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The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Sample selection and hosts brightness profiles
This is the first of a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGNs in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. We selected twosamples, both with high resolution 5 GHz VLA observations available andproviding measurements down to 1 mJy level, reaching radio-luminositiesas low as 1019 W Hz-1. We focus on the 116radio-detected galaxies as to boost the fraction of AGN with respect toa purely optically selected sample. Here we present the analysis of theoptical brightness profiles based on archival HST images, available for65 objects. We separate early-type galaxies on the basis of the slope oftheir nuclear brightness profiles, into core and power-law galaxiesfollowing the Nuker's scheme, rather than on the traditionalmorphological classification (i.e. into E and S0 galaxies). Our sampleof AGN candidates is indistinguishable, when their brightness profilesare concerned, from galaxies of similar optical luminosity but hostingweaker (or no) radio-sources. We confirm previous findings thatrelatively bright radio-sources (Lr > 1021.5 WHz-1) are uniquely associated to core galaxies. However,below this threshold in radio-luminosity core and power-law galaxiescoexist and they do not show any apparent difference in theirradio-properties. Not surprisingly, since our sample is deliberatelybiased to favour the inclusion of active galaxies, we found a higherfraction of optically nucleated galaxies. Addressing the multiwavelengthproperties of these nuclei will be the aim of the two forthcomingpapers.

Cold Dust in Early-Type Galaxies. I. Observations
We describe far-infrared observations of early-type galaxies selectedfrom the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) archive. This ratherinhomogeneous sample includes 39 giant elliptical galaxies and 14 S0 (orlater) galaxies. These galaxies were observed with the array photometerPHOT on-board the ISO satellite using a variety of different observingmodes-sparse maps, mini-maps, oversampled maps, and singlepointings-each of which requires different and often rather elaboratephotometric reduction procedures. The ISO background data agree wellwith the COBE-DIRBE results to which we have renormalized ourcalibrations. As a further check, the ISO fluxes from galaxies at 60 and100 μm agree very well with those previously observed with IRAS atthese wavelengths. The spatial resolution of ISO is several timesgreater than that of IRAS, and the ISO observations extend out to 200μm, which views a significantly greater mass of colder dust notassessable to IRAS. Most of the galaxies are essentially point sourcesat ISO resolution, but a few are clearly extended at FIR wavelengthswith image sizes that increase with FIR wavelength. The integratedfar-infrared luminosities do not correlate with optical luminosities,suggesting that the dust may have an external, merger-related origin. Ingeneral, the far-infrared spectral energy distributions can be modeledwith dust at two temperatures, ~43 and ~20 K, which probably representlimits of a continuous range of temperatures. The colder dust componentdominates the total mass of dust, 106-107Msolar, which is typically more than 10 times larger than thedust masses previously estimated for the same galaxies using IRASobservations. For S0 galaxies we find that the optically normalizedfar-infrared luminosity LFIR/LB correlatesstrongly with the mid-infrared luminosityL15μm/LB, but that correlation is weaker forelliptical galaxies.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, theNetherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS andNASA.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

New Insights from Hubble Space Telescope Studies of Globular Cluster Systems. II. Analysis of 29 S0 Systems
We examine the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of a sample of 34 S0galaxies from a WFPC2 snapshot survey in the V and I bands. Of these 34galaxies, 29 have measurable globular cluster systems. The mean color ofthe GCSs of individual galaxies vary from V-I=0.85 mag to V-I=1.17 mag.The average color of GCSs in all 29 S0 galaxies, V-I=1.00+/-0.07 mag, issimilar to the value of V-I=1.04+/-0.04 derived for ellipticals in acompanion paper. The mean metallicity of a cluster system is correlatedto the luminosity (or mass) of the host galaxy, but it is not dependenton the Hubble type. Our measurements of the local specific frequency, onthe other hand, confirm that the cluster formation efficiency is afunction of Hubble type. The mean local specific frequency of our samplewithin the WFPC2 field of view is 1.0+/-0.6, lower thanSN(Local)=2.4+/-1.8 derived for ellipticals in a similaranalysis. Although we are able to confirm a bimodal color distributionin only one galaxy from the shallow ``snapshot'' images analyzed in thispaper, statistical tests suggest that 10%-20% of S0s are bimodal at thepresent level of photometric accuracy. There are no significant trendsin GCS properties with membership or location of the S0 host in a galaxycluster. We have measured the turnover luminosity of the globularcluster luminosity function (GCLF) for the richest few GCSs and find theGCLF distances to be in agreement with other estimates. The globularclusters in S0 galaxies have average half-light radii of ~2.6 pc, whichis similar to that of other galaxies, including our own. Based onobservations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Associationof Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555.

H I in Four Star-forming Low-Luminosity E/S0 and S0 Galaxies
We present H I data cubes of four low-luminosity early-type (E/S0 andS0) galaxies that are currently forming stars. These galaxies haveabsolute magnitudes in the range MB=-17.9 to -19.9(H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-1). Their H I massesrange between a few times 108 and a few times 109Msolar, and the corresponding values forMHI/LB are between 0.07 and 0.42, so these systemsare H I-rich for their morphological type. In all four galaxies, the H Iis strongly centrally concentrated with high central H I surfacedensities, in contrast to what is typically observed in more luminousearly-type galaxies. Star formation is occurring only in the centralregions. In two galaxies (NGC 802 and ESO 118-G34), the kinematics ofthe H I suggests that the gas is in a strongly warped disk, which wetake as evidence for recent accretion of H I. In the other two galaxies(NGC 2328 and ESO 027-G21), the H I must have been part of the systemsfor a considerable time. The H I properties of low-luminosity early-typegalaxies appear to be systematically different from those of many moreluminous early-type galaxies, and we suggest that these differences aredue to a different evolution of the two classes. The star formationhistory of these galaxies remains unclear. Their UBV colors and Hαemission-line strengths are consistent with having formed stars at aslowly declining rate for most of the past 1010 yr. If so,their star formation history would be intermediate between late-typespiral disks and giant elliptical galaxies. However, the current data donot rule out a small burst of recent star formation overlaid on an olderstellar population. Three of the galaxies have weak radio continuumemission, and the ratio of the far-infrared (FIR) to radio continuumemission is very similar to that of spirals of similar FIR or radioluminosity. We find that, except in the largest galaxy observed, theradio continuum emission can be accounted for solely by thermal(free-free) emission from H II regions, with no nonthermal (synchrotron)disk component. Thus, although these galaxies have gaseous disks, a diskmagnetic field may be very weak or absent. Based on observations withthe Australia Telescope Compact Array. The Australia Telescope is fundedby the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facilitymanaged by CSIRO.

HI in early-type galaxies
We summarise the HI properties of early-type galaxies, in particular thedifferences in HI morphologies observed in early-type galaxies ofdifferent luminosities. We find that in low-luminosity early-typegalaxies the HI is almost always in a disk-like structure, with centralsurface densities high enough for star formation to occur. In a fewluminous early-type galaxies the HI is also in a disk or in a ring-likestructure, but in most luminous early-type galaxies the HI has arelatively irregular morphology. The surface densities in the HI disksin luminous early-type galaxies are lower than in the HI disks in low-luminosity early-type galaxies and no large-scale star formation shouldoccur in these disks. We discuss these different HI characteristics inthe context of other properties of early-type galaxies that correlatewith luminosity.

X-ray luminosities for a magnitude-limited sample of early-type galaxies from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey
For a magnitude-limited optical sample (B_T <= 13.5 mag) ofearly-type galaxies, we have derived X-ray luminosities from the ROSATAll-Sky Survey. The results are 101 detections and 192 useful upperlimits in the range from 10^36 to 10^44 erg s^-1. For most of thegalaxies no X-ray data have been available until now. On the basis ofthis sample with its full sky coverage, we find no galaxy with anunusually low flux from discrete emitters. Below log (L_B) ~ 9.2L_⊗ the X-ray emission is compatible with being entirely due todiscrete sources. Above log (L_B) ~ 11.2 L_osolar no galaxy with onlydiscrete emission is found. We further confirm earlier findings that L_xis strongly correlated with L_B. Over the entire data range the slope isfound to be 2.23 (+/- 0.12). We also find a luminosity dependence ofthis correlation. Below log L_x = 40.5 erg s^-1 it is consistent with aslope of 1, as expected from discrete emission. Above this value theslope is close to 2, as expected from gaseous emission. Comparing thedistribution of X-ray luminosities with the models of Ciotti et al.leads to the conclusion that the vast majority of early-type galaxiesare in the wind or outflow phase. Some of the galaxies may have alreadyexperienced the transition to the inflow phase. They show X-rayluminosities in excess of the value predicted by cooling flow modelswith the largest plausible standard supernova rates. A possibleexplanation for these super X-ray-luminous galaxies is suggested by thesmooth transition in the L_x--L_B plane from galaxies to clusters ofgalaxies. Gas connected to the group environment might cause the X-rayoverluminosity.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Cool dense gas in early-type galaxies
CO observations have shown that many lenticular and elliptical galaxiescontain significant amounts of cool dense gas. This review summarizesthe observational results related to the neutral gas phase and presentsa systematic comparison with other interstellar and stellar data. Thediscovery of very dense molecular gas in the nuclear regions ofearly-type galaxies, the possible existence of a dust component neitherseen optically nor in CO, internal inconsistencies of cooling flowscenarios, the origin of the cool gas, the presence of massive stars,aspects of galaxy evolution, and possibilities for future research arediscussed in the light of the new data.

Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.
Not Available

The molecular cloud content of early-type galaxies. V. CO in elliptical galaxies.
A survey of CO emission in 29 far-IR selected elliptical galaxiesresulted in 16 detections, of which 3 remain tentative. The moleculargas masses range from 2x10^6^Msun_ to1x10^9^Msun_, and appear to be unrelated to the underlyingstellar population. This suggests an external origin of the gas. Most ofthe elliptical galaxies with a molecular gas component have agas-to-dust mass ratio of ~700, where dust masses are derived from theIRAS fluxes, but some appear to have a ratio as low as 50. A smallapparent gas-to-dust mass ratio is also found for some late-typegalaxies, and is correlated with a low dust temperature. We suggest thata large part of the far-infrared emission from these galaxies (bothearly- and late-types) comes from dust associated with the atomic gascomponent rather than star forming regions associated with the moleculargas, and that they contain a cold dust component. Low excitationtemperatures for CO transitions in galaxies with cold dust could lead toan underestimate of the molecular gas mass by a factor of 5. The averageM_H_2__/M_HI_ ratio for the elliptical galaxies is 2-5 times lower thanfor normal spiral galaxies. Field ellipticals appear more likely tocontain an observable molecular gas component than those ellipticalsresiding in groups and clusters.

UBVRI photoelectric photometry of bright southern early-type galaxies
UBVRI multi-aperture photometry of 207 bright southern galaxies and of72 objects of an additional list is presented. These observations weremade for obtaining the magnitude scale zero-point as an accuratedetermination of the sky background for a two-dimensional photometryprogram concerning these galaxies. We have also inferred the asymptoticmagnitudes, color indices and effective apertures of these objects. Ourresults are in good agreement with those of others authors.

Molecular gas in elliptical galaxies
C-12O(2-1) observations of 24 FIR-bright ellipticals, as well as fiveother early-type galaxies, including one FIR-faint elliptical, IC 2006,are reported. The detected ellipticals are found to have typicalmolecular gas masses of about 10 to the 7th - 10 to the 8th solarmasses, similar to their H I masses, and an approximately power-lawdistribution of M(H2)/L(B), extending to much lower values than for thespirals. The lenticular galaxies have CO properties intermediate betweenthe elliptical and spiral systems. It is concluded that theseellipticals have global interstellar medium properties similar to thosein late-type galaxies, but on a much smaller scale. A comparison of theproperties of those ellipticals which have been detected in CO with theundetected galaxies indicates that the molecular gas may occurpreferentially in the bluer, lower luminosity dwarf ellipticals, whichhave more than twice the detection rate of the brighter galaxies.

Low-luminosity radio sources in early-type galaxies
A sensitive radio continuum survey of 114 nearby E and S0 galaxies hasbeen made to search for weak sources. The radio detection rate is 42percent, with a flux limit of 0.8 mJy at 5 GHz. By deriving the radioluminosity function for a complete sample, it is shown that most brightearly-type galaxies have low-luminosity nonthermal radio sources.Galaxies of similar optical luminosity vary widely in radio luminosity,but a characteristic radio power rises roughly as the optical luminositysquared. S0 galaxies have weaker radio sources on average thanelliptical galaxies, but this can be explained by the low luminosity ofmost S0 bulges relative to ellipticals. No correlation is found betweenradio power and axial ratio for galaxies with radio luminosities below10 to the 23rd W/Hz.

On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.

Infrared properties of dusty elliptical galaxies
From published sources including the IRAS survey, a sample of 6 E and S0galaxies with dust lanes and a comparative sample of 32 such galaxieswithout dust lanes were collected. No evidence was found that dustylanes in ellipticals are sites of intensive star formation with strongIR emission. On the IR two-color diagram, ellipticals without dust lanesare located in the same region as normal galaxies, while some of thosewith dust lanes are located far from this region; these are often activegalaxies.

Ionized gas in elliptical galaxies
More than half of all nearby elliptical galaxies contain modest amountsof ionized gas. In bright elliptical galaxies this gas appears to lie ina rotating, kiloparsec-scale central disk, with a spectrumcharacteristic of nonthermal ionization. Low-luminosity ellipticals havea clumpy gas distribution and the gas in these galaxies is photoionizedby young stars.

A catalogue of early-type galaxies with emission lines
Spectroscopic and photometric data on 289 early-type galaxies (E and S0)with optical emission lines are presented and possible correlationsamong properties of the galaxies in the sample are investigated. Theoccurrence of phenomena as radio emission, presence of neutral hydrogenand dust shows an increase in comparison with the occurrence of the samephenomena in these morphological classes as a whole. There is noevidence of a relationship between apparent shape and presence ofionized gas in the central regions.

Cool interstellar matter in early-type galaxies
IRAS fluxes of early-type galaxies have been examined. From studying amagnitude-limited sample, it seems that although the statistics arepoor, perhaps a third of these objects and possibly even more have anappreciable amount of dust. In general, the infrared emission isstrongest at 100 microns, and quite often the far-infrared luminosity ofan early-type galaxy can be well in excess of 10 to the 8th solarluminosities. The data are most easily understood if the infraredresults from dust reprocessing of starlight. Within 3 kpc of the centerof an early-type galaxy, there may be more cold matter than hot gas;recent models that the interstellar media of these objects are composedprimarily of hot gas appear to be oversimplifications. The X-ray data doindicate that the thermal pressure in the early-type galaxies often issufficiently high that in view of the expected low temperatures of theirinterstellar clouds, it can be speculated that the cold material that ispresent may be forming low-mass stars.

Ionized gas in elliptical and S0 galaxies. I - A survey for H-alpha and forbidden N II emission
A spectroscopic survey of a large sample of southern E and S0 galaxiesin order to detect ionized gas in the nuclei is reported. The strongestline in the 6000-7000 A range was nearly always forbidden N II 6584 A,followed by H-alpha and forbidden S II 6716, 6731 A. Identical detectionrates of about 50 percent were obtained for the forbidden N II line inboth E and S0 galaxies. The mass of ionized gas in early-type galaxieswas very small, with values typically in the range 1000-10,000 solarmasses. The relative emission-line strengths in virtually every casewere indistinguishable from those of LINER nuclei. The observed valuesof the forbidden N II 6584 A/H-alpha ratios fell mostly between one andthree and seem correlated with galaxy absolute magnitude. The existenceof such a correlation may be indicative of metallicity differences.

Southern Galaxy Catalogue.
Not Available

Colour Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies - Some Results from CCD Photometry
Not Available

Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and SO galaxies. III. A radio continuum survey at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...53S&db_key=AST

Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and SO galaxies. II. UBV aperture photometry.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...34S&db_key=AST

Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and S0 galaxies. I - Radial velocities. II - UBV aperture photometry. III - A radio continuum survey at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...23S&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:07h02m36.00s
Aparent dimensions:1.585′ × 1.349′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 2328

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