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|Optical Spectroscopy of Type IB/C Supernovae|
We present 84 spectra of Type Ib/c and Type IIb supernovae (SNe),describing the individual SNe in detail. The relative depths of thehelium absorption lines in the spectra of the SNe Ib appear to provide ameasurement of the temporal evolution of the SN, with He I λ5876and He I λ7065 growing in strength relative to He I λ6678over time. Light curves for three of the SNe Ib provide a sequence forcorrelating the helium line strengths. We find that some SNe Ic showevidence for weak helium absorption, but most do not. Aside from thepresence or absence of the helium lines, there are other spectroscopicdifferences between SNe Ib and SNe Ic. On average, the O I λ7774line is stronger in SNe Ic than in SNe Ib. In addition, the SNe Ic havedistinctly broader emission lines at late times, indicating aconsistently larger explosion energy and/or lower envelope mass for SNeIc than for SNe Ib. While SNe Ib appear to be basically homogeneous, theSNe Ic are quite heterogeneous in their spectroscopic characteristics.Three SNe Ic that may have been associated with gamma-ray bursts arealso discussed; two of these have clearly peculiar spectra, while thethird seems fairly typical.
|The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data|
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The Canaris Type IA Supernovae Archive (I)|
This paper presents an atlas containing 59 low-resolution supernova
spectra which correspond to 27 type Ia supernovae. These 59spectra spectra which correspond to 27 type Ia supernovae. These 59spectra refer to different ages along the postmaximum type Ia evolution,covering from the photospheric to the old (~>300 days) nebularphases. These supernovae were observed as a part of the long-termobservational program Supernova Monitoring Project, carried out at theObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain) from 1990 Julyto 1994 July. Most of these observations were taken with the FaintObject Spectrograph (FOS) and a few spectra were obtained by means theISIS spectrograph. Three or more spectra were obtained for ten of thesesupernovae. Concerning the homogeneity among the type Ia supernovasubclass, our sample points to a "first-order" overall homogeneousspectroscopic behavior. However, a finer analysis - comparing spectra atsimilar evolutionary phase-allows differences to be found in relation tostrengths, wavelength positions, and evolution with time of the moresignificant spectral type Ia supernova features. Furthermore, someobjects that exhibit clear signs of spectroscopic peculiarities (SNe1991F, 1991bg, and 1991bj) are also included in our sample. The parentgalaxies of these supernovae present redshifts ranging from z = 0.003 toz = 0.07. Four of these (SNe 1991S, 1991ad, 1992R, and 1992ac) wereobserved in galaxies with z~>0.05. Only six events in our sample weredetected in an early-type (i.e., elliptical or lenticular) galaxy,whereas multiple supernova events were detected in five of the parentgalaxies in our supernova sample.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|A comparative study of morphological classifications of APM galaxies|
We investigate the consistency of visual morphological classificationsof galaxies by comparing classifications for 831 galaxies from sixindependent observers. The galaxies were classified on laser print copyimages or on computer screen using scans made with the Automated PlateMeasuring (APM) machine. Classifications are compared using the RevisedHubble numerical type index T. We find that individual observers agreewith one another with rms combined dispersions of between 1.3 and 2.3type units, typically about 1.8 units. The dispersions tend to decreaseslightly with increasing angular diameter and, in some cases, withincreasing axial ratio (b/a). The agreement between independentobservers is reasonably good but the scatter is non-negligible. In spiteof the scatter, the Revised Hubble T system can be used to train anautomated galaxy classifier, e.g. an artificial neural network, tohandle the large number of galaxy images that are being compiled in theAPM and other surveys.
|A catalog of recent supernovae|
A listing is given of all supernovae discovered between 1 Jan 1989 and 1Apr 1993. The data show no evidence for a significant dependence of thediscovery probability of supernovae on parent galaxy inclination to theline of sight. If no inclination corrections need to be applied then thesupernova rates in spirals are only about half as large as previouslybelieved. The mean linear separation of supernovae of Type II (SNe II)from the center of their parent galaxy increases with increasingdistance (Shaw effect). The Shaw effect appears less evident, or absent,for (more luminous) supernovae of Type Ia. The data are consistent with,but do not prove, the hypothesis that (presumably reddended) SNe II aremore likely to be discovered in the red than in the blue. Due tointensive surveillance, most bright SNe Ia tend to be found beforemaximum, whereas the majority of faint SNe Ia are discovered aftermaximum light.
|Supernova 1991K in NGC 2851|
IAUC 5196 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.
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