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|Gas and Stars in an H I-Selected Galaxy Sample|
We present the results of a J-band study of the H I-selected AreciboDual-Beam Survey and Arecibo Slice Survey galaxy samples using TwoMicron All Sky Survey data. We find that these galaxies span a widerange of stellar and gas properties. However, despite the diversitywithin the samples, we find a very tight correlation between luminosityand size in the J band, similar to that found in a previous paper byRosenberg & Schneider between the H I mass and size. We also findthat the correlation between the baryonic mass and the J-band diameteris even tighter than that between the baryonic mass and the rotationalvelocity.
|M/L, Hα Rotation Curves, and H I Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals. I. Data|
A survey of 329 nearby galaxies (redshift z<0.045) has been conductedto study the distribution of mass and light within spiral galaxies overa range of environments. The 18 observed clusters and groups span arange of richness, density, and X-ray temperature and are supplementedby a set of 30 isolated field galaxies. Optical spectroscopy taken withthe 200 inch (5 m) Hale Telescope provides separately resolved Hαand [N II] major-axis rotation curves for the complete set of galaxies,which are analyzed to yield velocity widths and profile shapes, extents,and gradients. H I line profiles provide an independent velocity widthmeasurement and a measure of H I gas mass and distribution. I-bandimages are used to deconvolve profiles into disk and bulge components,to determine global luminosities and ellipticities, and to checkmorphological classification. These data are combined to form a unifieddata set ideal for the study of the effects of environment upon galaxyevolution.
|Spectrophotometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. II. The data|
Drift-scan mode (3600-6800 Å) spectra with 500
|1.65-μm (H -band) surface photometry of galaxies - VIII. The near-IR κ space at z =0|
We present the distribution of a statistical sample of nearby galaxiesin the κ -space (κ 1 ~logM , κ 2~logI e 3 M /L , κ 3 ~logM /L ).Our study is based on near-IR (H -band: λ =1.65μm)observations, for the first time comprising early- and late-typesystems. Our data confirm that the mean effective dynamicalmass-to-light ratio M /L of the E+S0+S0a galaxies increases withincreasing effective dynamical mass M , as expected from the existenceof the Fundamental Plane relation. Conversely, spiral and Im/BCDgalaxies show a broad distribution in M /L with no detected trend of M/L with M , the former galaxies having M /L values about twice largerthan the latter, on average. For all the late-type galaxies, the M /Lincreases with decreasing effective surface intensity I e ,consistent with the existence of the Tully-Fisher relation. Theseresults are discussed on the basis of the assumptions behind theconstruction of the κ -space and their limitations. Our study iscomplementary to a previous investigation in the optical (B -band:λ =0.44μm) and allows us to study wavelength dependences ofthe galaxy distribution in the κ -space. As a first result, wefind that the galaxy distribution in the κ 1 -κ2 plane reproduces the transition from bulgeless tobulge-dominated systems in galaxies of increasing dynamical mass.Conversely, it appears that the M /L of late-types is higher (lower)than that of early-types with the same M in the near-IR (optical). Theorigins of this behaviour are discussed in terms of dust attenuation andstar formation history.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|The Arecibo Dual-Beam Survey: Arecibo and VLA Observations|
The Arecibo Dual-Beam Survey is a ``blind'' 21 cm search for galaxiescovering ~430 deg2 of sky. We present the data from thedetection survey as well as from the follow-up observations to confirmdetections and improve positions and flux measurements. We find 265galaxies, many of which are extremely low surface brightness. Some ofthese previously uncataloged galaxies lie within the zone of avoidance,where they are obscured by the gas and dust in our Galaxy. Eighty-one ofthese sources are not previously cataloged optically, and there are 11galaxies that have no associated optical counterpart or are onlytentatively associated with faint wisps of nebulosity on the DigitizedSky Survey images. We discuss the properties of the survey, and inparticular we make direct determinations of the completeness andreliability of the sample. The behavior of the completeness and itsdependencies is essential for determining the H I mass function. Weleave the discussion of the mass function for a later paper, but do notethat we find many low surface brightness galaxies and seven sources withMHI<108 Msolar. The AreciboObservatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center,which is operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement withthe National Science Foundation. in Puerto Rico.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|A Dynamical Study of Galaxies in the Hickson Compact Groups|
To investigate dynamical properties of spiral galaxies in the Hicksoncompact groups (HCGs), we present rotation curves of 30 galaxies in 20HCGs. We found as follows: (1) There is no significant relation betweendynamical peculiarity and morphological peculiarity in HCG spiralgalaxies. (2) There is no significant relation between the dynamicalproperties and the frequency distribution of nuclear activities in HCGspiral galaxies. (3) There are no significant correlations between thedynamical properties of HCG spiral galaxies and any group properties(i.e., size, velocity dispersion, galaxy number density, and crossingtime). (4) Asymmetric and peculiar rotation curves are more frequentlyseen in the HCG spiral galaxies than in field spiral galaxies or incluster ones. However, this tendency is more obviously seen in late-typeHCG spiral galaxies. These results suggest that the dynamical propertiesof HCG spiral galaxies do not strongly correlate with the morphology,the nuclear activity, and the group properties. Our results also suggestthat more frequent galaxy collisions occur in the HCGs than in the fieldand in the clusters.
|1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxies|
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the ``Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data|
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.
|Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies|
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).
|The intra-cluster medium influence on spiral galaxies|
We made a detailed analysis of the sample of 39 cluster spiral galaxiesof various types observed at Hα wavelength by Amram et al. (1992to 1996), with a scanning Fabry-Perot. We plotted the outer gradient oftheir rotation curves as a function of the deprojected cluster-centricdistance. The rotation curves of late type galaxies markedly rise farfrom the cluster center. This suggests evolutionary effects, since earlytypes show no special trend. We suggest that the evolution processwithin a cluster leads late type galaxies to exhibit flatter curves whenthey get closer to the center, on their way to evolving into early typegalaxies.
|On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. II. Environmental dependences among late-type galaxies|
Using new extensive radio continuum surveys at 1.4 GHz (FIRST and NVSS),we derive the distribution of the radio/optical and radio/NIR luminosity(RLF) of late-type (Sa-Irr) galaxies (m_p<15.7) in 5 nearby clustersof galaxies: A262, Cancer, A1367, Coma and Virgo. With the aim ofdiscussing possible environmental dependences of the radio properties,we compare these results with those obtained for relatively isolatedobjects in the Coma supercluster. We find that the RLF of Cancer, A262and Virgo are consistent with that of isolated galaxies. Conversely weconfirm earlier claims that galaxies in A1367 and Coma have their radioemissivity enhanced by a factor ~ 5 with respect to isolated objects. Wediscuss this result in the framework of the dynamical pressure sufferedby galaxies in motion through the intra-cluster gas (ram-pressure). Wefind that the radio excess is statistically larger for galaxies in fasttransit motion. This is coherent with the idea that enhanced radiocontinuum activity is associated with magnetic field compression. TheX-ray luminosities and temperatures of Coma and A1367 imply that thesetwo clusters have significantly larger intracluster gas density than theremaining three studied ones, providing a clue for explaining the higherradio continuum luminosities of their galaxies. Multiple systems in theComa supercluster bridge (with projected separations smaller than 300kpc) have radio luminosities significantly larger than isolatedgalaxies. Table~1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html}
|The Star Formation Properties of Disk Galaxies: Hα Imaging of Galaxies in the Coma Supercluster|
We present integrated Hα measurements obtained from imagingobservations of 98 late-type galaxies, primarily selected in the Comasupercluster. These data, combined with Hα photometry from theliterature, include a magnitude-selected sample of spiral (Sa to Irr)galaxies belonging to the ``Great Wall'' complete up to m_p = 15.4, andthus composed of galaxies brighter than M_p = -18.8 (H_0 = 100 km s^-1Mpc^-1). The frequency distribution of the Hα equivalent width,determined for the first time from an optically complete sample, isapproximately Gaussian, peaking at EW ~ 25 Å. We find that, at thepresent limiting luminosity, the star formation properties of spiral +Irr galaxy members of the Coma and A1367 Clusters do not differsignificantly from those of the isolated ones belonging to the GreatWall. The present analysis confirms the well-known increase of thecurrent massive star formation rate (SFR) with Hubble type. Moreover,perhaps a more fundamental anticorrelation exists between the SFR andthe mass of disk galaxies: low-mass spirals and dwarf systems havepresent SFRs ~50 times higher than giant spirals. This result isconsistent with the idea that disk galaxies are coeval, evolving as``closed systems'' with exponentially declining SFR, and that the massof their progenitor protogalaxies is the principal parameter governingtheir evolution. Massive systems having high initial efficiency ofcollapse, or a short collapse timescale, have retained little gas tofeed the present epoch of star formation. These findings support theconclusions of Gavazzi & Scodeggio, who studied the color-massrelation of a local galaxy sample, and agree with the analysis by Cowieet al., who traced the star formation history of galaxies up to z >1. Based on observations made at the Observatorio AstronómicoNacional (OAN), San Pedro Mártir, B.C., of the UniversidadNacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography|
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|21 CM H1 Line Spectra of Galaxies in Nearby Clusters|
A compilation of HI line fluxes, systemic velocities and line widths ispresented for \Ndet detected galaxies, mostly in the vicinities of 30nearby rich clusters out to a redshift of z ~ .04, specifically for usein applications of the Tully-Fisher distance method. New 21 cm HI lineprofiles have been obtained for ~ 500 galaxies in 27 Abell clustersvisible from Arecibo. Upper limits are also presented for \Nnod galaxiesfor which HI emission was not detected. In order to provide ahomogeneous line width determination optimized for Tully-Fisher studies,these new data are supplemented by the reanalysis of previouslypublished spectra obtained both at Arecibo and Green Bank that areavailable in a digital archive. Corrections for instrumental broadening,smoothing, signal-to-noise and profile shape are applied, and anestimate of the error on the width is given. When corrected forturbulent broadening and viewing angle, the corrected velocity widthspresented here will provide the appropriate line width parameter neededto derive distances via the Tully-Fisher relation.
|The universal rotation curve of spiral galaxies - I. The dark matter connection|
We use a homogeneous sample of about 1100 optical and radio rotationcurves (RCs) and relative surface photometry to investigate the mainmass structure properties of spirals, over a range of 6 mag and out to<~1.5 and 2 optical radii (for the optical and radio data,respectively). We confirm the strong dependence on luminosity for boththe profile and the amplitude of RCs claimed by Persic & Salucci.Spiral RCs show the striking feature that a single global parameter,e.g. luminosity, dictates the rotational velocity at any radius for anyobject, so revealing the existence of a universal RC. At highluminosities, there is a slight discrepancy between the profiles of RCsand those predicted from the luminous matter (LM) distributions: thisimplies a small, yet detectable, amount of dark matter (DM). At lowluminosities, the failure of the LM prediction is much more severe, andthe DM is the only relevant mass component. We show that the universalRC implies a number of scaling properties between dark and luminousgalactic structure parameters: (i) the DM/LM mass ratio scales inverselywith luminosity; (ii) the central halo density scales as L^-0.7 (iii)the halo core radius is comparable to the optical radius, but shrinksfor low luminosities; (iv) the total halo mass scales as L^0.5. Suchscaling properties can be represented as a curve in the(luminosity)-(DM/LM mass ratio)-(DM core radius)-(DM central density)space, which provides a geometrical description of the tight couplingbetween the dark and the luminous matter in spiral galaxies.
|1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of disk galaxies. I. Observations of 158 galaxies with the Calar Alto 2.2 M telescope.|
Near Infrared (H-band) surface photometry of 158 (mostly) disk galaxiesbelonging to the Coma Supercluster and to the A262 and Cancer clusterswas obtained using the 256^2^ NICMOS3 array MAGIC attached to the 2.2mCalar Alto telescope. Magnitudes and diameters within the21.5mag/arcsec^2^ isophote, concentration indices and total H magnitudesare derived.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Flat rotation curves: A result of the helical inverse cascade in turbulent media?|
We have modeled the rotation curves of 21 galaxies observed by Amram etal. (1992), by combining the effects of rigid rotation, gravity, andturbulence. The main motivation behind such modeling is to study theformation of coherent structures in turbulent media and explore its rolein the large-scale structures of the universe. The values of theparameters such as mass, turbulent velocity, and angular velocityderived from the rotation curve fits are in good agreement with thosederived from the prevalent models.
|A CCD survey of galaxies. III. Observations with the Loiano 1.5m telescope.|
Continuing a CCD survey of galaxies belonging or projected onto the Comaand Hercules Superclusters and to the A262, Virgo and Cancer clusters,we present isophote maps and photometric profiles in the Johnson systemof 127 galaxies (126 taken in the V, 28 of which also in the B band, oneonly in B). For the objects in common we compare our results with thosein the RC3.
|Do rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters decline?|
Rotation curves for 21 spiral galaxies in five clusters have beenobtained in a search for possible effects of the cluster environment onindividual galaxy dynamics. We find no significant evidence for anythingmore than a small influence of the cluster environment. In particularusing 12 selected galaxies we do not confirm the strong correlationbetween slope of rotation curve and location within a cluster reportedby Whitmore et al. (1988).
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|Dark matter in spiral galaxies and the Arimoto-Jablonka photometric model|
We use the recent stellar population synthesis models by Arimoto &Jablonka (1991), which by introducing the bulge into the calculation ofgalaxy masses mark a significant improvement over previous one-componentmodels, to show that low-luminosity spiral galaxies have a higher darkmatter fraction within the optical radius than high-luminosity spirals.In fact, the derived dark-to-visible mass ratio increases withdecreasing luminosity, approximately as 1/(square root ofLB). This conclusion agrees with previous results based ondynamical disk halo decompositions of galaxy rotation curves (e.g.Persic & Salucci 1988). On the other hand, we do not find any strongtrend between dark matter content and galaxy B - V colors, although wecannot exclude a weak one. Our results agree with Jablonka &Arimoto's (1992) conclusion that colors are not a primary indicator ofthe dark matter content of spiral galaxies. Instead, we confirm that theluminosity is a fundamental indicator of the dark mass fraction ofspiral galaxies.
|Les courbes de rotation decroissantes existent-elles AU centre des amas de galaxies ?|
|Multifrequency windows on spiral galaxies. II - The A262 and Cancer clusters|
New photometrical data (U,B,V and H bands) are presented for about 100spiral galaxies in the A262 and Cancer clusters. The data are used tostudy the dependence of radio continuum to H band and FIR to H bandratios on the color index U - B, taken as an indicator of the starformation history in galaxy disks. Both parameters are found to increasein bluer galaxies, in agreement with the results obtained for otherclusters or field galaxies. The radio continuum activity of spiralgalaxies in the Cancer cluster is not enhanced like in other clusterspirals. A study of the reliability of CCD surface photometry isreported, based on the comparison of two sets of observations obtainedwith different telescopes.
|H-alpha velocity fields and rotation curves of galaxies in clusters|
The paper presents the first set of data on 21 galaxies in fivedifferent clusters, obtained from 2D H-alpha observatons at theCanada-France-Hawaii Telescope equipped with a scanning Perot-Fabryinterferometer. These galaxies are from the following clusters: Abell539 (two galaxies), Cancer (six galaxies), Coma (six galaxies), Hercules(two galaxies), and Pegasus (five galaxies). Presented are H-alpha maps(continuum and line), velocity contour maps, and rotation curves of the21 galaxies, together with the table of galaxies' parameters.
|Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members|
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.
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