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High-Resolution Optical Velocity Fields of 11 Low Surface Brightness Galaxies
We present high-resolution two-dimensional velocity fields from integralfield spectroscopy, along with derived rotation curves for 11 lowsurface brightness galaxies. We fit NFW and pseudoisothermal halo modelsto the new data combined with previous long-slit and H I data. In mostcases, we find the pseudoisothermal halo to better represent the datathan the NFW halo, as the NFW concentrations are often lower thanexpected for a ΛCDM cosmology. We also compare our results toprevious studies and find that including the new two-dimensional opticaldata does not significantly alter the halo parameters but does decreasethe uncertainties by roughly a factor of 2.

Hubble Space Telescope STIS Spectra of Nuclear Star Clusters in Spiral Galaxies: Dependence of Age and Mass on Hubble Type
We study the nuclear star clusters (NCs) in spiral galaxies of variousHubble types using spectra obtained with the STIS on board the HubbleSpace Telescope (HST). We observed the nuclear clusters in 40 galaxies,selected from two previous HST WFPC2 imaging surveys. At a spatialresolution of ~0.2" the spectra provide a better separation of clusterlight from underlying galaxy light than is possible with ground-basedspectra. Approximately half of the spectra have a sufficiently highsignal-to-noise ratio for detailed stellar population analysis. For theother half we only measure the continuum slope, as quantified by the B-Vcolor. To infer the star formation history, metallicity, and dustextinction, we fit weighted superpositions of single-age stellarpopulation templates to the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. We usethe results to determine the luminosity-weighted age, mass-to-lightratio, and masses of the clusters. Approximately half of the sampleclusters contain a population younger than 1 Gyr. Theluminosity-weighted ages range from 10 Myr to 10 Gyr. The stellarpopulations of NCs are generally best fit as a mixture of populations ofdifferent ages. This indicates that NCs did not form in a single event,but that instead they had additional star formation long after theoldest stars formed. On average, the sample clusters in late-typespirals have a younger luminosity-weighted mean age than those inearly-type spirals (L=8.37+/-0.25 vs.9.23+/-0.21). The average mass-weighted ages are older by ~0.7 dex,indicating that there often is an underlying older population that doesnot contribute much light but does contain most of the mass. The averagecluster masses are smaller in late-type spirals than in early-typespirals (logM=6.25+/-0.21 vs. 7.63+/-0.24) and exceed the masses typicalof globular clusters. The cluster mass correlates loosely with totalgalaxy luminosity. It correlates more strongly with both the Hubble typeof the host galaxy and the luminosity of its bulge. The lattercorrelation has the same slope as the well-known correlation betweensupermassive black hole mass and bulge luminosity. The properties ofboth nuclear clusters and black holes in the centers of spiral galaxiesare therefore intimately connected to the properties of the host galaxy,and in particular its bulge component. Plausible formation scenarioshave to account for this. We discuss various possible selection biasesin our results, but conclude that none of them can explain thedifferences seen between clusters in early- and late-type spirals. Theinability to infer spectroscopically the populations of faint clustersdoes introduce a bias toward younger ages, but not necessarily towardhigher masses.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations areassociated with proposals 9070 and 9783.

Objective Classification of Spiral Galaxies Having Extended Rotation Curves Beyond the Optical Radius
We carry out an objective classification of four samples of spiralgalaxies having extended rotation curves beyond the optical radius. Amultivariate statistical analysis (viz., principal component analysis[PCA]) shows that about 96% of the total variation is due to twocomponents, one being the combination of absolute blue magnitude andmaximum rotational velocity beyond the optical region and the otherbeing the central density of the halo. On the basis of PCA a fundamentalplane has been constructed that reduces the scatter in the Tully-Fisherrelation up to a maximum of 16%. A multiple stepwise regression analysisof the variation of the overall shape of the rotation curves shows thatit is mainly determined by the central surface brightness, while theshape purely in the outer part of the galaxy (beyond the optical radius)is mainly determined by the size of the galactic disk.

GHASP: an Hα kinematic survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - IV. 44 new velocity fields. Extension, shape and asymmetry of Hα rotation curves
We present Fabry-Perot observations obtained in the frame of the GHASPsurvey (Gassendi HAlpha survey of SPirals). We have derived the Hαmap, the velocity field and the rotation curve for a new set of 44galaxies. The data presented in this paper are combined with the datapublished in the three previous papers providing a total number of 85 ofthe 96 galaxies observed up to now. This sample of kinematical data hasbeen divided into two groups: isolated (ISO) and softly interacting(SOFT) galaxies. In this paper, the extension of the Hα discs, theshape of the rotation curves, the kinematical asymmetry and theTully-Fisher relation have been investigated for both ISO and SOFTgalaxies. The Hα extension is roughly proportional toR25 for ISO as well as for SOFT galaxies. The smallestextensions of the ionized disc are found for ISO galaxies. The innerslope of the rotation curves is found to be correlated with the centralconcentration of light more clearly than with the type or thekinematical asymmetry, for ISO as well as for SOFT galaxies. The outerslope of the rotation curves increases with the type and with thekinematical asymmetry for ISO galaxies but shows no special trend forSOFT galaxies. No decreasing rotation curve is found for SOFT galaxies.The asymmetry of the rotation curves is correlated with themorphological type, the luminosity, the (B-V) colour and the maximalrotational velocity of galaxies. Our results show that the brightest,the most massive and the reddest galaxies, which are fast rotators, arethe least asymmetric, meaning that they are the most efficient withwhich to average the mass distribution on the whole disc. Asymmetry inthe rotation curves seems to be linked with local star formation,betraying disturbances of the gravitational potential. The Tully-Fisherrelation has a smaller slope for ISO than for SOFT galaxies.

Structure and kinematics of edge-on galaxy discs - V. The dynamics of stellar discs
In earlier papers in this series we determined the intrinsic stellardisc kinematics of 15 intermediate- to late-type edge-on spiral galaxiesusing a dynamical modelling technique. The sample covers a substantialrange in maximum rotation velocity and deprojected face-on surfacebrightness, and contains seven spirals with either a boxy orpeanut-shaped bulge. Here we discuss the structural, kinematical anddynamical properties. From the photometry we find that intrinsicallymore flattened discs tend to have a lower face-on central surfacebrightness and a larger dynamical mass-to-light ratio. This observationsuggests that, at a constant maximum rotational velocity, lower surfacebrightness discs have smaller vertical stellar velocity dispersions.Although the individual uncertainties are large, we find from thedynamical modelling that at least 12 discs are submaximal. The averagedisc contributes 53 +/- 4 per cent to the observed rotation at 2.2 discscalelengths (hR), with a 1σ scatter of 15 per cent.This percentage becomes somewhat lower when effects of finite discflattening and gravity by the dark halo and the gas are taken intoaccount. Since boxy and peanut-shaped bulges are probably associatedwith bars, the result suggests that at 2.2hR the submaximalnature of discs is independent of barredness. The possibility remainsthat very high surface brightness discs are maximal, as these discs areunderrepresented in our sample. We confirm that the radial stellar discvelocity dispersion is related to the galaxy maximum rotationalvelocity. The scatter in this σ versus vmax relationappears to correlate with the disc flattening, face-on central surfacebrightness and dynamical mass-to-light ratio. Low surface brightnessdiscs tend to be more flattened and have smaller stellar velocitydispersions. The findings are consistent with the observed correlationbetween disc flattening and dynamical mass-to-light ratio and cangenerally be reproduced by the simple collapse theory for disc galaxyformation. Finally, the disc mass Tully-Fisher relation is offset fromthe maximum-disc scaled stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation of the UrsaMajor cluster. This offset, -0.3 dex in mass, is naturally explained ifthe discs of the Ursa Major cluster spirals are submaximal.

The Stellar Velocity Dispersion in the Inner 1.3 Disk Scale Lengths of the Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449
We present measurements of the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner1' radius (1.3 disk scale lengths) of the irregular galaxy NGC 4449determined from long-slit absorption-line spectra. The average observeddispersion is 29+/-2 km s-1, the same as predicted from NGC4449's luminosity. No significant rotation in the stars is detected. Ifwe assume a maximum rotation speed of the stars from the modeldetermined from the gas kinematics of Hunter et al., the ratioVmax/σz measured globally is 3. This ratiois comparable to values measured in spiral galaxies and implies that thestellar disk in NGC 4449 is kinematically relatively cold. The intrinsicminor-to-major axis ratio (b/a)0 is predicted to be in therange 0.3-0.6, similar to values derived from the distribution ofobserved b/a of Im galaxies. However, V/σz measuredlocally is 0.5-1.1, and so the circular velocity of NGC 4449 iscomparable to or less than the velocity of the stars within the central1.3 disk scale lengths of the galaxy.

Halo Mass Profiles and Low Surface Brightness Galaxy Rotation Curves
A recent study has claimed that the rotation curve shapes and massdensities of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are largelyconsistent with ΛCDM predictions, in contrast to a large body ofobservational work. I demonstrate that the method used to derive thisconclusion is incapable of distinguishing the characteristic steep CDMmass-density distribution from the core-dominated mass-densitydistributions found observationally: even core-dominatedpseudoisothermal halos would be inferred to be consistent with CDM. Thismethod can therefore make no definitive statements regarding the(dis)agreement between the data and CDM simulations. After introducingan additional criterion that does take the slope of the massdistribution into account, I find that only about a quarter of the LSBgalaxies investigated are possibly consistent with CDM. However, formost of these, the fit parameters are so weakly constrained that this isnot a strong conclusion. Of the 20 galaxies with tightly constrained fitparameters, only 3 are consistent with ΛCDM. Two of thesegalaxies are likely dominated by stars, leaving only one possible darkmatter-dominated, CDM-consistent candidate. These conclusions are basedon comparison of data and simulations at identical radii and fits to theentire rotation curves. LSB galaxies that are consistent with CDMsimulations, if they exist, seem to be rare indeed.

The Molecular Interstellar Medium of Dwarf Galaxies on Kiloparsec Scales: A New Survey for CO in Northern, IRAS-detected Dwarf Galaxies
We present a new survey for CO in dwarf galaxies using the ARO Kitt Peak12 m telescope. This survey consists of observations of the centralregions of 121 northern dwarfs with IRAS detections and no known COemission. We detect CO in 28 of these galaxies and marginally detectanother 16, increasing by about 50% the number of such galaxies known tohave significant CO emission. The galaxies we detect are comparable instellar and dynamical mass to the Large Magellanic Cloud, althoughsomewhat brighter in CO and fainter in the far-IR. Within dwarfs, wefind that the CO luminosity LCO is most strongly correlatedwith the K-band and the far-infrared luminosities. There are also strongcorrelations with the radio continuum (RC) and B-band luminosities andlinear diameter. Conversely, we find that far-IR dust temperature is apoor predictor of CO emission within the dwarfs alone, although a goodpredictor of normalized CO content among a larger sample of galaxies. Wesuggest that LCO and LK correlate well because thestellar component of a galaxy dominates the midplane gravitational fieldand thus sets the pressure and density of the atomic gas, which controlthe formation of H2 from H I. We compare our sample with moremassive galaxies and find that dwarfs and large galaxies obey the samerelationship between CO and the 1.4 GHz RC surface brightness. Thisrelationship is well described by a Schmidt law withΣRC~Σ1.3CO. Therefore,dwarf galaxies and large spirals exhibit the same relationship betweenmolecular gas and star formation rate (SFR). We find that this result isrobust to moderate changes in the RC-to-SFR and CO-to-H2conversion factors. Our data appear to be inconsistent with large (orderof magnitude) variations in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor inthe star-forming molecular gas.

Masses of Star Clusters in the Nuclei of Bulgeless Spiral Galaxies
In the last decade star clusters have been found in the centers ofspiral galaxies across all Hubble types. We here present a spectroscopicstudy of the exceptionally bright (106-108Lsolar) but compact (re~5 pc) nuclear starclusters in very late type spirals with the Ultraviolet and VisualEchelle Spectrograph at the VLT. We find that the velocity dispersionsof the nine clusters in our sample range from 13 to 34 kms-1. Using photometric data from the Hubble Space TelescopeWFPC2 and spherically symmetric dynamical models, we determine massesbetween 8×105 and 6×107Msolar. The mass-to-light ratios range from 0.2 to 1.5 in theI band. This indicates a young mean age for most clusters, in agreementwith previous studies. Given their high masses and small sizes, we findthat nuclear clusters are among the objects with the highest meansurface density known (up to 105 Msolarpc-2). From their dynamical properties we infer that, ratherthan small bulges, the closest structural kin of nuclear clusters appearto be massive compact star clusters. This includes such differentobjects as globular clusters, ``super star clusters,'' ultracompactdwarf galaxies (UCDs), and the nuclei of dwarf elliptical galaxies. Itis a challenge to explain why, despite the widely different currentenvironments, all different types of massive star clusters share verysimilar and structural properties. A possible explanation links UCDs andmassive globular clusters to nuclear star clusters through stripping ofnucleated dwarf galaxies in a merger event. The extreme properties ofthis type of cluster would then be a consequence of the clusters'location in the centers of their respective host galaxies.

Dwarf and Normal Spiral Galaxies: are they Self-Similar?
The investigation presented here was focused on clarifying the existenceof dwarf spiral galaxies as a separate group from classical spirals.First, a list of spiral galaxies with small sizes was obtained.Information on colors, luminosities, morphologies and chemical contentwas searched for in the literature for these galaxies. Using thisinformation, it can be concluded that dwarf spirals are not likely to bethe tail of the distribution of classical galaxies. On the contrary,significant differences in some of the most important properties ofspiral galaxies, such as the metallicity gradient and the bar frecuency,were found. In any case, further and more accurate observations areneeded for a definitive answer.

The inner structure of ΛCDM haloes - II. Halo mass profiles and low surface brightness galaxy rotation curves
We use a set of high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations toinvestigate the inner mass profile of galaxy-sized cold dark matter(CDM) haloes. These simulations extend the numerical convergence studypresented in Paper I of this series, and demonstrate that the massprofile of CDM galaxy haloes can be robustly estimated beyond a minimumconverged radius of order rconv~ 1h-1 kpc in ourhighest-resolution runs. The density profiles of simulated haloes becomeprogressively shallower from the virial radius inwards, and show no signof approaching a well-defined power law near the centre. Atrconv, the density profile is steeper than expected from theformula proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White, which has aρ~r-1 cusp, but significantly shallower than the steeplydivergent ρ~r-1.5 cusp proposed by Moore et al. Weperform a direct comparison of the spherically averaged dark mattercircular velocity profiles with Hα rotation curves of a sample oflow surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We find that most galaxies in thesample (about 70 per cent) have rotation curves that are consistent withthe structure of CDM haloes. Of the remainder, 20 per cent have rotationcurves which cannot be fit by any smooth fitting function with few freeparameters, and 10 per cent are inconsistent with CDM haloes. However,the latter consist mostly of rotation curves that do not extend to largeenough radii to accurately determine their shapes and maximumvelocities. We conclude that the inner structure of CDM haloes is notmanifestly inconsistent with the rotation curves of LSB galaxies.

Cores of dark matter haloes correlate with stellar scalelengths
We investigate in detail the mass distribution obtained by means ofhigh-resolution rotation curves of 25 galaxies of differentmorphological types. The dark matter contribution to the circularrotation velocity is well-described by resorting to a dark component,the density of which shows an inner core, i.e. a central constantdensity region. We find a very strong correlation between the coreradius size RC and the stellar exponential scalelengthRD: RC~=13[RD/(5kpc)]1.05kpc, and between RCand the galaxy dynamical mass at this distance,Mdyn(RC). These relationships would not beexpected if the core radii were the product of an incorrectdecomposition procedure, or the biased result of wrong or misunderstoodobservational data. The very strong correlation between the dark andluminous scalelengths found here seems to hold also for different Hubbletypes and opens new scenarios for the nature of the dark matter ingalaxies.

Dark Matter in Galaxies: Observational overview
I review the observational side of the present state of the debate aboutthe dark matter in galaxies, with emphasis on the core/cusp problem inlow surface brightness galaxies, and the question of maximum /sub-maximum disks in spiral galaxies. Some remarks are made about thedwarf spheroidals around the Milky Way, and about elliptical galaxies.

Strong Emission Line H II Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Catalog of DR1 Objects with Oxygen Abundances from Te Measurements
We present the first edition of the SDSS H II galaxies with Oxygenabundances Catalog (SHOC), which is a listing of strong emission-linegalaxies (ELGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Oxygenabundances have been obtained with the classic Te method. Wedescribe the method exploiting the SDSS database to construct thissample. The selection procedures are described and discussed in detail,as well as some problems encountered in the process of deriving reliableemission line parameters. The method was applied to the SDSS DataRelease 1 (DR1). We present 612 SDSS emission-line galaxies (624separate SDSS targets in total), for which the oxygen abundances12+log(O/H) have rms uncertainties <=0.20 dex. The subsample of 263ELGs (272 separate SDSS targets) have an uncertainty <=0.10 dex,while 459 ELGs (470 separate SDSS targets) have an uncertainty <=0.15dex. The catalog includes the main parameters of all selected ELGs, theintensities and equivalent widths of hydrogen and oxygen emission lines,as well as oxygen abundances with their uncertainties. The informationon the presence of Wolf-Rayet blue and/or red bumps in 109 galaxies isalso included. With the use of combined g, r, i SDSS images we performedvisual morphological classification of all SHOC galaxies. Four hundredsixty-one galaxies (~75%) are classified as confident or probable bluecompact galaxies (BCG/BCG?), 78 as irregular ones, 20 as low surfacebrightness galaxies (LSBG), 10 as obviously interacting, and 43 asspiral galaxies. In creating the catalog, 30 narrow-line active galacticnuclei and 69 LINERs were also identified; these are also presentedapart of the main catalog. We outline briefly the content of thecatalog, and the prospects of its use for statistical studies of thestar formation and chemical evolution issues. Some of these studies willbe presented in the forthcoming paper. Finally, we show that the methodpresented by Kniazev et al. for calculating O+/H+using intensities of the [O II] λλ7320, 7330 lines forSDSS emission-line spectra in the absence of [O II] λ3727 lineappears to yield reliable results over a wide range of studied oxygenabundances: 7.10<12+log(O/H)<8.5.

Star Formation Properties of a Large Sample of Irregular Galaxies
We present the results of Hα imaging of a large sample ofirregular galaxies. Our sample includes 94 galaxies with morphologicalclassifications of Im, 26 blue compact dwarfs (BCDs), and 20 Sm systems.The sample spans a large range in galactic parameters, includingintegrated absolute magnitude (MV of -9 to -19), averagesurface brightness (20-27 mag arcsec-2), current starformation activity (0-1.3 Msolar yr-1kpc-2), and relative gas content(0.02-5Msolar/LB). The Hα images were usedto measure the integrated star formation rates, determine the extents ofstar formation in the disks, and compare azimuthally averaged radialprofiles of current star formation to older starlight. The integratedstar formation rates of Im galaxies normalized to the physical size ofthe galaxy span a range of a factor of 104 with 10% Imgalaxies and one Sm system having no measurable star formation at thepresent time. The BCDs fall, on average, at the high star formation rateend of the range. We find no correlation between star formation activityand proximity to other cataloged galaxies. Two galaxies located in voidsare similar in properties to the Sm group in our sample. The H IIregions in these galaxies are most often found within the Holmbergradius RH, although in a few systems H II regions are tracedas far as 1.7RH. Similarly, most of the star formation isfound within three disk scale lengths RD, but in somegalaxies H II regions are traced as far as 6RD. A comparisonof Hα surface photometry with V-band surface photometry shows thatthe two approximately follow each other with radius in Sm galaxies, butin most BCDs there is an excess of Hα emission in the centers thatdrops with radius. In approximately half of the Im galaxies Hα andV correspond well, and in the rest there are small to large differencesin the relative rate of falloff with radius. The cases with stronggradients in the LHα/LV ratios and with highcentral star formation rate densities, which include most of the BCDs,require a significant fraction of their gas to migrate to the center inthe last gigayear. We discuss possible torques that could have causedthis without leaving an obvious signature, including dark matter barsand past interactions or mergers with small galaxies or H I clouds.There is now a substantial amount of evidence for these processes amongmany surveys of BCDs. We note that such gas migration will also increasethe local pressure and possibly enhance the formation of massive denseclusters but conclude that the star formation process itself does notappear to differ much among BCD, Im, and Sm types. In particular, thereis evidence in the distribution function for Hα surface brightnessthat the turbulent Mach numbers are all about the same in these systems.This follows from the Hα distribution functions corrected forexponential disk gradients, which are log-normal with a nearly constantdispersion. Thus, the influence of shock-triggered star formation isapparently no greater in BCDs than in Im and Sm types.

A Hubble Space Telescope Census of Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies. II. Cluster Sizes and Structural Parameter Correlations
We investigate the structural properties of nuclear star clusters inlate-type spiral galaxies. More specifically, we fit analytical modelsto Hubble Space Telescope images of 39 nuclear clusters in order todetermine their effective radii after correction for the instrumentalpoint-spread function. We use the results of this analysis to comparethe luminosities and sizes of nuclear star clusters to those of otherellipsoidal stellar systems, in particular the Milky Way globularclusters. Our nuclear clusters have a median effective radius ofre=3.5 pc, with 50% of the sample falling in the range2.4pc<=re<=5.0pc. This narrow size distribution isstatistically indistinguishable from that of Galactic globular clusters,even though the nuclear clusters are, on average, 4 mag brighter thanthe old globular clusters. We discuss some possible interpretations ofthis result. From a comparison of nuclear cluster luminosities withvarious properties of their host galaxies, we confirm that more luminousgalaxies harbor more luminous nuclear clusters. It remains unclearwhether this correlation mainly reflects the influence of galaxy size,mass, and/or star formation rate. Since the brighter galaxies in oursample typically have stellar disks with a higher central surfacebrightness, nuclear cluster luminosity also correlates with thisproperty of their hosts. On the other hand, we find no evidence for acorrelation between the presence of a nuclear star cluster and thepresence of a large-scale stellar bar.

The Hα galaxy survey. I. The galaxy sample, Hα narrow-band observations and star formation parameters for 334 galaxies
We discuss the selection and observations of a large sample of nearbygalaxies, which we are using to quantify the star formation activity inthe local Universe. The sample consists of 334 galaxies across allHubble types from S0/a to Im and with recession velocities of between 0and 3000 km s-1. The basic data for each galaxy are narrowband H\alpha +[NII] and R-band imaging, from which we derive starformation rates, H\alpha +[NII] equivalent widths and surfacebrightnesses, and R-band total magnitudes. A strong correlation is foundbetween total star formation rate and Hubble type, with the strongeststar formation in isolated galaxies occurring in Sc and Sbc types. Moresurprisingly, no significant trend is found between H\alpha +[NII]equivalent width and galaxy R-band luminosity. More detailed analyses ofthe data set presented here will be described in subsequent papers.Based on observations made with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.The full version of Table \ref{tab3} is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/23 Reduced image datafor this survey can be downloaded fromhttp://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/HaGS/

Dark Matter in late-type galaxies
High resolution H alpha rotation curves of Low Surface Brightnessgalaxies show that the central slopes of the dark matter density inthose galaxies do not agree with predictions from cosmological numericalsimulations. A comparison of our data with those of other authors showsgood agreement.

Simulating observations of dark matter dominated galaxies: towards the optimal halo profile
Low surface brightness galaxies are dominated by dark matter, and theirrotation curves thus reflect their dark matter distribution. Recenthigh-resolution rotation curves suggest that their dark mattermass-density distributions are dominated by a constant-density core.This seems inconsistent with the predictions of cold dark matter (CDM)models which produce haloes with compact density cusps and steepmass-density profiles. However, the observationally determined massprofiles may be affected by non-circular motions, asymmetries andoffsets between optical and dynamical centres, all of which tend tolower the observed slopes. Here we determine the impact of each of theseeffects on a variety of halo models, and we compare the results withobserved mass-density profiles. Our simulations suggest that no singlesystematic effect can reconcile the data with the cuspy CDM haloes. Thedata are best described by a model with a soft core with an innerpower-law mass-density slope α=-0.2 +/- 0.2. However, no singleuniversal halo profile provides a completely adequate description of thedata.

Globular Clusters as Candidates for Gravitational Lenses to Explain Quasar-Galaxy Associations
We argue that globular clusters (GCs) are good candidates forgravitational lenses in explaining quasar-galaxy associations. Thecatalog of associations (Bukhmastova 2001) compiled from the LEDAcatalog of galaxies (Paturel 1997) and from the catalog of quasars(Veron-Cetty and Veron 1998) is used. Based on the new catalog, we showthat one might expect an increased number of GCs around irregulargalaxies of types 9 and 10 from the hypothesis that distant compactsources are gravitationally lensed by GCs in the halos of foregroundgalaxies. The King model is used to determine the central surfacedensities of 135 GCs in the Milky Way. The distribution of GCs incentral surface density was found to be lognormal.

High-Resolution Measurements of the Dark Matter Halo of NGC 2976: Evidence for a Shallow Density Profile
We have obtained two-dimensional velocity fields of the dwarf spiralgalaxy NGC 2976 in Hα and CO. The high spatial (~75 pc) andspectral (13 and 2 km s-1, respectively) resolution of theseobservations, along with our multicolor optical and near-infraredimaging, allows us to measure the shape of the density profile of thedark matter halo with good precision. We find that the total (baryonicplus dark matter) mass distribution of NGC 2976 follows aρtot~r-0.27+/-0.09 power law out to a radiusof 1.8 kpc, assuming that the observed radial motions provide nosupport. The density profile attributed to the dark halo is evenshallower, consistent with a nearly constant density of dark matter overthe entire observed region. A maximal disk fit yields an upper limit tothe K-band stellar mass-to-light ratio (M*/LK) of0.09+0.15-0.08Msolar/LsolarK(including systematic uncertainties), with the caveat that forM*/LK>0.19Msolar/LsolarKthe dark matter density increases with radius, which is unphysical.Assuming0.10Msolar/LsolarK<~M*/LK<=0.19Msolar/LsolarK,the dark matter density profile lies betweenρDM~r-0.17 andρDM~r-0.01. Therefore, independent of anyassumptions about the stellar disk or the functional form of the densityprofile, NGC 2976 does not contain a cuspy dark matter halo. We alsoinvestigate some of the systematic effects that can hamper rotationcurve studies and show that (1) long-slit rotation curves are far morevulnerable to systematic errors than two-dimensional velocity fields,(2) NGC 2976 contains radial motions that are as large as 90% of therotational velocities at small radii, and (3) the Hα and COvelocity fields of NGC 2976 agree within their uncertainties, with atypical scatter between the two velocities of 5.3 km s-1 atany position in the galaxy.Based on observations carried out at the WIYN Observatory. The WIYNObservatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison,Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical AstronomyObservatory.

The Central Mass Distribution in Dwarf and Low Surface Brightness Galaxies
We present high-resolution Hα rotation curves for a sample of 15dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies. From these we derive limitson the slopes of the central mass distributions, using both a directinversion of the rotation curves and detailed mass models. Assuming thatthe density distributions of dark matter halos follow a power law atsmall radii, ρ(r)~r-α, we find inner slopes in therange 0<~α<~1 for most galaxies. Thus, even with therelatively high spatial resolution of the Hα rotation curvespresented here, the inner slopes are poorly constrained. In generalhalos with constant density cores (α=0) provide somewhat betterfits, but the majority of our galaxies (~75%) are also consistent withα=1, as long as the R-band stellar mass-to-light ratios aresmaller than about 2. Halos with α=1.5, however, are ruled out invirtually every case. In order to investigate the robustness of theseresults we discuss and model several possible causes of systematicerrors, including noncircular motions, galaxy inclination, slit width,seeing, and slit alignment errors. Taking the associated uncertaintiesinto account, we conclude that even for the ~25% of the cases whereα=1 seems inconsistent with the rotation curves, we cannot ruleout cusp slopes this steep. Inclusion of literature samples similar tothe one presented here leads to the same conclusion when the possibilityof systematic errors is taken into account. In the ongoing debate onwhether the rotation curves of dwarf and low surface brightness galaxiesare consistent with predictions for a cold dark matter universe, weargue that our sample and the literature samples discussed in this paperprovide insufficient evidence to rule out halos with α=1. At thesame time, we note that none of the galaxies in these samples requirehalos with steep cusps, as most are equally well or better explained byhalos with constant density cores.

Searching for Bulges at the End of the Hubble Sequence
We investigate the stellar disk properties of a sample of 19 nearbyspiral galaxies with low inclination and late Hubble type (Scd orlater). We combine our high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope I-bandobservations with existing ground-based optical images to obtain surfacebrightness profiles that cover a high dynamic range of galactic radii.Most of these galaxies contain a nuclear star cluster, as discussed in aseparate paper. The main goal of the present work is to constrain theproperties of stellar bulges at these extremely late Hubble types. Wefind that the surface brightness profiles of the latest-type spiralgalaxies are complex, with a wide range in shapes. We have sorted oursample in a sequence, starting with ``pure'' disk galaxies(approximately 30% of the sample). These galaxies have exponentialstellar disks that extend inward to within a few tens of parsecs fromthe nucleus, where the light from the nuclear cluster starts todominate. They appear to be truly bulgeless systems. Progressing alongthe sequence, the galaxies show increasingly prominent deviations from asimple exponential disk model on kiloparsec scales. Traditionally, suchdeviations have prompted ``bulge-disk'' decompositions. Indeed, thesurface brightness profiles of these galaxies are generally well fittedby adding a second (exponential) bulge component. However, we find thatmost surface brightness profiles can be fitted equally well (or better)with a single Sérsic-type R1/n profile over the entireradial range of the galaxy without requiring a separate ``bulge''component. We warn in a general sense against identification of bulgessolely on the basis of single-band surface brightness profiles. Despitethe narrow range of Hubble types in our sample, the surface brightnessprofiles are far from uniform. The differences between the variousgalaxies appear unrelated to their Hubble types, thus questioning theusefulness of the Hubble sequence for the subcategorization of thelatest-type spiral galaxies. A number of galaxies show central excessemission on spatial scales of a few hundred parsecs that cannot beattributed to the nuclear cluster, the Sérsic-type description ofthe stellar disk, or what one would generally consider to be a bulgecomponent. The origin of this light component remains unclear.Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associatedwith proposal 8599.

Molecular gas in the central regions of the latest-type spiral galaxies
Using the IRAM 30 >m telescope, we have surveyed an unbiased sampleof 47 nearby spiral galaxies of very late (Scd-Sm) Hubble-type foremission in the 12CO(1-0) and (2-1) lines. The sensitivity ofour data (a few mK) allows detection of about 60% of our sample in atleast one of the CO lines. The median detected H2 mass is1.4x 107 >msun within the central few kpc, assuming astandard conversion factor. We use the measured line intensities tocomplement existing studies of the molecular gas content of spiralgalaxies as a function of Hubble-type and to significantly improve thestatistical significance of such studies at the late end of the spiralsequence. We find that the latest-type spirals closely follow thecorrelation between molecular gas content and galaxy luminosityestablished for earlier Hubble types. The molecular gas in late-typegalaxies seems to be less centrally concentrated than in earlier types.We use Hubble Space Telescope optical images to correlate the moleculargas mass to the properties of the central galaxy disk and the compactstar cluster that occupies the nucleus of most late-type spirals. Thereis no clear correlation between the luminosity of the nuclear starcluster and the molecular gas mass, although the CO detection rate ishighest for the brightest clusters. It appears that the central surfacebrightness of the stellar disk is an important parameter for the amountof molecular gas at the galaxy center. Whether stellar bars play acritical role for the gas dynamics remains unclear, in part because ofuncertainties in the morphological classifications of our sample.

The Stellar and Gas Kinematics of Several Irregular Galaxies
We present long-slit spectra of three irregular galaxies from which wedetermine the stellar kinematics in two of the galaxies (NGC 1156 andNGC 4449) and ionized gas kinematics in all three (including NGC 2366).We compare this to the optical morphology and H I kinematics of thegalaxies. In the ionized gas, we see a linear velocity gradient in allthree galaxies. In NGC 1156 we also detect a weak linear velocitygradient in the stars of (5+/-1/sini) km s-1 kpc-1to a radius of 1.6 kpc. The stars and gas are rotating about the sameaxis, but this is different from the major axis of the stellar bar,which dominates the optical light of the galaxy. In NGC 4449 we do notdetect organized rotation of the stars and place an upper limit of(3/sini) km s-1 kpc-1 to a radius of 1.2 kpc. ForNGC 4449, which has signs of a past interaction with another galaxy, wedevelop a model to fit the observed kinematics of the stars and gas. Inthis model the stellar component is in a rotating disk seen nearlyface-on, while the gas is in a tilted disk with orbits whose planesprecess in the gravitational potential. This model reproduces theapparent counterrotation of the inner gas of the galaxy. The peculiarorbits of the gas are presumed as a result of acquisition of gas in thepast interaction.

Hα Rotation Curves: The Soft Core Question
We present high-resolution Hα rotation curves of four late-typedwarf galaxies and two low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, for whichaccurate H I rotation curves are available from the literature.Observations are carried out at Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. For LSBF583-1 an innovative dispersing element was used, the Volume PhaseHolographic, with a dispersion of about 0.35 Å pixel-1.We find good agreement between the Hα data and the H Iobservations and conclude that the H I data for these galaxies suffervery little from beam smearing. We show that the optical rotation curvesof these dark matter-dominated galaxies are best fitted by the Burkertprofile. In the centers of galaxies, where the N-body simulationspredict cuspy cores and fast rising rotation curves, our data seem to bein better agreement with the presence of soft cores.

GHASP: A 3-D Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies at Hα
Not Available

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

A Hubble Space Telescope Census of Nuclear Star Clusters in Late-Type Spiral Galaxies. I. Observations and Image Analysis
We present new Hubble Space Telescope I-band images of a sample of 77nearby late-type spiral galaxies with low inclination. The main purposeof this catalog is to study the frequency and properties of nuclear starclusters. In 59 galaxies of our sample, we have identified a distinct,compact (but resolved), and dominant source at or very close to thephotocenter. In many cases, these clusters are the only prominent sourcewithin a few kiloparsecs from the galaxy nucleus. We present surfacebrightness profiles, derived from elliptical isophote fits, of allgalaxies for which the fit was successful. We use the fitted isophotesat radii larger than 2" to check whether the location of the clustercoincides with the photocenter of the galaxy and confirm that in nearlyall cases, we are truly dealing with ``nuclear'' star clusters. Fromanalytical fits to the surface brightness profiles, we derive thecluster luminosities after subtraction of the light contribution fromthe underlying galaxy disk and/or bulge. Based on observations made withthe NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space TelescopeScience Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universitiesfor Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Theseobservations are associated with proposal 8599.

Rotation curves and metallicity gradients from HII regions in spiral galaxies
In this paper we study long slit spectra in the region of Hαemission line of a sample of 111 spiral galaxies with recognizable andwell defined spiral morphology and with a well determined environmentalstatus, ranging from isolation to non-disruptive interaction withsatellites or companions. The form and properties of the rotation curvesare considered as a function of the isolation degree, morphological typeand luminosity. The line ratios are used to estimate the metallicity ofall the detected HII regions, thus producing a composite metallicityprofile for different types of spirals. We have found that isolatedgalaxies tend to be of later types and lower luminosity than theinteracting galaxies. The outer parts of the rotation curves of isolatedgalaxies tend to be flatter than in interacting galaxies, but they showsimilar relations between global parameters. The scatter of theTully-Fisher relation defined by isolated galaxies is significantlylower than that of interacting galaxies. The [NII]/Hα ratios, usedas a metallicity indicator, show a clear trend between Z andmorphological type, t, with earlier spirals showing higher ratios; thistrend is tighter when instead of t the gradient of the inner rotationcurve, G, is used; no trend is found with the change in interactionstatus. The Z-gradient of the disks depends on the type, being almostflat for early spirals, and increasing for later types. The[NII]/Hα ratios measured for disk HII regions of interactinggalaxies are higher than for normal/isolated objects, even if all thegalaxy families present similar distributions of Hα EquivalentWidth. Tables 3 and 4 and Figs. 6, 7 and 21 are only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/389 Based on dataobtained Asiago/Ekar Observatory. Also based on observations made withINT operated on the island of La Palma by ING in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:08h19m19.60s
Aparent dimensions:3.236′ × 1.82′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 2552

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