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The HST view of the nuclear emission line region in low luminosity radio-galaxies
We study the properties of the emission line regions in two samples oflow luminosity radio-galaxies, while focusing on the Compact EmissionLine Region (CELR) revealed to be a characteristic feature of theseobjects by HST narrow-band imaging. We find a strong correlation betweenline and optical continuum nuclear emission, which suggests that theoptical cores (most likely of non-thermal origin) can be directlyassociated to the source of ionizing photons, i.e. that we are seeing ajet-ionized narrow line region. A photon budget argument indicates thatthe optical nuclear sources produce sufficient photon flux provided thatthe covering factor of the circum-nuclear gas is rather large, onaverage 0.3. Analysis of HST images and spectra suggests that the CELRmay take the form of a pc-scale, high filling factor structure, possiblyan optically thin torus. Estimates of the CELR mass lead to values assmall as 10{-}10^3 Mȯ, and photon counting sets a limitto the Broad Line Region mass of M_BLR < 10-2Mȯ. When considered together with the low accretion rateand the tenuous torus structure, a general paucity of gas in theinnermost regions of low luminosity radio-galaxies emerges as the maincharacterizing difference from more powerful Active Galactic Nuclei.

A dichotomy in the orientation of dust and radio jets in nearby low-power radio galaxies
We examine the properties of central dust in nearby quiescent and activeearly-type galaxies. The active galaxies are low-power radio galaxieswith Fanaroff & Riley type I or I/II radio jets. We focus on (a) thecomparison of the dust distributions in the active and quiescent galaxysamples; and (b) the relation between the radio jet and dustorientations. Our main observational conclusions are: (i) in line withprevious studies, the dust detection rate is higher in radio-jetgalaxies than in non radio-jet galaxies; (ii) radio galaxies contain ahigher fraction of regular dust “ellipses” compared toquiescent galaxies which contain more often irregular dustdistributions; (iii) the morphology, size and orientation of dustellipses and lanes in quiescent early-types and active early-types withkpc-scale radio jets is very similar; (iv) dust ellipses are alignedwith the major axis of the galaxy, dust lanes do not show a preferredalignment except for large (>kpc) dust lanes which are aligned withthe minor axis of the galaxy; and (v) as projected on the sky, jets donot show a preferred orientation relative to the galaxy major axis (andhence dust ellipses), but jets are preferentially perpendicular to dustlanes. We show that the dust ellipses are consistent with being nearlycircular thin disks viewed at random viewing angles. The lanes arelikely warped dust structures, which may be in the process of settlingdown to become regular disks or are being perturbed by anon-gravitational force. We use the observed dust-jet orientations toconstrain the three-dimensional angle θDJ between jetand dust. For dust-lane galaxies, the jet is approximately perpendicularto the dust structure, while for dust-ellipse galaxies there is a muchwider distribution of θDJ. We discuss two scenariosthat could explain the dust/jet/galaxy orientation dichotomy. If lanesare indeed settling, then the jet orientation apparently is roughlyaligned with the angular momentum of the dust before it settles. Iflanes are perturbed by a jet-related force, it appears that it causesthe dust to move out of its equilibrium plane in the galaxy into a planewhich is perpendicular to the jet.

Optical nuclei of radio-loud AGN and the Fanaroff-Riley divide
We investigate the nature of the point-like optical nuclei that havebeen found in the centres of the host galaxies of a majority of radiogalaxies by the Hubble Space Telescope. We examine the evidence thatthese optical nuclei are relativistically beamed, and look fordifferences in the behaviour of the nuclei found in radio galaxies ofthe two Fanaroff-Riley types. We also attempt to relate this behaviourto the properties of the optical nuclei in their highly beamedcounterparts (the BL Lac objects and radio-loud quasars) as hypothesizedby the simple Unified Scheme. Simple model-fitting of the data suggeststhat the emission may be coming from a non-thermal relativistic jet. Itis also suggestive that the contribution from an accretion disk is notsignificant for the FRI objects and for the narrow-line radio galaxiesof FRII type, while it may be significant for the Broad-line objects,and consistent with the idea that the FRII optical nuclei seem to sufferfrom extinction due to an obscuring torus while the FRI optical nucleido not. These results are broadly in agreement with the Unified Schemefor radio-loud AGNs.Appendix C is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Spectroscopy of the Emission-Line Gas in the Nuclei of Nearby FR-I Galaxies
We present the results of the analysis of a set of medium-resolutionspectra, obtained by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on boardthe Hubble Space Telescope, of the emission-line gas present in thenuclei of a complete sample of 21 nearby, early-type galaxies with radiojets (the UGC FR-I Sample). For each galaxy nucleus we presentspectroscopic data in the region of Hα and the derived kinematics.We find that in 67% of the nuclei the gas appears to be rotating and,with one exception, the cases where rotation is not seen are eitherface-on or have complex central morphologies. We find that in 62% of thenuclei the fit to the central spectrum is improved by the inclusion of abroad component. The broad components have a mean velocity dispersion of1349+/-345 km s-1 and are redshifted from the narrow linecomponents (assuming an origin in Hα) by 486+/-443 kms-1.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

Core Radio and Optical Emission in the Nuclei of nearby FR I Radio Galaxies
In this paper we analyze the relation between radio, optical continuumand Hα+[N II] emission from the cores of a sample of 21 nearbyFanaroff and Riley type I galaxies as observed with the VLBA and HST.The emission arises inside the inner tens of parsecs of the galaxies.Core radio emission is observed in 19/20 galaxies, optical corecontinuum emission is detected in 12/21 galaxies and Hα+[N II]core emission is detected in 20/21 galaxies. We confirm the recentlydetected linear correlation between radio and optical core emission inFR I galaxies and show that both core emissions also correlate withcentral Hα+[N II] emission. The tight correlations between radio,optical, and Hα+[N II] core emission constrain the bulk Lorentzfactor to γ~2-5 and γ<~2 for a continuous jet and a jetconsisting of discrete blobs, respectively, assuming jet-viewing anglesin the range 30°-90°. Radio and optical core emissions arelikely to be synchrotron radiation from the inner jet, possibly with asignificant contribution from emission by an accretion disk and/or flow.Elliptical galaxies with LINER nuclei without large-scale radio jetsseem to follow the core emission correlations found in FR I galaxies.This suggests that the central engines could be very similar for the twoclasses of active galactic nuclei. Based on observations with theNASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities forResearch in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample
Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxycatalogue (Falco et al. \cite{Falco}) we have identified 291 compactgroups (CGs) with radial velocity between 1000 and 10 000 kms-1. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Tripletsdisplay kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higherorder CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute lowvelocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population andare typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multipletsshow higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and aregenerally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating thatTriplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond todifferent galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilstMultiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected orcollapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selectioneffects can only partially account for differences, but significantcontamination of Triplets by field galaxy interlopers could eventuallyinduce the observed dependences on multiplicity. Tables 1 and 2 are onlyavailable in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/35

VLBA Observations of a Sample of Nearby FR I Radio Galaxies
We observed 17 nearby low-luminosity FR I radio galaxies using the NRAOVery Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 1.67 GHz, as part of amultiwavelength study of a complete sample of 21 sources selected byradio flux density from the Uppsala General Catalogue of Galaxies. Wedetected radio emission from all 17 galaxies. At a FWHM resolution of~10×4 mas, five galaxies show only an unresolved radio core, 10galaxies show core-jet structures, and two galaxies show twin-jetstructures. Comparing these VLBA images with images previously obtainedwith the NRAO VLA, we find that all detected VLBA jets are well alignedon parsec scales with the VLA jets on kiloparsec scales and that thejet-to-counterjet surface brightness ratios, or the sidedness, decreasessystematically with increasing distance along the jet. We attribute thesidedness to the Doppler boosting effect and its decline to thedeceleration of the jets. We show that a distribution of Lorentz factorcentered near Γ=5 can reproduce our VLBA detection statistics forcore, core-jet, and twin-jet sources. We also note that the luminosityper unit length, Lj, of the VLBA jets drops quickly withdistance, r, along the jet, approximately asLj~r-2.0. We discuss three different mechanisms toexplain this jet fading: (1) the decrease of Doppler boosting due to jetdeceleration, (2) synchrotron losses, and (3) expansion losses inconstant velocity but adiabatically spreading jets. Mechanisms (1) and(2) are inconsistent with the observations, while mechanism (3) isconsistent with the observations provided the magnetic field lines inthe jets are aligned perpendicular to the jet axis. This implies thatthe deceleration of the jets required by the unified scheme does notoccur on the tens of parsec scales but must occur on larger scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Nearby Radio-Loud Early-Type Galaxies
We present and analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 broad- andnarrowband observations of the central regions of 19 nearby radio-loudearly-type galaxies. Together with two more galaxies, they form acomplete sample of Fanaroff and Riley Type I galaxies. We obtained V-and I-band images and narrowband images centered on the Hα+[N II]emission lines. We use archival data for six galaxies. We describe thedata reduction, give isophotal fits, and analyze the centralemission-line gas and dust distributions. Our main conclusions are thefollowing. Although obscuration by dust inhibits a direct determinationof central cusp slopes, the data suggest that most but not all galaxieshave shallow cores. Dust is detected in all but two galaxies. There area wide variety of central dust morphologies, ranging from central disksto lanes and irregular distributions. The analysis suggests that thedifference between disks and lanes is intrinsic and not due to differentviewing angles. Central emission-line gas is detected in all galaxies.Extended low surface brightness emission is always associated with thedust features. In a subsequent paper we will present a detailed analysisof the relation between these central properties and the nuclearactivity.

UGC galaxies stronger than 25 mJy at 4.85 GHz
UGC galaxies in the declination band +5 to +75 deg were identified byposition coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy on theGreen Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Candidate identifications were confirmedor rejected with the aid of published aperture-synthesis maps and new4.86 GHz VLA maps having 15 or 18 arcsec resolution, resulting in asample of 347 nearby radio galaxies plus five new quasar-galaxy pairs.The radio energy sources in UGC galaxies were classified as 'starbursts'or 'monsters' on the basis of their infrared-radio flux ratios, infraredspectral indices, and radio morphologies. The rms scatter in thelogarithmic infrared-radio ratio q is not more than 0.16 for starburstgalaxies selected at 4.85 GHz. Radio spectral indices were obtained fornearly all of the UGC galaxies, and S0 galaxies account for adisproportionate share of the compact flat-spectrum (alpha less than0.5) radio sources. The extended radio jets and lobes produced bymonsters are preferentially, but not exclusively, aligned within about30 deg of the optical minor axes of their host galaxies. The tendencytoward minor-axis ejection appears to be independent of radio-sourcesize and is strongest for elliptical galaxies.

New observations and a photographic atlas of polar-ring galaxies
A photographic atlas of polar-ring galaxies and related objects ispresented. The atlas includes kinematically confirmed polar-ringgalaxies (category A), good condidates based on their morphologicalappearance (category B), possible candidates (category C), and possiblyrelated objects (category D). New photometric and kinematic observationsare reported for several galaxies in the catalog, including observationsthat show that UGC 7576 and UGC 9796 ( = II ZW 73) are S0 galaxies withpolar rings. Roughly 0.5 percent of all nearby S0 galaxies appear tohave polar rings. When corrected for various selection effects (e.g.,nonoptimal viewing orientation, possible dimming, or limited lifetime ofthe ring) the percentage increases to about 5 percent of S0 galaxieswhich have, or have had a polar ring.

Radio identifications of UGC galaxies - Starbursts and monsters
New and previously published observational data on galaxies withdeclination less than +82 deg from the Uppsala General Catalog (Nilson,1973) are compiled in extensive tables and characterized in detail.Optical positions are confirmed by measurement of Palomar Sky Survey Oprints, and radio identifications for 176 galaxies are made on the basisof 1.4-GHz Green Bank sky maps or 1.49-GHz observations obtained withthe C configuration of the VLA in November-December 1986; contour mapsbased on the latter observations are provided. Radio-selected andIR-selected galaxy populations are found to be similar (and distinctfrom optically selected populations), and three radio/IR criteria aredeveloped to distinguish galaxies powered by starbursts from those withsupermassive black holes or other 'monster' energy sources.

A correlation between ellipticity and core-strength in extended radio galaxies
It is shown that in the case of extended radio sources a correlationexists between the fraction of the radio flux retained in the corecomponent and the ellipticity of the underlying galaxy. The correlationis in the sense that stronger cores occur in flatter galaxies. It wouldseem that there exists a class of intrinsically rounder, redder, massiveellipticals with larger velocity dispersions and metallicities, that canform extended radio sources more efficiently. Thus the occurrence of aradio source appears to be related to the dynamical and chemicalevolution of the Galaxy.

Radio observations of early-type galaxies
A complete sample of 34 nearby early-type galaxies, based on the Arecibosurvey by Dressel and Condon (1978) of objects from the Uppsala GeneralCatalogue, has now been mapped at radio frequencies. New data arepresented for 23 galaxies in the sample, and references are given topublished maps of the remainder. The majority of the sources show strongjet-like structures, but others remain unresolved. These latter occurprimarily in galaxies classed as S0 in the UGC. A strong correlationbetween radio luminosity and size has been found with log P (2.7 GHz)between 23.0 and 25.0. This correlation is in the sense that weaksources are confined within the optical extent of their parent galaxies,whereas strong sources generally attain large sizes. A tentativeexplanation of this tendency is offered in terms of the flowinstabilities in beams of energetic particles passing through densemedia.

5-GHz survey of bright galaxies.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1975AJ.....80..771S&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Ursa Major
Right ascension:09h32m53.00s
Aparent dimensions:1.445′ × 1.445′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 2892

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