|New catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters|
We present a catalogue of blue-straggler candidates in galactic openclusters. It is based on the inspection of the colour-magnitude diagramsof the clusters, and it updates and supersedesthe first version(Ahumada & Lapasset 1995). A new bibliographical search was made foreach cluster, and the resulting information is organised into twotables. Some methodological aspects have been revised, in particularthose concerning the delimitation of the area in the diagrams where thestragglers are selected.A total of 1887 blue-straggler candidates have been found in 427 openclusters of all ages, doubling the original number. The catalogued starsare classified into two categories mainly according to membershipinformation.The whole catalogue (Tables 8, 9, notes, and references) is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/463/789
|Proper motion determination of open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue|
We present the kinematics of hundreds of open clusters, based on theUCAC2 Catalogue positions and proper motions. Membership probabilitieswere obtained for the stars in the cluster fields by applying astatistical method uses stellar proper motions. All open clusters withknown distance were investigated, and for 75 clusters this is the firstdetermination of the mean proper motion. The results, including the DSSimages of the cluster's fields with the kinematic members marked, areincorporated in the Open Clusters Catalogue supported on line by ourgroup.
|On the distance, reddening and progenitor of V838 Mon|
Extensive optical and infrared photometry as well as low and highresolution spectroscopy are used as inputs in deriving robust estimatesof the reddening, distance and nature of the progenitor of V838 Mon, the2002 outbursting event that produced a most spectacular light-echo. Thereddening affecting V838 Mon is found to obey the R_V=3.1 law andamounts to (i) EB-V=0.86 from the interstellar NaI and KIlines; (ii) EB-V=0.88 from the energy distribution of the B3V component; and (iii) EB-V=0.87 from the progression ofextinction along the line of sight. The adoptedEB-V=0.87±0.01 is also the amount required by fittingthe progenitor with theoretical isochrones of appropriate metallicity.The distance is estimated from (a) the galactic kinematics of the threecomponents of the interstellar lines; (b) the amount of extinction vs.the HI column density and vs. the dust emission through the whole Galaxyin that direction; from (c) spectrophotometric parallax to the B3 Vcompanion; from (d) comparison of the observed color-magnitude diagramof field stars with 3D stellar population models of the Galaxy; from (e)comparison of theoretical isochrones with the components of the binarysystem in quiescence and found to be around 10 kpc. Pre-outburst opticaland IR energy distributions show that the component erupting in 2002 wasbrighter and hotter than the B3 V companion. The best fit is obtainedfor a 50 000 K source, 0.5 mag brighter than the B3 V companion. Thelatter passed unaffected through the outburst, which implies an orbitalseparation wide enough to avoid mass exchange during the evolution ofthe binary system, and to allow a safe comparison with theoreticalisochrones for single stars. Such a comparison suggests that theprogenitor of the outbursting component had an initial mass ~65M_ȯ, that it was approaching the carbon ignition stage in its coreat the time it erupted in 2002 and that the age of the V838 Mon binarysystem is close to 4 million yr. The 2002 event is probably just a shellthermonuclear event in the outer envelope of the star.
|Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy|
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.
|Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data|
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Foreground and background dust in star cluster directions|
This paper compares reddening values E(B-V) derived from the stellarcontent of 103 old open clusters and 147 globular clusters of the MilkyWay with those derived from DIRBE/IRAS 100 mu m dust emission in thesame directions. Star clusters at |b|> 20deg showcomparable reddening values between the two methods, in agreement withthe fact that most of them are located beyond the disk dust layer. Forvery low galactic latitude lines of sight, differences occur in thesense that DIRBE/IRAS reddening values can be substantially larger,suggesting effects due to the depth distribution of the dust. Thedifferences appear to arise from dust in the background of the clustersconsistent with a dust layer where important extinction occurs up todistances from the Plane of ~ 300 pc. For 3 % of the sample asignificant background dust contribution might be explained by higherdust clouds. We find evidence that the Milky Way dust lane and higherdust clouds are similar to those of several edge-on spiral galaxiesrecently studied in detail by means of CCD imaging.
|Studies of the open cluster M 11. I. Proper motion measurement and membership determination|
From PDS microdensitometer measurements of 10 plate pairs of the opencluster M 11 with epoch differences of 16-70 years taken with our 40 cmdouble astrograph, the relative proper motions of 872 stars in thecluster region are determined. 85% of these have accuracies better than0.1 arcsec per century. The distribution parameters of stars withdifferent magnitudes are found from a new mathematical model. Themembership probabilities of the stars are calculated. 541 stars havemembership probabilities higher than 0.7. The new approach of membershipdetermination is shown to be not only theoretically rigorous, but alsopractically feasible, and more reasonable results can be obtained fromits use. Some evidence is found for mass segregation in space and lesserevidence for mass segregation in velocity space.
|Cluster membership determinations from proper motion surveys|
|Studies of the open cluster M11. 1. Proper motion measurement and membership determination.|
|Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.|
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.
|Proper motions of stars in the region of the open cluster NGC 2286 and its membership study|
Relative proper motions, their corresponding observed errors andmembership probabilities of 2400 stars in the open cluster NGC 2286region are determined from ASTROSCAN measurements of 8 plates made atLeiden Observatory. The plates have the maximum epoch difference of some70 years and were taken with the double astrograph at Zo-Se station ofShanghai Observatory, which has an aperture of 40 cm, a focal length of6.9 m and a scale of 30 arcsec/mm. The number of stars with membershipprobabilities higher than 0.7 and radial distances from the clustercentre less than 12' is 90. The average standard errors of propermotions vary from +/-0.0007"/yr for bright stars in the inner part ofthe field to some +/-0.0016"/yr for faint stars in the outer part of thefield, and are statistically dependent on the number of measured platesper star. It is found from an analysis of the surface number densitydistribution of cluster members that the angular radius of NGC 2286 issome 12' and the corresponding linear radius 4.5 pc.
|Photometry and HR diagram of the open cluster NGC 2286|
Photographic B and V magnitudes for 305 stars in the region of the opencluster NGC 2286 are given. Combining with other data, a mean colorexcess of E(B-V) = 0.40 +/- 0.10 mag, a distance modulus of 10.90 +/-0.10 mag, corresponding to a distance of r about 1510 +/- 70 pc, and anage estimate of 6 x 10 exp 7 yr are derived. On the basis of theobtained HR diagram, some other properties of the cluster are discussed.
|Proper motion determination and membership study of the open cluster NGC 2286|
Four pairs of plates taken with the 40 cm astrograph of ShanghaiObservatory were used to determine the proper motions of 2284 stars ofthe open cluster NGC 2286 and their errors. An error analysis shows thatthe mean error per unit weight in the centennial proper motion is + or -0.366 in. A detailed study of membership shows that the membership ishighly uncertain; one possible interpretation is that the cluster maynot in fact exist, or at least the available proper motion data do notyet provide an effective criterion for membership.
|Component Analysis of Open Clusters|
|Young stellar-gas complexes in the Galaxy|
It is found that about 90 percent of OB-associations and o-b2 clusterssituated within 3 kpc of the sun can be united into complexes withdiameters of 150-700 pc. Almost all of these clusters contain giantmolecular clouds with a mass greater than about 100,000 solar masses. Anumber of complexes are associated with giant H I clouds; a few of thesmall complexes are situated in the HI caverns. The concentration ofOB-associations and young clusters in star complexes attests to theircommon origin in the supergiant gaseous clouds.
|A cluster analysis of open clusters|
The Galactic distribution of 361 open clusters is studied using acluster analysis method. It is shown that more than half of the clustersenter groups with characteristic dimensions of several hundred parsecs.To distinguish physical clusters from random condensations, criteriabased on age similarity, the color of the main-sequence blue end, andthe integrated color and radial velocity of the clusters are used. Theproximity of these values suggests a physical unity and common origin ofclusters in a group.
|Catalog of open clusters and associated interstellar matter.|
|Yellow evolved stars in open clusters|
This paper describes a program in which Galactic cluster post-AGBcandidates were first identified and then analyzed for clustermembership via radial velocities, monitored for possible photometricvariations, examined for evidence of mass loss, and classified ascompletely as possible in terms of their basic stellar parameters. Theintrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters.With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by thesupergiants decline. It appears that the evolutionary tracks ofluminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than ofclass III. Only two superluminous giant star candidates are found inopen clusters.
|Proper motion studies of stars in and around open clusters|
A compilation of proper motion studies of stars in and around openclusters is presented. It can serve as a reference to cluster memberselections, studies of cluster dynamics, or as a guide to furtherimprovement of the data presently available. The present paper is only apreliminary version.
|Investigation of the initial mass spectrum of open star clusters|
The mass spectra of 228 open star clusters were derived by comparison ofcolor-magnitude diagrams with evolutionary tracks. The application tobinary stars showed the reliability of the mass determination. Thederived mass spectra were fitted by power laws as well as exponentiallaws. It could be shown that both approximate the mass spectra of openstar clusters on the same average significance level. The presentinvestigation revealed a correlation of the slope of the mass spectrawith the cluster age, whereas a detected correlation of the slope withgalactocentric distance is slight. The results suggest that the slope ofthe mass spectrum increases with increasing cluster and galactocentricdistance. These findings are discussed with respect to their reasons andprevious results concerning open clusters and field stars.
|Open clusters and galactic structure|
A total of 610 references to 434 clusters are employed in thecompilation of a catalog of open clusters with color-magnitude diagramson the UBV or RGU systems. Estimates of reddening, distance modulus, ageand number of cluster members are included. Although the sample isconsidered representative of the discoverable clusters in the galaxy,the observed distribution is nonuniform because of interstellarobscuration. Cluster distribution in the galactic plane is found to bedominated by the locations of dust clouds rather than by spiralstructure. The distributions of clusters as a function of age andrichness class show that the lifetimes of poor clusters are much shorterthan rich ones, and that clusters in the outer disk survive longer thanthose in the inner disk. An outer disk age which is only about 50% theage of the globular clusters is indicated by cluster statistics. Thethickening of the galactic disk with increasing galactocentric distancemay be due to either a younger dynamical age or a lower gravitationalpotential in the outer regions.
|First Supplement to the list of transit tables for star numberings in open clusters.|
|A catalogue of galactic star clusters observed in three colours|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1971A&AS....4..241B
|An atlas of open cluster colour-magnitude diagrams|
|Colour-magnitude diagrams of the galactic clusters NGC 2286 and NGC 2395|
|Die räumliche Verteilung von 156 galaktischen Sternhaufen in Abhängigkeit von ihrem Alter. Mit 7 Textabbildungen|
|Colour - magnitude diagrams of the galactic clusters NGC 2286 and NGC 2395.|
|Etudes photographiques de cinq amas galactiques, NGC 1750, 1817, 2286,2548, 7380.|