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Massive HI clouds with no optical counterparts as high-density regions of intragroup HI rings and arcs
We present a new scenario in which massive intragroup HI clouds are thehigh-density parts of large HI rings/arcs formed by dynamicalinteraction between galaxy groups and gas-rich, low surface brightness(LSB) galaxies with extended gas discs. Our hydrodynamical simulationsdemonstrate that the group tidal field is very efficient at strippingthe outer HI gas of the disc if the gaseous disc of the LSB galaxyextends 2-5 times further than the stellar disc. We find that a massive,extended `leading stream' orbiting the centre of the group can form outof the stripped outer HI envelope, while the severely shrunken LSBgalaxy, whose stellar disc remains unaffected, continues on its path.The result is a relatively isolated, massive HI cloud with a ring- orarc-like shape, a very inhomogeneous density distribution(NHI~ 1.0 × 1017-1.1 × 1020atomcm-2), and, initially, no stellar content. Only thehigh-density peaks of the simulated intragroup HI ring/arc can bedetected in many current HI observations. These will appear asrelatively isolated `HI islands' near the group centre. We also findthat star formation can occur within the ring/arc, if the total gas masswithin the intragroup ring/arc is very large (~4 × 109Msolar). We discuss these results in terms of existingobservations of intragroup gas (e.g. the Leo Ring and HIPASS J0731-69)and intergalactic HII regions.

Dust in the outer regions of interacting galaxies.
Not Available

Extended very cold dust in the interacting HI ring galaxy pair NGC 2293 / 2292
The LGG 138 galaxy group members NGC 2292 and NGC 2293 were imaged withISOPHOT in the far-infrared (FIR) at {60 μ m}, {100 μ m}, and {200μ m}. While no FIR emission is seen at {60 μ m}, and only very lowlevel emission is present at {100 μ m}, compact FIR emission fromboth NGC 2292 and NGC 2293 galaxy centres and extended emission likelyassociated with tidally removed dust and the HI ring surrounding NGC2292 / 2293 is strongly detected at {200 μ m}. Additionally, acompact FIR source associated with the neighbouring galaxy NGC 2295 isstrongly detected at {200 μ m}. Remarkably, none of these threegalaxies have been detected individually in 21 cm HI emission. Thesteeply rising far-infrared spectral energy distribution of theapparently interacting NGC 2292 / 2293 pair towards longer wavelengthsindicates the thermal emission of very cold dust with a temperature of13 K, much lower than typical values of interacting systems or evenquiescent spiral galaxies. The FIR data of this galaxy group clearlyshows for the first time that there could be FIR dust emission notaccompanied by HI, that dust even in an interacting system can have avery low dust temperature, and furthermore that gravitationalinteraction can give rise to an extended diffuse dust distribution.

Dust in the Outskirts of Interacting Galaxies
Not Available

Spatial distribution of galaxies in the Puppis region
We determine the spatial distribution of the galaxies located behind thepart of the zone of avoidance of the Milky Way defined by 220°

HI Tidal Tails, Bridges and Clouds
There is plenty of intergalactic H I gas without any obvious stellarcontent ranging from (1) extended gas envelopes around some normal andpeculiar galaxies, (2) tidal tails/bridges in interacting or merginggalaxy systems, (3) large-scale rings around early type galaxies, and(4) detached clouds at varying distances from associated galaxies, butthere are few or no isolated H I clouds.The HIPASS Bright Galaxy Catalog, which covers the whole southern sky,contains only one definite extragalactic H I cloud which is locatedclose to the galaxy NGC 2442 whereas it is sensitive to isolated H Iclouds with MHI > 106 × D2Mȯ. The space density of H I clouds is therefore about1/1000th that of galaxies with the same MHI.

Line-of-Sight Reddening Predictions: Zero Points, Accuracies, the Interstellar Medium, and the Stellar Populations of Elliptical Galaxies
Revised (B-V)0-Mg2 data, which are used to testreddening predictions, are presented for 402 elliptical galaxies. Thesereddening predictions can tell us both what the intrinsic errors are inthis relationship among gE galaxy stellar populations as well as detailsof nearby structure in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy, andof the intrinsic errors in reddening predictions. Using least-squaresfits, the explicit 1 σ errors in reddenings predicted by theBurstein-Heiles (BH) method and the Schlegel and coworkers (IR) methodare calculated, as well as the 1 σ observational error in the(B-V)0-Mg2 for gE galaxies. It is found that indirections with E(B-V)<0.100 mag (where most of these galaxies lie),1 σ errors in the IR reddening predictions are 0.006-0.009 mag inE(B-V), those for BH reddening predictions are 0.011 mag, and the 1σ agreement between the two reddening predictions is 0.007 mag.The IR predictions have an accuracy of 0.010-0.011 mag in directionswith E(B-V)>=0.100 mag, significantly better than those of the BHpredictions (0.024-0.025). Both methods yield good evidence thatgas-to-dust variations that vary by a factor of 3, both high and low,exist along many lines of sight in our Galaxy. Both methods also predictmany directions with E(B-V)<0.015 mag, despite the difference in zeropoint that each has assumed. The ~0.02 higher reddening zero point inE(B-V) previously determined by Schlegel and coworkers is confirmed,primarily at the Galactic poles. Independent evidence of reddening atthe north Galactic pole (NGP) is reviewed, with the conclusion thatdirections still exist at the NGP that have E(B-V)<<0.01. Twolines of evidence suggest that IR reddenings are overpredicted indirections with high gas-to-dust ratios. As high gas-to-dust directionsin the ISM also include the Galactic poles, this overprediction is thelikely cause of the E(B-V)~0.02 mag larger IR reddening zero pointrelative to that of BH.

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

A study of neutral hydrogen in five small galaxy groups
High-resolution Hi imaging observations of a heterogeneous sample ofsmall galaxy groups are presented. The five galaxy groups studied show abroad range of individual Hi properties: e.g. loose groups surroundingLGG 138 and the genuinely compact LGG 455 are identified; a massive ringof neutral gas is discovered encircling two luminous galaxies in the LGG138 group; a galaxy-sized mass of Hi is found in LGG 455 confined to anextragalactic cloud which exceeds the threshold density for starformation, yet is optically invisible; and the CCG 1 group is argued tobe a chance alignment of Centaurus cluster galaxies. Global results ofthe study are that the deficit of Hi flux in synthesis imaging datacompared with single-dish data is put forward as a quantitative measureof the diffuseness of neutral gas in galaxy groups; several groupscontain gas-poor galaxies that ordinarily would contain detectablequantities of Hi - this is interpreted as being caused by an increasedchance of gas-sweeping collisions in the group environment; and someevidence is found to support previous findings that compact groupspreferentially occur in loose systems.

A new HI ring: LGG 138
A complete ring of neutral hydrogen gas (HI) in the LGG 138 group ofgalaxies has been found. The HI mass of the ring is greater than 10^9solar masses, and the gas appears to be rotating with a projectedcircular speed of about 200 km per sec. Two bright galaxies are enclosedby the ring, both having radial velocities consistent with membership ofthe group. Faint stellar emission extends to the radial distance of theHI ring, where a small but distinct colour discontinuity of between 0.05and 0.20 magnitudes is detected. Three simple models for the formationof the system are briefly described, the most likely appearing to be apast gas-sweeping collision between one of the two bright galaxies andan outside intruder, with the colour break being partly due to anexpanding density wave that is triggering star formation, and partly toa different stellar population that has been collected from theoutskirts of the intruder.

X-ray luminosities for a magnitude-limited sample of early-type galaxies from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey
For a magnitude-limited optical sample (B_T <= 13.5 mag) ofearly-type galaxies, we have derived X-ray luminosities from the ROSATAll-Sky Survey. The results are 101 detections and 192 useful upperlimits in the range from 10^36 to 10^44 erg s^-1. For most of thegalaxies no X-ray data have been available until now. On the basis ofthis sample with its full sky coverage, we find no galaxy with anunusually low flux from discrete emitters. Below log (L_B) ~ 9.2L_⊗ the X-ray emission is compatible with being entirely due todiscrete sources. Above log (L_B) ~ 11.2 L_osolar no galaxy with onlydiscrete emission is found. We further confirm earlier findings that L_xis strongly correlated with L_B. Over the entire data range the slope isfound to be 2.23 (+/- 0.12). We also find a luminosity dependence ofthis correlation. Below log L_x = 40.5 erg s^-1 it is consistent with aslope of 1, as expected from discrete emission. Above this value theslope is close to 2, as expected from gaseous emission. Comparing thedistribution of X-ray luminosities with the models of Ciotti et al.leads to the conclusion that the vast majority of early-type galaxiesare in the wind or outflow phase. Some of the galaxies may have alreadyexperienced the transition to the inflow phase. They show X-rayluminosities in excess of the value predicted by cooling flow modelswith the largest plausible standard supernova rates. A possibleexplanation for these super X-ray-luminous galaxies is suggested by thesmooth transition in the L_x--L_B plane from galaxies to clusters ofgalaxies. Gas connected to the group environment might cause the X-rayoverluminosity.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.
Not Available

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Neutral hydrogen observations of elliptical galaxies. II. The IRAS sample.
HI observations are reported for a total of 53 IRAS elliptical galaxies.Nearby confusing sources may be responsible for some of the 33detections. There are 24 isolated detected galaxies, which can be splitinto two groups, one having the same M_HI_/L_B_ ratio as the ellipticalgalaxies from the RSA (M_HI_/L_B_=0.030+/-0.026). A second group is morethan six times richer in HI (M_HI_/L_B_=0.206+/-0.105). The "HI-rich"galaxies have blue colors like spiral galaxies and have a tendencytowards higher average dust temperatures. The large number of ellipticalgalaxies in compact groups (in this sample) suggests that gravitationalinteractions and mergers may be an important source of interstellarmatter for elliptical galaxies.

Compact groups of galaxies in the nearby universe
We have searched for compact groups of galaxies among the largestcatalog of nearby groups (LGG catalog). 21 new compact groups of atleast 3 members were found. Their surface brightnesses are generallylower than those of Hickson compact groups (HCGs), and theircharacteristics are close to those of loose groups. We have alsoretrieved all HCGs of the nearby universe. These are all embedded ingroups, forming the cores or substructures of loose groups. Theseresults suggest that compact groups may form as core or substructureswithin loose groups (like the HCGs), or form from loose groups when theystart collapsing (like those of the LGG).

Multicolor surface photometry of early-type galaxies. I.
We have obtained v,g,r and i CCD surface photometry for a sample of 109early-type galaxies. Many of the galaxies covered have no previouslypublished CCD or aperture photometry. Our surface brightness profilestypically extend down to a surface brightness ofμ_r_~24mag/arcsec^2^. Detailed comparisons with previously publishedwork, and internal and external error estimates for all quantities areprovided. The complete surface photometry data set is made available ina computer-readable form.

Millimeter and submillimeter continuum emission from early-type galaxies
Twenty-two early-type galaxies that were detected by IRAS have beensearched for continuum emission at millimeter and submillimeterwavelengths using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). IRAS wasrelatively insensitive to cold dust that emits primarily at these longerwavelengths. In this first survey we were able to detect or achieveuseful limits on the emission from 14 of the 22 galaxies observed. Fromthese data we estimate upper limits on the dust temperature and lowerlimits on the mass of dust within the JCMT beam. These results arecompared with H I and CO data and with the blue luminosities of thegalaxies. The results are consistent with a model where the dust-to-gasratio is similar to the Galactic one, and the amount of cold dust is anorder of magnitude greater than the amount of warm dust (as is also seenin our Galaxy). The total dust mass, normalized to the luminosity of theentire galaxy, is much lower than is found in spiral galaxies, asexpected.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Infrared emission and mass loss from evolved stars in elliptical galaxies
Small aperture 10.2-micron measurements of normal elliptical galaxiesshow that for almost all of these galaxies the 12-micron emission seenby IRAS is extended on the scale of the galaxy. NGC 1052 and NGC 3998are exceptions to this; much of their 10-12-micron emission comes fromthe inner regions of the galaxies and may be associated with theiractive nuclei, as is the case for many radio galaxies. The distributionof the IR light and the IR colors of elliptical galaxies suggest thatthe most plausible source of the 12-micron emission is photospheric andcircumstellear emission from cool evolved red giant stars. The 12-micronemission is well in excess of that expected from photospheric emissionalone; about 40 percent of it probably comes from circumstellar dust.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. III - UBV aperture photometry, CCD photometry, and magnitude-related parameters
Photoelectric aperture photometry of nearly 2000 individual observationsof 449 elliptical galaxies combined with published measurements usingthe self-consistent UVB color catalog developed by Burstein et al.(1987) are presented. The data are placed on a standard magnitude andcolor system, and 'total' magnitudes and effective diameters are derivedby comparison with the standard elliptical magnitude growth curve. Agraphical representation of the standard growth curve and the residualsfrom it for each galaxy are given, and a new diameter measurement Dn ispresented which can be measured reliably for elliptical galaxies andserves as an accurate distance indicator when combined with centralvelocity dispersion. Individual magnitudes, surface brightnesses,effective diameters, and values of Dn are summarized for each galaxy incatalog form.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. II - The spectroscopic parameters
Radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and Mg line-strength indicesare measured for 469 elliptical galaxies using four telescope/detectorconfigurations. The data have been put on a common scale; the scatter ofrepeat measurements indicates an uncertainty of + or - 10 percent and +or - 0.01 mag for single determinations of sigma and Mg2, respectively.A correction for the change in linear aperture size as a function ofdistance has been derived, and mean corrected values of sigma and Mg2are adopted. The galaxies have been assigned to groups by combining thepresent velocities with those in the redshift catalog of Huchra et al.(1983) and using the algorithm of Huchra and Geller (1982).

Southern Galaxy Catalogue.
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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Canis Major
Right ascension:06h47m39.80s
Aparent dimensions:4.169′ × 3.02′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 2292

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