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A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Kinematics of AWM and MKW Poor Clusters
We have measured 1365 redshifts to a limiting magnitude of R~15.5 in 15AWM/MKW clusters and have collected another 203 from the literature inMKW 4s, MKW 2, and MKW 2s. In AWM 7 we have extended the redshift sampleto R~18 in the cluster center. We have identified 704 cluster members in17 clusters; 201 are newly identified. We summarize the kinematics anddistributions of the cluster galaxies and provide an initial discussionof substructure, mass and luminosity segregation, spectral segregation,velocity-dispersion profiles, and the relation of the central galaxy toglobal cluster properties. We compute optical mass estimates, which wecompare with X-ray mass determinations from the literature. The clustersare in a variety of dynamical states, reflected in the three classes ofbehavior of the velocity-dispersion profile in the core: rising,falling, or flat/ambiguous. The velocity dispersion of the emission-linegalaxy population significantly exceeds that of the absorption-linegalaxies in almost all of the clusters, and the presence ofemission-line galaxies at small projected radii suggests continuinginfall of galaxies onto the clusters. The presence of a cD galaxy doesnot constrain the global cluster properties; these clusters are similarto other poor clusters that contain no cD. We use the similarity of thevelocity-dispersion profiles at small radii and the cD-like galaxies'internal velocity dispersions to argue that cD formation is a localphenomenon. Our sample establishes an empirical observational baselineof poor clusters for comparison with simulations of similar systems.Observations reported in this paper were obtained at the Multiple MirrorTelescope Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the University ofArizona and the Smithsonian Institution; at the Whipple Observatory, afacility operated jointly by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatoryand Harvard University; and at the WIYN Observatory, a joint facility ofthe University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, YaleUniversity, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample
Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxycatalogue (Falco et al. \cite{Falco}) we have identified 291 compactgroups (CGs) with radial velocity between 1000 and 10 000 kms-1. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Tripletsdisplay kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higherorder CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute lowvelocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population andare typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multipletsshow higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and aregenerally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating thatTriplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond todifferent galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilstMultiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected orcollapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selectioneffects can only partially account for differences, but significantcontamination of Triplets by field galaxy interlopers could eventuallyinduce the observed dependences on multiplicity. Tables 1 and 2 are onlyavailable in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/35

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Kinematics and dynamics of the MKW/AWM poor clusters
We report 472 new redshifts for 416 galaxies in the regions of the 23poor clusters of galaxies originally identified by Morgan, Kayser, andWhite (MKW), and Albert, White, and Morgan (AWM). Eighteen of the poorclusters now have 10 or more available redshifts within 1.5/h Mpc of thecentral galaxy; 11 clusters have at least 20 available redshifts. Basedon the 21 clusters for which we have sufficient velocity information,the median velocity scale is 336 km/s, a factor of 2 smaller than foundfor rich clusters. Several of the poor clusters exhibit complex velocitydistributions due to the presence of nearby clumps of galaxies. We checkon the velocity of the dominant galaxy in each poor cluster relative tothe remaining cluster members. Significantly high relative velocities ofthe dominant galaxy are found in only 4 of 21 poor clusters, 3 of whichwe suspect are due to contamination of the parent velocity distribution.Several statistical tests indicate that the D/cD galaxies are at thekinematic centers of the parent poor cluster velocity distributions.Mass-to-light ratios for 13 of the 15 poor clusters for which we havethe required data are in the range 50 less than or = M/LB(0)less than or = 200 solar mass/solar luminosity. The complex nature ofthe regions surrounding many of the poor clusters suggests that thesegroupings may represent an early epoch of cluster formation. Forexample, the poor clusters MKW7 and MKWS are shown to be gravitationallybound and likely to merge to form a richer cluster within the nextseveral Gyrs. Eight of the nine other poor clusters for which simpletwo-body dynamical models can be carried out are consistent with beingbound to other clumps in their vicinity. Additional complex systems withmore than two gravitationally bound clumps are observed among the poorclusters.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

The neutral hydrogen content of early type disk galaxies
This paper presents the results of a sensitive 21-cm survey of massiveearly type galaxies made with the Arecibo radio telescope. Of the 81galaxies observed, the detections comprise 48 percent of the S0s, 73percent of the S0a's, and 96 percent of the Sa's. The values of thehybrid, distance-independent H I surface densities of the S0 galaxies inthe sample ranged continuously from amounts comparable to the mostgas-rich Sa galaxies to low estimated upper limts of the H I content.CCD images of most of the gas-rich S0s revealed either faint spiralfeatures or patchy structure in the disks. While no firm correlationbetween H I content and environmental density is apparent for thegalaxies in the sample, two-sample statistics suggest a differencebetween the highest and the lowest density bins. Early-type diskgalaxies within low density environments tend to have higher gas surfacedensities than those within high-density environments.

Neutral hydrogen observations of four MKW-AWM poor clusters
The Arecibo 305-m telescope was used to make neutral hydrogenobservations of the poor clusters MKW 7, MKW 9, AWM 1, and AWM 3. Theobservations are almost complete for MKW 7 and AWM 1 galaxies brighterthan 15.7 mag within one-half of a degree of the D or cD galaxy, and forMKW 9 galaxies brighter than 15.7 mag within one degree of the D galaxy.Both the integrated H I profile and the sensitive upper limits of the HI flux density are examined, and 22 new redshifts are reported for the Dgalaxy. The 18 galaxies closest to the dominant member of the D galaxyhave an average hydrogen mass-to-light ratio of 0.20 solar units, with astandard deviation of 0.12. The ratio is lower than that measured forlate-type spirals found in loose groups or in isolation, and is similarto the ratio determined for late-type galaxies near the centers of Abellclusters. A correlation between galaxy size and distance from the D orcD galaxy is found in the examination of the MKW-AWM clusters. However,the weak correlation may in fact be that between galaxy size and surfacedensity, or a consequence of the larger members' direct tidalinteraction with the dominant galaxy.

On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.

Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.

The structure of brightest cluster members. II - Mergers
Surface photometry of 342 bright elliptical galaxies in 103 clusters isanalyzed for evidence of mergers. Structural differences betweenbrightest cluster members (BCMs) and normal ellipticals can besummarized as having enlarged characteristic radii and shallow profileslopes (beta greater than -1.7). Profile morphology criteria for theelliptical types gE, D, and cD are outlined. Comparison of observationswith numerical simulations of mergers strongly suggests a past historyof dynamical growth for BCMs. Weak correlations of global clusterproperties to BCMs supports the hypothesis proposed by Merritt (1984)that mergers are important in early subgroups before virialization andformation of a cluster identity.

Photometric properties of poor clusters of galaxies
Photographic pahotometry was made for sixteen poor clusters of galaxieslisted by Morgan et al. (1975) and Albert et al. (1977). Data were fromthe V-band plates taken with the 105-cm Schmidt telescope of the KisoObservatory. Luminosity functions of individual clusters are obtained byapplying a detailed statistical field correction. The compositeluminosity function of poor clusters is found to be similar to those ofrich clusters and small groups of galaxies. The luminosity of the firstranked galaxies of the poor clusters is closely related to the amount ofhot intracluster gas and total visible mass in the systems.

Radio sources in giant E and S0 galaxies
An optically selected sample of 67 giant E and S0 galaxies has beenobserved with radio telescopes of high sensitivity to low-brightnessemission. Correlations between radio emission and galaxy type andbetween radio emission and environment are confirmed, and the fractionof E galaxies with M(B) less than -21.75 that have radio powers Pgreater than 10 to the 23rd W/Hz at 2380 MHz is found to be 0.4 + or -0.1. For all of the 19 sources with P greater than 10 to the 23rd W/Hzthere is evidence on high-resolution maps of continuing centralactivity. Sensitive observations at 151 MHz are used to put limits onthe number of steep-spectrum radio sources, which may be relics of pastactivity in other sample galaxies, more effectively than has previouslybeen possible. Based on the expected lifetime at 151 MHz of radiativelydecaying sources, the time-scale over which typical radio galaxiesremain active is determined to be greater than a few billion yr. This isin conflict with the small linear sizes of many radio sources in thissample, and it is likely that other effects (such as expansion losses inunconfined sources) render the older parts of these objects invisible.

CD galaxies of apparent supergiant sizes due to the curvature of space
Evidence for a positively curved universe is examined, and a model isdeveloped by combining two two-dimensional subspaces which are closedinto themselves due to curvature, to create a model of three-dimensionalspace of the same properties. A law of fictitious magnification isproposed. Indirect evidence for spherically curved space (and for thenonexistence of negative curvature) includes superluminal velocities,the existence of supergiant galaxies such as cD's, the superposition ofgalaxies, and the occurrence of background radiation. The theory impliesthe existence of another interpretation of spectra into redshifts. Theoccurrence of a gravitational lens effect, giving amplification of thecontours of foreground galaxy images, results in spectra beingintermixed.

Photometry of 18 clusters of galaxies
Data accumulated in the study of the poor clusters of galaxiesidentified by Morgan, Kayser, and White (1975) and Albert, White, andMorgan (1977) as well as two rich clusters are presented. The reductionsystem developed for the present study (the Kiso Image Detection System)is described. Positions, apparent magnitudes, ellipticities, and majoraxis position angles are provided.

Dynamics of luminous galaxies. II - Surface photometry and velocity dispersions of brightest cluster members
The velocity dispersions for 46 galaxies and CCD surface photometry for27 galaxies presented furnish a greatly improved data set forinvestigation of the brightest galaxies in galaxy clusters. Thebrightest cluster members (BCMs) are noted to be substantially brighterthan predicted by such considerations as their velocity dispersions.Attention is given to the possibility that this may be a selectioneffect due to the spread of M at a given velocity dispersion; it isnevertheless shown that the observed distribution of luminosity excessdoes not correspond to a simple model for selection, unless theelliptical galaxy sample suffers a Malmquist bias of 0.4 mag. The BCMswith largest excess luminosity have the largest effective radii and thelowest surface brightness, as predicted by homologous merger models.

Seven poor clusters of galaxies
The measurement of 83 new redshifts from galaxies in the region of sevenof the poor clusters of galaxies identified by Morgan et al (1975) andAlbert et al (1977) has been followed by an estimation of cluster massesthrough the application of both the virial theorem and the projected masmethod. For each system, these two estimates are consistent. For the twoclusters with highest X-ray luminosities, the line-of-sight velocitydispersions are about 700 km/sec, while for the five other clusters, thedispersions are of the order of less than about 370 km/sec. The D or cDgalaxy in each poor cluster is at the kinematic center of each system.

The bright end of the color-magnitude relation for early-type galaxies in clusters
UBVR photoelectric photometry is presented for bright early-typegalaxies in clusters. The sample is comprised of 26 first ranked clustermembers, 14 fainter cluster members, and two field galaxies. The colorsof first ranked galaxies in clusters appear to be independent of clustermorphology. A color difference as large as 0.1 mag in U - B between cDand normal first ranked cluster galaxies can be ruled out on the basisof the present data at the 5 sigma level.

A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.

A catalog of hierarchical subclustering in the Turner-Gott groups
Information on the substructure, to four levels of hierarchy, ispresented for the 103 groups listed by Turner and Gott (TG) in theircatalog of groups of galaxies. All galaxies brighter than Mpg= 14.0 in the region delta is 0 deg or greater and b(II) is 40 deg orgreater that have been assigned group memberships by TG are included.Also listed is the local environmental information for each of thegalaxies, giving the surface density enhancement beta in the galaxy'sneighborhood, calculated at 15 levels in the range beta = 4.6 to 10,000.

The Trivariate / Radio Optical X-Ray / Luminosity Function CD Galaxies - Part Two - the Fuelling of Radio Sources
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1983A&A...125..223V&db_key=AST

A search for neutral hydrogen in D and cD galaxies
Recent X-ray spectroscopic results suggest that 2-3 solar masses/yr ofcooling gas may be falling into M87 and as much as 300 solar masses/yrinto giant galaxies in rich clusters. The eventual fate of the gas inthe radiatively accreting flow is an open question. In an attempt to setsome bounds on the evolution of the gas, a sensitive search wasperformed for H I in a sample of eight D and cD galaxies in rich andpoor clusters. Null detections in all cases set upper limits of (4-20) x10 to the 8th solar masses of H I in the giant galaxies. Possiblereasons for these nondetections and alternative evolutionary fates forthe accreting gas are discussed.

Redshifts for galaxies in three Yerkes poor clusters
Redshifts have been obtained for 11 galaxies in the Yerkes poor clusterAWM 7, five galaxies in AWM 5, and two galaxies in AWM 1. In contrast tothe result for AWM 4 previously noted by Stauffer and Spinrad, both AWM5 and AWM 7 are real clusters with apparent line-of-sight velocitydispersions of 400 km/s and 600 km/s respectively. Surface photometry ofthe cD galaxy in AWM 7, obtained with the Berkeley PDS from a Crossleyplate of the cluster, indicates that it is quite luminous, with anabsolute magnitude to r about 30 kpc of M(v) about -23.5. A roughdynamical estimate of the AWM 7 cD mass from the spectroscopic datagives M(cD) about 2.0 x 10 to the 13th solar masses.

CD galaxies in poor clusters. II.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977ApJ...211..309A&db_key=AST

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Right ascension:09h16m49.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.514′ × 1.349′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 2804

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