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Dust masses and star formation in bright IRAS galaxies. Application of a physical model for the interpretation of FIR observations
We address the problem of modeling the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum andderiving the star-formation rate (SFR) and the dust mass of spiralgalaxies. We use the realistic physical model of Popescu et al.(\cite{popescu}) to describe the overall ultra-violet (UV), optical andFIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of a spiral galaxy. The modeltakes into account the 3-dimensional old and young stellar distributionsin the bulge and the disk of a galaxy, together with the dust geometry.The geometrical characteristics of the galaxy and the intrinsic opticaland near-infrared spectra are determined by the galaxy's observed K-bandphotometry. The UV part of the spectrum is assumed to be proportional tothe SFR through the use of population synthesis models. By solving theradiative transfer equation, we are able to determine the absorbedenergy, the dust temperature and the resulting FIR spectrum. The modelhas only three free parameters: SFR, dust mass, and the fraction of theUV radiation which is absorbed locally by dense dust in the HII regions.Using this model, we are able to fit well the FIR spectra of 62 brightIRAS galaxies from the ``SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey" of Dunne etal. (\cite{dunne1}). As a result, we are able to determine, amongothers, their SFR and dust mass. We find that, on average, the SFR (inabsolute units), the star-formation efficiency, the SFR surface densityand the ratio of FIR luminosity over the total intrinsic luminosity, arelarger than the respective values of typical spiral galaxies of the samemorphological type. We also find that the mean gas-to-dust mass ratio isclose to the Galactic value, while the average central face-on opticaldepth of these galaxies in the V band is 2.3. Finally, we find a strongcorrelation between SFR or dust mass and observed FIR quantities liketotal FIR luminosity or FIR luminosity at 100 and 850 μm. Thesecorrelations yield well-defined relations, which can be used todetermine a spiral galaxy's SFR and dust-mass content from FIRobservations.

Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. VI. HI observations and the K-band Tully-Fisher relation
This paper reports a study of the effect of a bar on the neutralhydrogen (HI) content of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. We also makecomparisons with a sample of ``normal'' galaxies and investigate howwell starburst and Seyfert galaxies follow the fundamental scalingTully-Fisher (TF) relation defined for normal galaxies. 111 Markarian(Mrk) IRAS galaxies were observed with the Nançay radiotelescope,and HI data were obtained for 80 galaxies, of which 64 are newdetections. We determined the (20 and 50%) linewidths, the maximumvelocity of rotation and total HI flux for each galaxy. Thesemeasurements are complemented by data from the literature to form asample of Mrk IRAS (74% starburst, 23% Seyfert and 3% unknown) galaxiescontaining 105 unbarred and 113 barred ones. Barred galaxies have lowertotal and bias-corrected HI masses than unbarred galaxies, and this istrue for both Mrk IRAS and normal galaxies. This robust result suggeststhat bars funnel the HI gas toward the center of the galaxy where itbecomes molecular before forming new stars. The Mrk IRAS galaxies havehigher bias-corrected HI masses than normal galaxies. They also showsignificant departures from the TF relation, both in the B and K bands.The most deviant points from the TF relation tend to have a strongfar-infrared luminosity and a low oxygen abundance. These resultssuggest that a fraction of our Mrk IRAS galaxies are still in theprocess of formation, and that their neutral HI gas, partly of externalorigin, has not yet reached a stationary state.Based on observations obtained at the large radiotelescope ofObservatoire de Nançay, operated by Observatoire de Paris.Tables 5 and 6 are only (and Table 4 also) available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/515

Mid-infrared emission of galactic nuclei. TIMMI2 versus ISO observations and models
We investigate the mid-infrared radiation of galaxies that are poweredby a starburst or by an AGN. For this end, we compare the spectraobtained at different spatial scales in a sample of infrared brightgalaxies. ISO observations which include emission of the nucleus as wellas most of the host galaxy are compared with TIMMI2 spectra of thenuclear region. We find that ISO spectra are generally dominated bystrong PAH bands. However, this is no longer true when inspecting themid-infrared emission of the pure nucleus. Here PAH emission is detectedin starbursts whereas it is significantly reduced or completely absentin AGNs. A physical explanation of these new observational results ispresented by examining the temperature fluctuation of a PAH afterinteraction with a photon. It turns out that the hardness of theradiation field is a key parameter for quantifying the photo-destructionof small grains. Our theoretical study predicts PAH evaporation in softX-ray environments. Radiative transfer calculations of clumpy starburstsand AGN corroborate the observational fact that PAH emission isconnected to starburst activity whereas PAHs are destroyed near an AGN.The radiative transfer models predict for starbursts a much largermid-infrared size than for AGN. This is confirmed by our TIMMI2acquisition images: We find that the mid-infrared emission of Seyfertsis dominated by a compact core while most of the starbursts arespatially resolved.Based on ESO: 68.B-0066(A) and observations with ISO, an ESA projectwith instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA.}

The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

An Hα survey aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. I. How common are gaseous halos among non-starburst galaxies?
In a series of two papers we present results of a new Hα imagingsurvey, aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas inhalos of late-type spiral galaxies. We have investigated a sample of 74nearby edge-on spirals, covering the northern and southern hemisphere.In 30 galaxies we detected extraplanar diffuse emission at meandistances of |z| ~ 1-2 kpc. Individual filaments can be traced out to|z|<=6 kpc in a few cases. We find a good correlation between the FIRflux ratio (S60/S100) and the SFR per unit area(LFIR/D225), based on thedetections/non-detections. This is actually valid for starburst, normaland for quiescent galaxies. A minimal SFR per unit area for the lowestS60/S100 values, at which extended emission hasbeen detected, was derived, which amounts to dotEA25thres = (3.2+/-0.5)*E40ergs-1 kpc-2. There are galaxies where extraplanaremission was detected at smaller values ofLFIR/D225, however, only in combinationwith a significantly enhanced dust temperature. The results corroboratethe general view that the gaseous halos are a direct consequence of SFactivity in the underlying galactic disk.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO No. 63.N-0070, ESO No. 64.N-0034, ESO No. 65.N.-0002).

The cold gas properties of Markarian galaxies
A sample of 61 Markarian galaxies detected in the CO line was compiled.Using available HI, element H2, optical and radio continuumdata, the analysis of the gas kinematics and the star formationproperties for this sample of galaxies was performed. The mainconclusion can be summarized as follows: (1) The HI and CO line widthsare well correlated. Interaction between galaxies has no influence onthe CO line broadening. A rapidly rotating nuclear disk in the galaxymight lead to the CO line broadening with less influence on the HI line.(2) The atomic and molecular gas surface densities are well correlatedwith the blue, FIR and radio continuum surface brightness; however, thecorrelation for molecular component is stronger.\ (3) In general, thegalaxies with UV-excess (Markarian galaxies) do not differ in their starformation properties from the non-UV galaxies.

Far-Infrared Census of Starburst-Seyfert Connection
Far-infrared flux densities are newly extracted from the IRAS databasefor the Revised Shapley-Ames and CfA complete samples of Seyfertgalaxies. These data are used to classify the Seyfert galaxies intothose where the far-infrared continuum emission is dominated by theactive galactic nucleus (AGN), circumnuclear starburst, or host galaxy.While AGN-dominant objects consist of comparable numbers of Seyfert 1and 2 galaxies, starburst- and host-dominant objects consistpreferentially of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Thus, in addition to the dustytorus, the circumnuclear starburst region and host galaxy are importantin hiding the broad-line region. Morphologically, starburst-dominantSeyfert galaxies are of later types and more strongly interacting thanAGN-dominant Seyfert galaxies. In a later type galaxy, the AGN centralengine has a lower Eddington luminosity, and the gaseous content ishigher. The gas is efficiently supplied to the starburst via agalaxy-galaxy interaction. Morphologies of host-dominant Seyfertgalaxies are of various types. Since starbursts in Seyfert galaxies areolder than those in classical starburst galaxies, we propose anevolution from starburst to starburst-dominant Seyfert to host-dominantSeyfert for a late-type galaxy. An evolution from AGN-dominant Seyfertto host-dominant Seyfert is proposed for an early-type galaxy. Thesesequences have durations of a few times 108 yr and occurrepeatedly within a galaxy during its evolution from a late type to anearly type.

The SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey - I. First measurements of the submillimetre luminosity and dust mass functions
This is the first of a series of papers presenting results from theSCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey (SLUGS), the first statistical surveyof the submillimetre properties of the local Universe. As the initialpart of this survey, we have used the SCUBA camera on the James ClerkMaxwell Telescope to observe 104 galaxies from the IRAS Bright GalaxySample. We present here the 850-μm flux measurements. The 60-, 100-,and 850-μm flux densities are well fitted by single-temperature dustspectral energy distributions, with the sample mean and standarddeviation for the best-fitting temperature beingTd=35.6+/-4.9K and for the dust emissivity indexβ=1.3+/-0.2. The dust temperature was found to correlate with60-μm luminosity. The low value of β may simply mean that thesegalaxies contain a significant amount of dust that is colder than thesetemperatures. We have estimated dust masses from the 850-μm fluxesand from the fitted temperature, although if a colder component ataround 20K is present (assuming a β of 2), then the estimated dustmasses are a factor of 1.5-3 too low. We have made the first directmeasurements of the submillimetre luminosity function (LF) and of thedust mass function. Unlike the IRAS 60-μm LF, these are well fittedby Schechter functions. The slope of the 850-μm LF at lowluminosities is steeper than -2, implying that the LF must flatten atluminosities lower than we probe here. We show that extrapolating the60-μm LF to 850μm using a single temperature and β does notreproduce the measured submillimetre LF. A population of `cold' galaxies(Td<25K) emitting strongly at submillimetre wavelengthswould have been excluded from the 60-μm-selected sample. If suchgalaxies do exist, then this estimate of the 850-μm flux is biased(it is underestimated). Whether such a population does exist is unknownat present. We correlate many of the global galaxy properties with theFIR/submillimetre properties. We find that there is a tendency for lessluminous galaxies to contain hotter dust and to have a greater starformation efficiency (cf. Young). The average gas-to-dust ratio for thesample is 581+/-43 (using both the atomic and molecular hydrogen), whichis significantly higher than the Galactic value of 160. We believe thatthis discrepancy is probably due to a `cold dust' component atTd<=20K in our galaxies. There is a surprisingly tightcorrelation between dust mass and the mass of molecular hydrogen,estimated from CO measurements, with an intrinsic scatter of ~=50percent.

Absorption-Line Probes of Gas and Dust in Galactic Superwinds
We have obtained moderate resolution (R=few thousand) spectra of the NaI λλ5890, 5896 (Na D) absorption line in a sample of 32far-IR-bright starburst galaxies. In 18 cases, the Na D line in thenucleus is produced primarily by interstellar gas, while cool starscontribute significantly in the others. In 12 of the 18``interstellar-dominated'' cases the Na D line is blueshifted by over100 km s-1 relative to the galaxy systemic velocity (the``outflow sources''), while no case shows a net redshift of more than100 km s-1. The absorption-line profiles in these outflowsources span the range from near the galaxy systemic velocity to amaximum blueshift of ~400-600 km s-1. The outflow sources aregalaxies systematically viewed more nearly face-on than the others. Wetherefore argue that the absorbing material consists of ambientinterstellar material that has been entrained and accelerated along theminor axis of the galaxy by a hot starburst-driven superwind. The Na Dlines are optically thick, but indirect arguments imply total hydrogencolumn densities of NH~few×1021cm-2. This implies that the superwind is expelling matter ata rate comparable to the star formation rate. This outflowing materialis evidently very dusty: we find a strong correlation between the depthof the Na D profile and the line-of-sight reddening. Typical impliedvalues are E(B-V)=0.3-1 over regions several-to-10 kpc in size. Webriefly consider some of the potential implications of theseobservations. The estimated terminal velocities of superwinds inferredfrom the present data and extant X-ray data are typically 400-800km-1, are independent of the galaxy rotation speed, and arecomparable to (substantially exceed) the escape velocities forL* (dwarf) galaxies. The resulting selective loss of metalsfrom shallower potential wells can establish the mass-metallicityrelation in spheroids, produce the observed metallicity in theintracluster medium, and enrich a general IGM to of order10-1 solar metallicity. If the outflowing dust grains cansurvive their journey into the IGM, their effect on observations ofcosmologically distant objects would be significant.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Obtaining Galaxy Masses Using Stellar Absorption and [O II] Emission-Line Diagnostics in Late-Type Galaxies
The [O II] λ3727 emission lines and absorption features fromstellar Balmer and Ca H and K lines are the most accessible kinematicdiagnostics in galaxies at z~1. We investigate the kinematics of 22local late-type galaxies using these spectral features, and we comparethe results with 21 cm neutral hydrogen spectra in order to assess theutility of each diagnostic for measuring galaxy masses. In order tosimulate data at high redshift, where only one-dimensional velocityprofiles are normally available, we study spatially integrated, as wellas spatially resolved, spectra. Although the studied galaxies span awide range of morphological types, inclinations, and star formationrates, we find that the gaseous and stellar kinematic tracers yieldcomparable kinematic line widths and systemic velocities. The [O II] andH I line widths correlate most strongly, showing an intrinsic dispersionof ~20 km s-1, or ~10% for a typical galaxy with a kinematicwidth of 200 km s-1. In a few extreme cases, the [O II] linewidths underestimate the neutral hydrogen width by 50%. Reliablevelocity widths can also be obtained from the stellar Balmer and Ca Hand K absorption lines, even for some of the very late type galaxiesthat have strong emission lines. The intrinsic dispersion is <=10%between the stellar absorption and H I line widths. We provide aprescription for using these strong stellar absorption and [O II]emission features to measure the kinematics, and thus masses, ofgalaxies in the distant universe.

Induced Star Formation in Markarian Galaxies
>From a submm study to characterize the global star formation in aFIR flux limited sample of Markarian galaxies, it has been found thatthe LIR/Mgas is a factor of 20 larger than fornormal spiral galaxies. Such high value was interpreted in terms of anenhancement in the efficiency of star formation in Markarian galaxies.An inspection of the selected galaxies in the DSS shows that most ofthem present important dynamical perturbations in the form of tidaltails, bridges with nearby companions, double nuclei, etc. The presenceof bright knots along the tidal tails can be related to the formation ofdwarf systems in them. Here we report the still preliminary resultsobtained for three galaxies: Mrk 538, Mrk 496 and Mrk 708. Their commonproperty in the three cases is the large event of star formationoccuring in their nuclei which extends beyond the central main body ofthe galaxy. Among the most interesting results we want to point out thatthe bulge of the companion galaxy of Mrk 538 has been resolved in threeknots which show spectra typical for a poststarburst event. In the samesystem also a star formation bridge connecting both galaxies has beendetected. For Mrk 496 we have detected a double nucleus and the reportedspectra show characteristics typical for a large burst of star formationon the top of a rather normal galaxy. Mrk 708 shows a very extended starformation event following the bar direction. Most of the compact objectssurrounding the galaxies have been analyzed and all the redshifts arereported. We have discovered three new BAL QSOs with redshifts largerthan 3, and a large amount of dwarf systems with redshifts mostlybetween 0.1 and 0.6.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The QDOT all-sky IRAS galaxy redshift survey
We describe the construction of the QDOT survey, which is publiclyavailable from an anonymous FTP account. The catalogue consists ofinfrared properties and redshifts of an all-sky sample of 2387 IRASgalaxies brighter than the IRAS PSC 60-μm completeness limit(S_60>0.6Jy), sparsely sampled at a rate of one-in-six. At |b|>10deg, after removing a small number of Galactic sources, the redshiftcompleteness is better than 98per cent (2086/2127). New redshifts for1401 IRAS sources were obtained to complete the catalogue; themeasurement and reduction of these are described, and the new redshiftstabulated here. We also tabulate all sources at |b|>10 deg with noredshift so far, and sources with conflicting alternative redshiftseither from our own work, or from published velocities. A list of 95ultraluminous galaxies (i.e. with L_60μm>10^12 L_solar) is alsoprovided. Of these, ~20per cent are AGN of some kind; the broad-lineobjects typically show strong Feii emission. Since the publication ofthe first QDOT papers, there have been several hundred velocity changes:some velocities are new, some QDOT velocities have been replaced by moreaccurate values, and some errors have been corrected. We also present anew analysis of the accuracy and linearity of IRAS 60-μm fluxes. Wefind that the flux uncertainties are well described by a combination of0.05-Jy fixed size uncertainty and 8per cent fractional uncertainty.This is not enough to cause the large Malmquist-type errors in the rateof evolution postulated by Fisher et al. We do, however, find marginalevidence for non-linearity in the PSC 60-μm flux scale, in the sensethat faint sources may have fluxes overestimated by about 5per centcompared with bright sources. We update some of the previous scientificanalyses to assess the changes. The main new results are as follows. (1)The luminosity function is very well determined overall but is uncertainby a factor of several at the very highest luminosities(L_60μm>5x10^12L_solar), as this is where the remainingunidentified objects are almost certainly concentrated. (2) Thebest-fitting rate of evolution is somewhat lower than our previousestimate; expressed as pure density evolution with density varying as(1+z)^p, we find p=5.6+/-2.3. Making a rough correction for the possible(but very uncertain) non-linearity of fluxes, we find p=4.5+/-2.3. (3)The dipole amplitude decreases a little, and the implied value of thedensity parameter, assuming that IRAS galaxies trace the mass, isΩ=0.9(+0.45, -0.25). (4) Finally, the estimate of density varianceon large scales changes negligibly, still indicating a significantdiscrepancy from the predictions of simple cold dark matter cosmogonies.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

The Mass-to-Light Ratio of Binary Galaxies
We report on the mass-to-light ratio determination based on a newlyselected binary galaxy sample, which includes a large number of pairswhose separations exceed a few hundred kpc. The probabilitydistributions of the projected separation and the velocity differencehave been calculated considering the contamination of optical pairs, andthe mass-to-light (M/L) ratio has been determined based on the maximumlikelihood method. The best estimate of the M/L in the B band for 57pairs is found to be 28-36 depending on the orbital parameters and thedistribution of optical pairs (solar unit: H_0=50 km s^-1 Mpc^-1). Thebest estimate of the M/L for 30 pure spiral pairs is found to be 12-16.These results are relatively smaller than those obtained in previousstudies but are consistent with each other within the errors. Althoughthe number of pairs with large separation is significantly increasedcompared with previous samples, the M/L does not show any tendency ofincrease but is found to be almost independent of the separation ofpairs beyond 100 kpc. The constancy of the M/L beyond 100 kpc mayindicate that the typical halo size of spiral galaxies is less than ~100kpc.

The Pico DOS Dias Survey Starburst Galaxies
We discuss the nature of the galaxies found in the Pico dos Dias Survey(PDS) for young stellar objects. The PDS galaxies were selected from theIRAS Point Source catalog. They have flux density of moderate or highquality at 12, 25, and 60 μm and spectral indices in the ranges -3.00<= alpha(25, 12) <= + 0.35 and -2.50 <= alpha(60, 25) <=+0.85. These criteria allowed the detection of 382 galaxies, which are amixture of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. Most of the PDS Seyfertgalaxies are included in the catalog of warm IRAS sources by de Grijp etal. The remaining galaxies constitute a homogeneous sample of luminous[log F (L_B/L_ȯ) = 9.9 +/- 0.4] starburst galaxies, 67% of whichwere not recognized as such before. The starburst nature of the PDSgalaxies is established by comparing their L_IR/L_B ratios and IRAScolors with a sample of emission-line galaxies from the literaturealready classified as starburst galaxies. The starburst galaxies show anexcess of FIR luminosity, and their IRAS colors are significantlydifferent from those of Seyfert galaxies-99% of the starburst galaxiesin our sample have a spectral index alpha(60, 25) < -1.9. As opposedto Seyfert galaxies, very few PDS starbursts are detected in X-rays. Inthe infrared, the starburst galaxies form a continuous sequence withnormal galaxies. But they generally can be distinguished from normalgalaxies by their spectral index alpha(60, 25) > -2.5. This colorcutoff also marks a change in the dominant morphologies of the galaxies:the normal IRAS galaxies are preferentially late-type spirals (Sb andlater), while the starbursts are more numerous among early-type spirals(earlier than Sbc). This preference of starbursts for early-type spiralsis not new, but a trait of the massive starburst nucleus galaxies(Coziol et al.). As in other starburst nucleus galaxy samples, the PDSstarbursts show no preference for barred galaxies. No difference isfound between the starbursts detected in the FIR and those detected onthe basis of UV excess. The PDS starburst galaxies represent the FIRluminous branch of the UV-bright starburst nucleus galaxies, with meanFIR luminosity log (L_IR/L_ȯ) = 10.3 +/- 0.5 and redshifts smallerthan 0.1. They form a complete sample limited in flux in the FIR at 2 x10^-10 ergs cm^-2 s^-1.

Toward a Unified Model for the ``Diffuse Ionized Medium'' in Normal and Starburst Galaxies
The ``diffuse ionized medium'' (DIM) makes up a significant fraction ofthe mass and ionization requirements of the interstellar medium of theMilky Way and is now known to be an energetically significant componentin most normal star-forming galaxies. Observations of the ionized gas instarburst galaxies have revealed the presence of gas with strikingsimilarities to the DIM in normal galaxies: relatively low surfacebrightness and strong emission from low-ionization forbidden lines like[S II] lambdalambda6716, 6731. In this paper we analyze Hα imagesand long-slit spectra of samples of normal and starburst galaxies tobetter understand the nature of this diffuse, low surface brightnessgas. We find that in both samples there is a strong inverse correlationbetween the Hα surface brightness (Sigma_Hα) and the [SII]/Hα line ratio at a given location in the galaxy. However, thecorrelation for the starbursts is offset brightward by an order ofmagnitude in Hα surface brightness at a given line ratio. Incontrast, we find that all the galaxies (starburst and normal alike)define a universal relation between line ratio and the relative Hαsurface brightness (Sigma_Hα/Sigma_e, where Sigma_e is the meanHα surface brightness within the galaxy half-light radius). Weshow that such a universal correlation is a natural outcome of a modelin which the DIM is photoionized gas that has a characteristic thermalpressure (P) that is proportional to the mean rate of star formation perunit area in the galaxy (Sigma_SFR). Good quantitative agreement withthe data follows if we require the constant of proportionality to beconsistent with the values of P and Sigma_SFR in the local disk of theMilky Way. Such a scaling between P and Sigma_SFR may arise eitherbecause feedback from massive stars heats the ISM or because Sigma_SFRis determined (or limited) by the mean gas pressure.

Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. III. Definition of a homogeneous sample of starburst nucleus galaxies
This paper presents optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of 105barred Markarian IRAS galaxies. These observations are used to determinethe spectral type (starburst or Seyfert) of emission-line regions in thenucleus and along the bar of the galaxies, in order to define ahomogeneous sample of Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBNGs). Our selectioncriteria (ultraviolet excess, far infrared emission and barredmorphology) have been very efficient for selecting star-forminggalaxies, since our sample of 221 emission-line regions includes 82%nuclear or extranuclear starbursts. The contamination by Seyferts is low(9%). The remaining galaxies (9%) are objects with ambiguousclassification (Hii or LINER). The dust content and Hα luminosityincrease towards the nuclei of the galaxies. No significant variation ofthe electron density is found between nuclear and bar Hii regions.However, the mean Hα luminosity and electron density in the barare higher than in typical disk Hii regions. We investigate differentmechanisms for explaining the excess of nitrogen emission observed inour starburst nuclei. There is no evidence for the presence of a weakhidden active galactic nucleus in our starburst galaxies. The cause ofthis excess is probably a selective enrichment of nitrogen in the nucleiof the galaxies, following a succession of short and intense bursts ofstar formation. Our sample of SBNGs, located at a mean redshift of ~0.015, has moderate Hα ( ~ 10(41) erg s(-1) ) and far infrared ( ~10(10) Lsun) luminosities. The types are distributed equallyamong early- and late-type giant spirals with a slight preference forSbc/Sc types because of their barred morphology. The majority (62%) ofSBNGs are isolated with no sign of gravitational interaction. In termsof distance, luminosity and level of interaction, SBNGs are intermediatebetween Hii galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies. Based onobservations obtained at the 1.93 meter telescope of Observatoire deHaute-Provence operated by INSU (CNRS). Tables 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Mid-Infrared Continuum of Starburst Nuclei: Contribution from Hot Large Grains within H II Regions?
The IRAS 12 and 25 mu m fluxes are compared with the Br gamma flux in asample of starburst nuclei. Good correlations are found between them.The subsequent analysis indicates the presence of two components in themid-infrared continuum: the nonthermal emission from "small grains"(<=100 A) which are heated transiently by nonionizing photons outsidethe H II regions and the thermal emission from "large grains" which areheated to ~140 K by ionizing, nonionizing, and Ly alpha photons insidethe H II regions. The small grains emitting at 12 mu m are depleted by~20% with respect to cirrus clouds in our Galaxy. The ratio of amountsof large grains to gas in the H II regions is comparable to the standardinterstellar value. The emission from hot large grains appears to bemore enhanced over the emission from small grains in starburst nucleiwith higher excitations.

A correlation between CO linewidth and starburst age in barred spiral galaxies.
New CO(1->0) and CO(2->1) profiles complemented by data from theliterature are used to obtain CO linewidths for 29 barred spiralgalaxies with young nuclear starbursts. The ages of the starbursts wereestimated from optical spectroscopy and recent evolutionary synthesismodels. The CO linewidths and the starburst ages are correlated:galaxies with young (4-6Myr) starbursts display narrow (<~100km/s) COline while those with older starbursts show broader CO lines. We discussseveral scenarios of the gas dynamics during the nuclear starbursts'evolution to interpret the correlation.

The Nature of Starburst Galaxies
Utilizing a large sample of infrared-selected starburst galaxies havingoptical images and long-slit spectra, we explore the interrelationshipsbetween the properties of starbursts and relate these properties tothose of the "host" galaxy. We find that the half-light radius of theHα-emitting region (r_e,Hα_) enters into severalcorrelations that suggest it is physically related to the actualstarburst radius. Most suggestively, the effective IR surface brightness(L_IR_/πr^2^_e,Hα_) correlates strongly with the far-IR colortemperature. This can be reproduced roughly with an idealized model of asurrounding dust screen whose far-IR emissivity is determined by thelocal energy density of UV starburst light. Typical values forr_e,Hα_ are a few hundred pc to a few kpc (with the Hαemission being significantly more compact than the red starlight). Thisconfirms the "circumnuclear" scales of typical starbursts. We show alsothat starbursts seem to obey a limiting IR surface brightness of about10^11^L_sun_ kpc^2^, corresponding to a maximum star formation rate ofabout 20 M_sun_ yr^-1^ kpc^2^ for a normal initial mass function. Weargue that this upper limit suggests that starbursts are self-regulatingin some way. We show that most of these galaxies have relatively normal,symmetric rotation curves. This implies that the galactic disk need notsuffer severe dynamical damage in order to "fuel" a typical starburst.We show also that the starbursts occur preferentially in the innerregion of solid-body rotation. This may reflect both bar-driven inflowof gas to the region between the inner Lindblad resonances and thedominance of gravitational instability over tidal shear in this region.Most of the starbursts reside in galaxies with rotation speeds of120-200 km s^-1^ (compared to 220 km s^-1^ for a fiducial L^*^ galaxylike the Milky Way). The lack of a correlation between galaxy rotationspeed and starburst luminosity means that even relatively modestgalaxies (masses~10% of the Milky Way) can host powerful starbursts. Weargue on the basis of causality that the internal velocity dispersion ina starburst sets an upper limit to the star formation rate. The mostextreme starbursts approach this limit, but most are well below.Finally, we show that the relative narrowness of the nuclear emissionlines in starbursts (relative to the galaxy rotation speed) arisesbecause the gas in the nuclear "bin" usually does not sample fully thesolid-body part of the rotation curve. The narrow lines do notnecessarily imply that the starburst is not in dynamical equilibrium.

Ionized Gas in the Halos of Edge-on Starburst Galaxies: Evidence for Supernova-driven Superwinds
Supernova-driven galactic winds ("superwinds") have been invoked toexplain many aspects of galaxy formation and evolution. Such windsshould arise when the supernova rate is high enough to create a cavityof very hot shock-heated gas within a galaxy. This gas can then expandoutward as a high-speed wind that can accelerate and heat ambientinterstellar or circum-galactic gas causing it to emit optical lineradiation and/or thermal X-rays. Theory suggests that such winds shouldbe common in starburst galaxies and that the nature of the winds shoulddepend on the star formation rate and distribution. In order tosystematize our observational understanding of superwinds (determinetheir incidence rate and the dependence of their properties on the starformation that drives them) and to make quantitative comparisons withthe theory of superwinds, we have analyzed data from an opticalspectroscopic and narrow-band imaging survey of an infrared flux-limited(S_60 microns_ >= 5.4 Jy) sample of about 50 IR-warm (S_60microns_/S_100 microns_ > 0.4), starburst galaxies whose stellardisks are viewed nearly edge-on (b/a ~> 2). This sample containsgalaxies with infrared luminosities from ~10^10^-10^12^ L_sun_ andallows us to determine the properties of superwinds over a wide range ofstar formation rates. We have found that extraplanar emission-line gasis a very common feature of these edge-on, IR-bright galaxies and theproperties of the extended emission-line gas are qualitatively andquantitatively consistent with the superwind theory. We can summarizethese properties as morphological, ionization, dynamical, and physical.1. Morphological properties.-Extraplanar filamentary and shell-likeemission-line morphologies on scales of hundreds of parsecs to 10 kpcare common, there is a general "excess" of line emission along the minoraxis, the minor axis emission-line "excess" correlates with "IRactivity," and the minor axis emission-line "excess" also correlateswith the relative compactness of the Hα emission. 2. Ionizationproperties.-Line ratios become more "shocklike" (high ratios of [N II]λ6583/Hα, [S II] λλ6716, 6731/Hα, and[O I] λ6300/Hα) at more extreme IR properties, the most"shocklike" line ratios occur far out along the minor axis, "shocklike"line ratios corresponds to broad emission lines, and the most extremeline ratios correspond to the most extreme IR properties, especially forthe emission-line gas farthest out along the minor axis. 3. Dynamicalproperties.-Lines are broader along the minor axis than along the majoraxis, line widths correlate with the "IR activity," line widthscorrelate with line ratios, line widths do not correlate with rotationspeed, minor axis shear (a measure of the systematic velocity changealong the minor axis) correlates with "IR activity," minor axis shearcorrelates with axial ratio and implies that a face-on galaxy would havean outflow/inflow speed of 170_-80_^+150^ km s^-1^, and the starburstsshow statistically blueward line profile asymmetries. 4. Physicalproperties.-Pressures in the nuclei of these galaxies are 3 orders ofmagnitude higher than the ambient pressure in the interstellar medium ofour galaxy, and the pressure falls systematically with radius. Whilenone of these results are in themselves proof of the superwind model, webelieve that when the results are taken as a whole, the superwindhypothesis is very successful in explaining what we have observed. Inaddition, these results have implications for galaxy evolution and thenature of the intergalactic medium. Those galaxies with the bestevidence for driving superwinds are those with large IR luminosities(L_IR_ ~> 10^44^ ergs s^-1^), large IR excesses (L_IR_/L_OPT_ ~>2), and warm far-IR colors (S_60 microns_/S_100 microns_ ~> 0.5).Integrating over the local far-IR luminosity function for galaxiesmeeting the above criteria, multiplying by the age of the universe, andthen dividing by the local space density of galaxies implies thatsuperwinds have carried out ~5 x 10^8^ M_sun_ in metals and 10^59^ ergsin kinetic plus thermal energy per average (Schecter L^*^) galaxy overthe history of the universe. We note that these two quantities areapproximately equal to the mass of metals contained inside an averagegalaxy and the gravitational binding energy of an average galaxy,respectively. Even with the conservative assumptions of this calculation(we have neglected that star formation rates were presumably higher inthe early universe), it is obvious that superwinds may have a majorimpact on the evolution of individual galaxies and the intergalacticmedium by injecting mass, metals, and kinetic energy into the galactichalo and potentially the intergalactic medium.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.

Ionized gas in the halos of edge-on, starburst galaxies: Data and results
We present narrowband H-alpha and broadband R images, as well aslong-slit spectra oriented along the minor and major axes of a sample ofabout 50 edge-on (a/b greater than or equal to 2), infrared-warm(S60 microns/S100 microns greater than 0.04),infrared-bright S60 microns greater than or equal to 5.4 Jygalaxies. The infrared luminosity of the sample ranges over1010 - 1012 solar luminosity. The spatiallyresolved spectroscopy includes the measurement of velocity relative tothe nuclear velocity, full width at half-maximum, total integrated fluxin the profile (for those spectra taken under photometric conditions)for the lines (N II) lambda lambda 6548, 6583, (O I) lambda 6300,H-alpha, and (S II) lambda lambda 6716, 6713 and line ratios as afunction of slit position along both the major and minor axes. Theresolution of the spectra are between about 3 and 5 A. The spectroscopicdata are presented for 5 bins along each axis -- a nuclear bin that is asum of the CCD rows that cover the half-light diameter centered on thenucleus of the galaxy, two near-nuclear bins which are sums of the CCDrows that cover from one to two half-light radii on each side of thenucleus, and two off-nuclear bins which are sums of the rows at nucleardistances greater than two half-light radii on each side of the nucleus.Additionally, we present recession velocities, nuclear line asymmetries,rotation speeds, minor axis velocity shears, H-alpha luminosities,R-band absolute magnitudes, minor axis H-alpha `excess' and effectiveradii of the galaxies in h-alpha and the R continuum. We deferdiscussion of the properties of the emission-line gas and theircorrelation with the infrared properties of this sample of galaxies to alater paper and limit ourselves to a presentation of the data andanalysis.

Multiwavelength Energy Distributions and Bolometric Luminosities of the 12 Micron Galaxy Sample
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...453..616S&db_key=AST

Radio-far-infrared relation in Markarian galaxies
We have compared the radio continuum properties of Markarian galaxies atlambda lambda 6.3 and 2.8 cm with the integrated far-infraredluminosities over the 60 micrometer and 100 micrometer IRAS bands andover the 12 micrometer to 25 micrometer regime. We find that Markariangalaxies behave like normal star-forming galaxies. Comparing L60,100 with the radio emission, most objects lie in the region ofnormal star-forming galaxies. Only some Seyferts and most of theradio-quiet quasars show a higher radio-to-FIR ratio. ComparingL12, 25 with the radio luminosity, the correlation issurprisingly tight for all objects. In both cases the dispersion of thecorrelation seems to depend on the radio wavelength and is smaller atlambda 2.8 cm than at lambda 6.3 cm.

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Right ascension:09h42m11.40s
Aparent dimensions:2.138′ × 0.724′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 2966

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