies for which the S/N is above 15. No systematic effectshave been found which might influence the observed redshift quantizationat 72.5 km/s or its submultiples. The Malmquist bias in the extragalactic distance scale - Controversies and misconceptionsSeveral critical statements about the authors' work on the Malmquistbias in the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation are examined. Theoreticalproblems with the bias and evidence for the bias are reviewed, and theconcept of the normalized distance is discussed. The determination ofH(0) from the plateau data is addressed, and the slope of the B-band TFrelation is examined. The cluster population incompleteness bias isdiscussed. It is shown that the criticisms are unjustified. A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxiesThe paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted. Radio emission of isolated single and double galaxiesThe catalogs of Karachentsev (1972) and Karachentseva (1973) are used tocompare the properties of isolated single and double galaxies, andquantitative results are obtained. It is shown that spiral galaxieswhich are members of pairs have a radio luminosity exceeding that ofsingle galaxies by 2.5 times on the average. In addition, it is foundthat members of interacting pairs are more powerful emitters in theradio range and that spiral galaxies which are members of triplets haveradio luminosities on a par with those of pair members.
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