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Hαkinematics of the SINGS nearby galaxies survey - I*
This is the first part of an Hαkinematics follow-up survey of theSpitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample. The data for28galaxies are presented. The observations were done on three differenttelescopes with Fabry-Perot of New Technology for the Observatoire dumont Megantic (FaNTOmM), an integral field photon-counting spectrometer,installed in the respective focal reducer of each telescope. The datareduction was done through a newly built pipeline with the aim ofproducing the most homogenous data set possible. Adaptive spatialbinning was applied to the data cubes in order to get a constantsignal-to-noise ratio across the field of view. Radial velocity andmonochromatic maps were generated using a new algorithm, and thekinematical parameters were derived using tilted-ring models.

Kinematics of Interstellar Gas in Nearby UV-selected Galaxies Measured with HST STIS Spectroscopy
We measure Doppler shifts of interstellar absorption lines in HST STISspectra of individual star clusters in nearby UV-selected galaxies.Values for systemic velocities, which are needed to quantify outflowspeeds, are taken from the literature and verified with stellar lines.We detect outflowing gas in 8 of 17 galaxies via low-ionization lines(e.g., C II, Si II, Al II), which trace cold and/or warm gas. Thestarbursts in our sample are intermediate in luminosity (and mass) todwarf galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), and we confirmthat their outflow speeds (ranging from -100 to nearly -520 kms-1, with an accuracy of ~80 km s-1) areintermediate to those previously measured in dwarf starbursts and LIRGs.We do not detect the outflow in high-ionization lines (such as C IV orSi IV); higher quality data will be needed to empirically establish howvelocities vary with the ionization state of the outflow. We do verifythat the low-ionization UV lines and optical Na I doublet give roughlyconsistent outflow velocities, solidifying an important link betweenstudies of galactic winds at low and high redshift. To obtain a highersignal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we create a local average compositespectrum and compare it to the high-z Lyman break composite spectrum. Itis surprising that the low-ionization lines show similar outflowvelocities in the two samples. We attribute this to a combination ofweighting toward higher luminosities in the local composite, as well asboth samples being, on average, brighter than the ``turnover''luminosity in the v-SFR relation.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations areassociated with program GO-9036.

Mid-Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Nuclear and Extranuclear Regions in Nearby Galaxies
Mid-infrared diagnostics are presented for a large portion of theSpitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample plus archivaldata from ISO and Spitzer. The SINGS data set includes low- andhigh-resolution spectral maps and broadband imaging in the infrared forover 160 nuclear and extranuclear regions within 75 nearby galaxiesspanning a wide range of morphologies, metallicities, luminosities, andstar formation rates. Our main result is that these mid-infrareddiagnostics effectively constrain a target's dominant power source. Thecombination of a high-ionization line index and PAH strength serves asan efficient discriminant between AGNs and star-forming nuclei,confirming progress made with ISO spectroscopy on starbursting andultraluminous infrared galaxies. The sensitivity of Spitzer allows us toprobe fainter nuclear and star-forming regions within galaxy disks. Wefind that both star-forming nuclei and extranuclear regions stand apartfrom nuclei that are powered by Seyfert or LINER activity. In fact, weidentify areas within four diagnostic diagrams containing >90%Seyfert/LINER nuclei or >90% H II regions/H II nuclei. We also findthat, compared to starbursting nuclei, extranuclear regions typicallyseparate even further from AGNs, especially for low-metallicityextranuclear environments. In addition, instead of the traditionalmid-infrared approach to differentiating between AGNs and star-formingsources that utilizes relatively weak high-ionization lines, we showthat strong low-ionization cooling lines of X-ray-dominated regions like[Si II] 34.82 μm can alternatively be used as excellentdiscriminants. Finally, the typical target in this sample showsrelatively modest interstellar electron density (~400 cm-3)and obscuration (AV~1.0 mag for a foreground screen),consistent with a lack of dense clumps of highly obscured gas and dustresiding in the emitting regions.

The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Deficit in Low-Metallicity Galaxies-A Spitzer View
Archival observations of 18 starburst galaxies that span a wide range inmetallicity reveal for the first time a correlation between the ratio ofemission-line fluxes of [Fe II] at 26 μm and [Ne II] at 12.8 μmand the 7.7 μm PAH strength, with the [Fe II]/[Ne II] flux ratiodecreasing with increasing PAH strength. We also find a strongcorrelation between the [Fe II]/[Ne II] flux ratio and the host galaxymetallicity, with the flux ratio decreasing with increasing metallicity.Since [Fe II] emission has been linked primarily to supernova shocks, weattribute the high [Fe II]/[Ne II] ratios in low-metallicity galaxies toenhanced supernova activity. We consider this to be a dominant mechanismfor PAH destruction, rather than grain destruction in photoionizedregions surrounding young massive stars. We also consider whether theextreme youth of the low-metallicity galaxies is responsible for thelack of PAH emission.

The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. II. Morphological refinement
We present a refinement of the optical morphologies for galaxies in theCatalog of Isolated Galaxies that forms the basis of the AMIGA (Analysisof the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies) project. Uniformreclassification using the digitized POSS II data benefited from thehigh resolution and dynamic range of that sky survey. Comparison withindependent classifications made for an SDSS overlap sample of more than200 galaxies confirms the reliability of the early vs. late-typediscrimination and the accuracy of spiral subtypes within Δ T =1-2. CCD images taken at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada were alsoused to solve ambiguities in early versus late-type classifications. Aconsiderable number of galaxies in the catalog (n = 193) are flagged forthe presence of nearby companions or signs of distortion likely due tointeraction. This most isolated sample of galaxies in the local Universeis dominated by two populations: 1) 82% are spirals (Sa-Sd) with thebulk being luminous systems with small bulges (63% between types Sb-Sc)and 2) a significant population of early-type E-S0 galaxies (14%). Mostof the types later than Sd are low luminosity galaxies concentrated inthe local supercluster where isolation is difficult to evaluate. Thelate-type spiral majority of the sample spans a luminosity rangeMB-corr = -18 to -22 mag. Few of the E/S0 population are moreluminous than -21.0 marking the absence of the often-sought superL* merger (e.g. fossil elliptical) population. The rarity ofhigh luminosity systems results in a fainter derived M* forthis population compared to the spiral optical luminosity function(OLF). The E-S0 population is from 0.2 to 0.6 mag fainter depending onhow the sample is defined. This marks the AMIGA sample as unique amongsamples that compare early and late-type OLFs separately. In othersamples, which always involve galaxies in higher density environments,M^*_E/S0 is almost always 0.3-0.5 mag brighter than M^*_S, presumablyreflecting a stronger correlation between M* andenvironmental density for early-type galaxies.

How large are the bars in barred galaxies?
I present a study of the sizes (semimajor axes) of bars in discgalaxies, combining a detailed R-band study of 65 S0-Sb galaxies withthe B-band measurements of 70 Sb-Sd galaxies from Martin (1995). As hasbeen noted before with smaller samples, bars in early-type (S0-Sb)galaxies are clearly larger than bars in late-type (Sc-Sd) galaxies;this is true both for relative sizes (bar length as fraction ofisophotal radius R25 or exponential disc scalelength h) andabsolute sizes (kpc). S0-Sab bars extend to ~1-10 kpc (mean ~ 3.3 kpc),~0.2-0.8R25 (mean ~ 0.38R25) and ~0.5-2.5h (mean ~1.4h). Late-type bars extend to only ~0.5-3.5 kpc,~0.05-0.35R25 and 0.2-1.5h their mean sizes are ~1.5 kpc, ~0.14R25 and ~0.6h. Sb galaxies resemble earlier-type galaxiesin terms of bar size relative to h; their smallerR25-relative sizes may be a side effect of higher starformation, which increases R25 but not h. Sbc galaxies form atransition between the early- and late-type regimes. For S0-Sbcgalaxies, bar size correlates well with disc size (both R25and h); these correlations are stronger than the known correlation withMB. All correlations appear to be weaker or absent forlate-type galaxies; in particular, there seems to be no correlationbetween bar size and either h or MB for Sc-Sd galaxies.Because bar size scales with disc size and galaxy magnitude for mostHubble types, studies of bar evolution with redshift should selectsamples with similar distributions of disc size or magnitude(extrapolated to present-day values); otherwise, bar frequencies andsizes could be mis-estimated. Because early-type galaxies tend to havelarger bars, resolution-limited studies will preferentially find bars inearly-type galaxies (assuming no significant differential evolution inbar sizes). I show that the bars detected in Hubble Space Telescope(HST) near-infrared(IR) images at z~ 1 by Sheth et al. have absolutesizes consistent with those in bright, nearby S0-Sb galaxies. I alsocompare the sizes of real bars with those produced in simulations anddiscuss some possible implications for scenarios of secular evolutionalong the Hubble sequence. Simulations often produce bars as large as(or larger than) those seen in S0-Sb galaxies, but rarely any as smallas those in Sc-Sd galaxies.

Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data Analysis
X-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources.

Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Galaxies
The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out acomprehensive multiwavelength survey on a sample of 75 nearby galaxies.The 1-850 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are presented usingbroadband imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. Theinfrared colors derived from the globally integrated Spitzer data aregenerally consistent with the previous generation of models that weredeveloped using global data for normal star-forming galaxies, althoughsignificant deviations are observed. Spitzer's excellent sensitivity andresolution also allow a detailed investigation of the infrared SEDs forvarious locations within the three large, nearby galaxies NGC 3031(M81), NGC 5194 (M51), and NGC 7331. A wide variety of spectral shapesis found within each galaxy, especially for NGC 3031, the closest of thethree targets and thus the galaxy for which the smallest spatial scalescan be explored. Strong correlations exist between the local starformation rate and the infrared colors fν(70μm)/fν(160 μm) and fν(24μm)/fν(160 μm), suggesting that the 24 and 70 μmemission are useful tracers of the local star formation activity level.Preliminary evidence indicates that variations in the 24 μm emission,and not variations in the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsat 8 μm, drive the variations in the fν(8.0μm)/fν(24 μm) colors within NGC 3031, NGC 5194, andNGC 7331. If the galaxy-to-galaxy variations in SEDs seen in our sampleare representative of the range present at high redshift, thenextrapolations of total infrared luminosities and star formation ratesfrom the observed 24 μm flux will be uncertain at the factor of 5level (total range). The corresponding uncertainties using theredshifted 8.0 μm flux (e.g., observed 24 μm flux for a z=2source) are factors of 10-20. Considerable caution should be used wheninterpreting such extrapolated infrared luminosities.

Dust properties of UV bright galaxies at z ~ 2
We investigate the properties of the extinction curve in the rest-frameUV for a sample of 34 UV-luminous galaxies at 2 < z < 2.5,selected from the FORS Deep Field (FDF) spectroscopic survey. A newparametric description of the rest-frame UV spectral energy distributionis adopted; its sensitivity to properties of the stellar populations orof dust attenuation is established with the use of models. The latterare computed by combining composite stellar population models andcalculations of radiative transfer of the stellar and scatteredradiation through the dusty interstellar medium (ISM) for a dust/starsconfiguration describing dust attenuation in local starbursts. In thefavoured configuration the stars are enveloped by a shell with atwo-phase, clumpy, dusty ISM. The distribution of the z ˜ 2UV-luminous FDF galaxies in several diagnostic diagrams shows that theirextinction curves range between those typical of the Small and LargeMagellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC, respectively). For the majority ofstrongly reddened objects having a UV continuum slope β > -0.4 asignificant 2175 Å absorption feature (or "UV bump") is inferred,indicating an LMC-like extinction curve. On the other hand, the UVcontinua of the least reddened objects are mostly consistent withSMC-like extinction curves, lacking a significant UV bump, as for thesample of local starbursts investigated by Calzetti and collaborators.Furthermore, the most opaque (⠘ 0) and, thus (for ourmodels), dustiest UV-luminous FDF galaxies tend to be among the mostmetal-rich, most massive, and largest systems at z ˜ 2, indicating< Z > ˜ 0.5 {-} 1 Zȯ, < Mstars> ˜ 6 × 1010 Mȯ, and ˜ 4 kpc, respectively. The presence of the UVbump does not seem to depend on the total metallicity, as given by theequivalent width (EW) of the C IV doublet. Conversely, it seems to beassociated with a large average EW of the six most prominentinterstellar low-ionisation absorption lines falling in the FORSspectra. The average EW of these saturated lines offers a proxy for theISM topology. We interpret these results as the evidence for adifference in the properties of the dusty ISM among the most evolvedUV-luminous, massive galaxies at z ˜ 2.

Missing Massive Stars in Starbursts: Stellar Temperature Diagnostics and the Initial Mass Function
Determining the properties of starbursts requires spectral diagnosticsof their ultraviolet radiation fields, to test whether very massivestars are present. We test several such diagnostics, using new models ofline ratio behavior combining CLOUDY, Starburst99, and up-to-datespectral atlases. For six galaxies we obtain new measurements of He I1.7 μm/Br10, a difficult to measure but physically simple (andtherefore reliable) diagnostic. We obtain new measurements of He I 2.06μm/Brγ in five galaxies. We find that He I 2.06 μm/Brγand [O III]/Hβ are generally unreliable diagnostics in starbursts.The heteronuclear and homonuclear mid-infrared line ratios (notably [NeIII] 15.6 μm/[Ne II] 12.8 μm) consistently agree with each otherand with He I 1.7 μm/Br10 this argues that the mid-infrared lineratios are reliable diagnostics of spectral hardness. In a sample of 27starbursts, [Ne III]/[Ne II] is significantly lower than modelpredictions for a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) extending to 100Msolar. Plausible model alterations strengthen thisconclusion. By contrast, the low-mass and low-metallicity galaxies II Zw40 and NGC 5253 show relatively high neon line ratios, compatible with aSalpeter slope extending to at least ~40-60 Msolar. Onesolution for the low neon line ratios in the high-metallicity starburstswould be that they are deficient in >~40 Msolar starscompared to a Salpeter IMF. An alternative explanation, which we prefer,is that massive stars in high-metallicity starbursts spend much of theirlives embedded within ultracompact H II regions that prevent the near-and mid-infrared nebular lines from forming and escaping. Thishypothesis has important consequences for starburst modeling andinterpretation.

NGC 3125-1: The Most Extreme Wolf-Rayet Star Cluster Known in the Local Universe
We use Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph long-slit ultravioletspectroscopy of local starburst galaxies to study the massive starcontent of a representative sample of super-star clusters, with aprimary focus on their Wolf-Rayet (W-R) content as measured from the HeII λ1640 emission feature. The goals of this work are threefold.First, we quantify the W-R and O-star content for selected massive youngstar clusters. These results are compared with similar estimates madefrom optical spectroscopy available in the literature. We conclude thatthe He II λ4686 equivalent width is a poor diagnostic measure ofthe true W-R content. Second, we present the strongest known He IIλ1640 emission feature in a local starburst galaxy. This featureis clearly of stellar origin in the massive cluster NGC 3125-1, as it isbroadened (~1000 km s-1). Strong N IV λ1488 and N Vλ1720 emission lines commonly found in the spectra of individualW-R stars of WN subtype are also observed in the spectrum of NGC 3125-1.Finally, we create empirical spectral templates to gain a basicunderstanding of the recently observed strong He II λ1640 featureseen in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at redshifts z~3. The UV fieldobserved in local starbursts provides a good overall match to thecontinuum and weak photospheric features in LBGs in the spectral rangeλλ1300-1700 but cannot reproduce the He II λ1640emission seen in the composite LBG sample of Shapley et al. Anadditional (ad hoc) 10%-15% contribution from ``extreme'' W-R clusterssimilar to NGC 3125-1 on top of the field provides a good match to thestrength of this feature.Based on observations with the NASA ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

Spectrophotometry of Star-forming Regions in H II Galaxies
We present spectrophotometric observations of 111 H II galaxies selectedfrom various surveys. Apart from the integrated spectra, we presentemission-line fluxes and equivalent widths of different star-formingknots for 33 galaxies for which the spatial distribution of physicalproperties can be assessed. Most of the objects have been observedpreviously. We reobserved these galaxies with uniform instrumentation,and data reduction was performed with homogeneous methods. Our analysisof the quality of the data indicates that our observations reach goodsignal-to-noise ratio over the whole spectral range, allowing themeasurement of-and the inclusion of additional-low-intensity emissionlines.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile, under an agreement between the Observatório Nacional,Brazil, and the ESO.

Catalog of Double Nucleus Disk Galaxies
We have compiled a catalog of disk galaxies that have a double nucleus,through systematic examination of existing catalogs and publications.The Catalog of Double Nucleus Disk Galaxies includes 107 objects,together with their basic data. The aim of the catalog is to provide amore systematic and homogeneous basis for the study of the relevance ofgalaxy interactions and minor mergers in the formation of these doublenuclei. We have also investigated possible correlations betweengeometric and photometric parameters of the double nuclei and their hostgalaxies. The preliminary results indicate the presence of severalsignificant correlations that should be considered in any theoreticalscenario describing minor mergers and disk galaxy evolution.

Stellar populations in HII galaxies
We analyse the stellar content of a large number of HII galaxies fromthe continua and absorption features of their spectra using populationsynthesis methods, in order to gain information about the star formationhistories of these objects.We find that all galaxies of our sample contain an old stellarpopulation (≥1 Gyr) that dominates the stellar mass, and in amajority of these we also found evidence for an intermediate-agepopulation ≥50 Myr apart from the presently bursting, ionizing younggeneration ≤107 yr.Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. VI. HI observations and the K-band Tully-Fisher relation
This paper reports a study of the effect of a bar on the neutralhydrogen (HI) content of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. We also makecomparisons with a sample of ``normal'' galaxies and investigate howwell starburst and Seyfert galaxies follow the fundamental scalingTully-Fisher (TF) relation defined for normal galaxies. 111 Markarian(Mrk) IRAS galaxies were observed with the Nançay radiotelescope,and HI data were obtained for 80 galaxies, of which 64 are newdetections. We determined the (20 and 50%) linewidths, the maximumvelocity of rotation and total HI flux for each galaxy. Thesemeasurements are complemented by data from the literature to form asample of Mrk IRAS (74% starburst, 23% Seyfert and 3% unknown) galaxiescontaining 105 unbarred and 113 barred ones. Barred galaxies have lowertotal and bias-corrected HI masses than unbarred galaxies, and this istrue for both Mrk IRAS and normal galaxies. This robust result suggeststhat bars funnel the HI gas toward the center of the galaxy where itbecomes molecular before forming new stars. The Mrk IRAS galaxies havehigher bias-corrected HI masses than normal galaxies. They also showsignificant departures from the TF relation, both in the B and K bands.The most deviant points from the TF relation tend to have a strongfar-infrared luminosity and a low oxygen abundance. These resultssuggest that a fraction of our Mrk IRAS galaxies are still in theprocess of formation, and that their neutral HI gas, partly of externalorigin, has not yet reached a stationary state.Based on observations obtained at the large radiotelescope ofObservatoire de Nançay, operated by Observatoire de Paris.Tables 5 and 6 are only (and Table 4 also) available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/515

The evolution of stars and gas in starburst galaxies
In systems undergoing starbursts the evolution of the young stellarpopulation is expected to drive changes in the emission-line properties.This evolution is usually studied theoretically, with a combination ofevolutionary synthesis models for the spectral energy distribution ofstarbursts and photoionization calculations. In this paper we present amore empirical approach to this issue. We apply empirical populationsynthesis techniques to samples of starburst and HII galaxies in orderto measure their evolutionary state and correlate the results with theiremission-line properties. A couple of useful tools are introduced thatgreatly facilitate the interpretation of the synthesis: (1) anevolutionary diagram, the axes of which are the strengths of the young,intermediate age and old components of the stellar population mix; and(2) the mean age of stars associated with the starburst, . These toolsare tested with grids of theoretical galaxy spectra and found to workvery well even when only a small number of observed properties(absorption-line equivalent widths and continuum colours) is used in thesynthesis.Starburst nuclei and HII galaxies are found to lie on a well-definedsequence in the evolutionary diagram. Using the empirically defined meanstarburst age in conjunction with emission-line data, we have verifiedthat the equivalent widths of Hβ and [OIII] decrease for increasing. The same evolutionary trend was identified for line ratios indicativeof the gas excitation, although no clear trend was identified formetal-rich systems. All these results are in excellent agreement withlong-known, but little tested, theoretical expectations.

The Starburst-AGN connection in the era of the GTC
Elucidating the relationship between intense star formation and the AGNphenomenon is crucial to our understanding of the formation of galaxiesand their supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the early Universe. Therehave been many suggestions that starbursts play a powerful role innearby Seyfert 2 galaxies. However, the role that starburst play in morepowerful distant AGN is not known. This contribution shows how deepspectroscopy and imaging taken with OSIRIS and EMIR will help todetermine whether the ubiquitous link between star formation and nuclearactivity established for nearby Seyferts extends to more powerfuldistant AGN.

SINGS: The SIRTF Nearby Galaxies Survey
The SIRTF Nearby Galaxy Survey is a comprehensive infrared imaging andspectroscopic survey of 75 nearby galaxies. Its primary goal is tocharacterize the infrared emission of galaxies and their principalinfrared-emitting components, across a broad range of galaxy propertiesand star formation environments. SINGS will provide new insights intothe physical processes connecting star formation to the interstellarmedium properties of galaxies and provide a vital foundation forunderstanding infrared observations of the distant universe andultraluminous and active galaxies. The galaxy sample and observingstrategy have been designed to maximize the scientific and archivalvalue of the data set for the SIRTF user community at large. The SIRTFimages and spectra will be supplemented by a comprehensivemultiwavelength library of ancillary and complementary observations,including radio continuum, H I, CO, submillimeter, BVRIJHK, Hα,Paα, ultraviolet, and X-ray data. This paper describes the mainastrophysical issues to be addressed by SINGS, the galaxy sample and theobserving strategy, and the SIRTF and other ancillary data products.

The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.

Massive stellar populations in the infrared
An overview of some key results related to hot, massive stars andstarbursts in the infrared is given. The wavelength range covers theground- and space-based near-infrared, the mid- and far-IR as probed byseveral space missions, and the sub-millimeter regime. I discuss howthese observations permit an unbiased view of dust-obscured stars andhow they are related to data at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths.

Discovery of Two Distant Type Ia Supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field-North with the Advanced Camera for Surveys
We present observations of the first two supernovae discovered with therecently installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST). The supernovae were found in Wide Field Camera imagesof the Hubble Deep Field-North taken with the F775W, F850LP, and G800Loptical elements as part of the ACS guaranteed time observation program.Spectra extracted from the ACS G800L grism exposures confirm that theobjects are Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts z=0.47 and 0.95.Follow-up HST observations have been conducted with ACS in F775W andF850LP and with the Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometerin the near-infrared F110W bandpass, yielding a total of nine fluxmeasurements in the three bandpasses over a period of 50 days in theobserved frame. We discuss many of the important issues in doingaccurate photometry with the ACS. We analyze the multiband light curvesusing two different fitting methods to calibrate the supernovaluminosities and place them on the SNe Ia Hubble diagram. The resultingdistances are consistent with the redshift-distance relation of theaccelerating universe model, although evolving intergalactic gray dustremains as a less likely possibility. The relative ease with which theseSNe Ia were found, confirmed, and monitored demonstrates the potentialACS holds for revolutionizing the field of high-redshift SNe Ia andtherefore of testing the accelerating universe cosmology andconstraining the ``epoch of deceleration.''

Revised positions for CIG galaxies
We present revised positions for the 1051 galaxies belonging to theKarachentseva Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). New positions werecalculated by applying SExtractor to the Digitized Sky Survey CIG fieldswith a spatial resolution of 1 arcsper 2. We visually checked theresults and for 118 galaxies had to recompute the assigned positions dueto complex morphologies (e.g. distorted isophotes, undefined nuclei,knotty galaxies) or the presence of bright stars. We found differencesbetween older and newer positions of up to 38 arcsec with a mean valueof 2 arcsper 96 relative to SIMBAD and up to 38 arcsec and 2 arcsper 42respectively relative to UZC. Based on star positions from the APMcatalog we determined that the DSS astrometry of five CIG fields has amean offset in (alpha , delta ) of (-0 arcsper 90, 0 arcsper 93) with adispersion of 0 arcsper 4. These results have been confirmed using the2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources. The intrinsic errors of ourmethod combined with the astrometric ones are of the order of 0 arcsper5.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/391

12CO(1-0) observation of isolated late-type galaxies
We present 12CO(J=1-0) line observations of 99 galaxiesobtained with the SEST 15 m, the Kitt Peak 12 m and the IRAM 30 mtelescopes. The target galaxies were selected from the catalogue ofisolated galaxies of Karachentseva (\cite{Karachentseva73}). These dataare thus representative of the CO properties of isolated late-typegalaxies. All objects were observed in their central position, thosewith large angular sizes were mapped. These new measurements are used toestimate the molecular gas mass of the target galaxies. The moleculargas is on average ~ 18% of the atomic gas mass.Tables 1 and 2 are also available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/381Based on observations made with the 12-m National Radio AstronomicalObservatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona, with the Swedish-ESO Submillimetretelescope SEST, La Silla, Chile, with the IRAM 30 m radiotelescope, PicoVeleta, Granada, Spain.

Radio observations of super star clusters in dwarf starburst galaxies
We present new radio continuum observations of two dwarf starburstgalaxies, NGC 3125 and 5408, with observations at 4.80 GHz (6 cm) and8.64 GHz (3 cm), taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array(ATCA). Both galaxies show a complex radio morphology with severalemission regions, mostly coincident with massive young star clusters.The radio spectral indices of these regions are negative (withα~-0.5 to -0.7), indicating that the radio emission is dominatedby synchrotron emission associated with supernova activity from thestarburst. One emission region in NGC 5408 has a flatter index(α~-0.1) indicative of optically thin free-free emission, whichcould indicate it is a younger cluster. Consequently, in these galaxieswe do not see regions with the characteristic positive spectral indexindicative of optically obscured star formation regions, as seen inother dwarf starbursts such as Hen 2-10.

An empirical calibration of star formation rate estimators
The observational determination of the behaviour of the star formationrate (SFR) with look-back time or redshift has two main weaknesses: (i)the large uncertainty of the dust/extinction corrections, and (ii) thatsystematic errors may be introduced by the fact that the SFR isestimated using different methods at different redshifts. Mostfrequently, the luminosity of the Hα emission line, that of theforbidden line [O II] λ3727 and that of the far-ultravioletcontinuum are used with low-, intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies,respectively. To assess the possible systematic differences among thedifferent SFR estimators and the role of dust, we have compared SFRestimates using Hα, [O II] λ3727 Å, ultraviolet (UV)and far-infrared (FIR) luminosities [SFR(Hα), SFR(O II), SFR(UV)and SFR(FIR), respectively of a sample comprising the 31 nearbystar-forming galaxies that have high-quality photometric data in the UV,optical and FIR. We review the different `standard' methods for theestimation of the SFR and find that while the standard method providesgood agreement between SFR(Hα) and SFR(FIR), both SFR(O II) andSFR(UV) are systematically higher than SFR(FIR), irrespective of theextinction law. We show that the excess in the SFR(O II) and SFR(UV) ismainly due to an overestimation of the extinction resulting from theeffect of underlying stellar Balmer absorptions in the measured emissionline fluxes. Taking this effect into consideration in the determinationof the extinction brings the SFR(O II) and SFR(UV) in line with theSFR(FIR), and simultaneously reduces the internal scatter of the SFRestimations. Based on these results, we have derived `unbiased' SFRexpressions for the SFR(UV), SFR(OII) and SFR(Hα). We have usedthese estimators to recompute the SFR history of the Universe using theresults of published surveys. The main results are that the use of theunbiased SFR estimators brings into agreement the results of allsurveys. Particularly important is the agreement achieved for the SFRderived from the FIR/millimetre and optical/UV surveys. The `unbiased'star formation history of the Universe shows a steep rise in the SFRfrom z =0 to z =1 with SFR ~(1+z)4.5, followed by a declinefor z>2 where SFR ~(1+z)-1.5. Galaxy formation models tendto have a much flatter slope from z=0 to z=1

A New Database of Observed Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Starburst Galaxies from the Ultraviolet to the Far-Infrared
We present a database of UV-to-FIR data of 83 nearby starburst galaxies.The galaxies are selected based upon the availability of IUE data. Wehave recalibrated the IUE UV spectra for these galaxies by incorporatingthe most recent improvements. For 45 of these galaxies we useobservations by Storchi-Bergmann et al. and McQuade et al. for thespectra in the optical range. The NIR data are from new observationsobtained at the NASA/IRTF and the Mount Laguna Observatory, combinedwith the published results from observations at the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. In addition, published calibrated ISO data are included toprovide mid-IR flux densities for some of the galaxies. Theoptical-to-IR data are matched as closely as possible to the IUE largeaperture. In conjunction with IRAS and ISO FIR flux densities, all thesedata form a set of observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of thenuclear regions of nearby starburst galaxies. The SEDs should be usefulin studying star formation and dust/gas attenuation in galaxies. We alsopresent the magnitudes in the standard BVRI and various HST/WFPC2bandpasses synthesized from the UV and optical wavelength ranges ofthese SEDs. For some of the galaxies, the HST/WFPC2 magnitudessynthesized from the SEDs are checked with those directly measured fromWFPC2 images to test the photometric errors of the optical data andtheir effective matching of apertures with the UV data. The implicationsof the new SEDs on the star formation rates and dust/gas attenuation arebriefly discussed.

The Massive Stellar Content in the Starburst NGC 3049: A Test for Hot-Star Models
The objective of this work is twofold. First, we seek evidence for oragainst the depletion of massive stars in metal-rich starbursts. Asecond, equally important goal is to perform a consistency test of thelatest generation of starburst models in such a high-metallicityenvironment. We have obtained high spatial resolution ultraviolet andoptical STIS spectroscopy and imaging of the metal-rich nuclearstarburst in NGC 3049. The stellar continuum and the absorption-linespectrum in the ultraviolet are used to constrain the massive stellarpopulation. The strong, blueshifted stellar lines of C IV and Si IVdetected in the UV spectra indicate a metal-rich, compact, massive(~106 Msolar) cluster of age 3-4 Myr emitting theUV-optical continuum. We find strong evidence against a depletion ofmassive stars in this metal-rich cluster. The derived age and the uppermass-limit cutoff of the initial mass function are also consistent withthe detection of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) features at optical wavelengths. As asecond, independent constraint on the massive stellar content, thenebular emission-line spectrum is modeled with photoionization codesusing stellar spectra from evolutionary synthesis models. The morphologyof the nuclear starburst of NGC 3049 from the STIS images indicates asimple geometry for the nebular emission-line region. However, thenebular lines are badly reproduced by 3-4 Myr instantaneous bursts, asrequired by the UV line spectrum, when unblanketed W-R and/or Kuruczstellar atmospheres are used. The corresponding number of photons above24 and 54 eV in the synthetic models is too high in comparison withvalues suggested by the observed line ratios. Since the ionizingspectrum in this regime is dominated by emission from W-R stars, thisdiscrepancy between observations and models is most likely the result ofincorrect assumptions about the W-R stars. Thus, we conclude that thenebular spectrum of high-metallicity starbursts is poorly reproduced bymodels for W-R-dominated populations. However, the new model set ofSmith et al. with blanketed W-R and O atmospheres and adjusted W-Rtemperatures predicts a softer far-UV radiation field, providing abetter match to the data.

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Far-Infrared Census of Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Far-infrared flux densities are newly extracted from the IRAS databasefor the Revised Shapley-Ames and CfA complete samples of Seyfertgalaxies. These data are used to classify the Seyfert galaxies intothose where the far-infrared continuum emission is dominated by theactive galactic nucleus (AGN), circumnuclear starburst, or host galaxy.While AGN-dominant objects consist of comparable numbers of Seyfert 1and 2 galaxies, starburst- and host-dominant objects consistpreferentially of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Thus, in addition to the dustytorus, the circumnuclear starburst region and host galaxy are importantin hiding the broad-line region. Morphologically, starburst-dominantSeyfert galaxies are of later types and more strongly interacting thanAGN-dominant Seyfert galaxies. In a later type galaxy, the AGN centralengine has a lower Eddington luminosity, and the gaseous content ishigher. The gas is efficiently supplied to the starburst via agalaxy-galaxy interaction. Morphologies of host-dominant Seyfertgalaxies are of various types. Since starbursts in Seyfert galaxies areolder than those in classical starburst galaxies, we propose anevolution from starburst to starburst-dominant Seyfert to host-dominantSeyfert for a late-type galaxy. An evolution from AGN-dominant Seyfertto host-dominant Seyfert is proposed for an early-type galaxy. Thesesequences have durations of a few times 108 yr and occurrepeatedly within a galaxy during its evolution from a late type to anearly type.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:09h54m49.60s
Aparent dimensions:2.089′ × 1.259′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 3049

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