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Galactic Interstellar Gas Cloud Mass Functions: A Simple Quantitative Approach
We present here a simple approach to understanding the gas cloud massdistribution function by simulating formation and destruction of gasclouds and gas clumps in the ISM. We include as relevant processescoagulation to form bigger clouds, as well as disruption by collisionsand the removal of gas by collapse to form stars. We evolve initial setsof preexisting gas clumps with a range of initial distribution functions(flat, Gaussian, fractal) for their physical parameters and withdifferent geometrical forms (spherical or elongated) for the individualclouds, and constrain them within an imaginary box representinggravitational bounding, applying the kinematic laws of nonelasticcollisions. The results agree well with observations of the massdistribution function of Galactic giant gas clouds if we choose aGaussian for the initial distribution function, and initial gas cloudswhich are quasi-spherical.

The population in the background of open clusters: tracer of the Norma-Cygnus arm
We present colour-magnitude diagrams of open clusters, located in therange 112° < l < 252°, manifesting stellar populations inthe background of clusters. Some of the populations are found to belocated beyond the Perseus arm and may be the part of the Norma-Cygnus(outer) arm. The outer arm seems to be continued from l ~ 120° to~235°. The background populations follow the downward warp of theGalactic plane around l ~ 240°.

Kinematics of the Open Cluster System in the Galaxy
Absolute proper motions and radial velocities of 202 open clusters inthe solar neighborhood, which can be used as tracers of the Galacticdisk, are used to investigate the kinematics of the Galaxy in the solarvicinity, including the mean heliocentric velocity components(u1,u2,u3) of the open cluster system,the characteristic velocity dispersions(σ1,σ2,σ3), Oortconstants (A,B) and the large-scale radial motion parameters (C,D) ofthe Galaxy. The results derived from the observational data of propermotions and radial velocities of a subgroup of 117 thin disk young openclusters by means of a maximum likelihood algorithm are:(u1,u2,u3) =(-16.1+/-1.0,-7.9+/-1.4,-10.4+/-1.5) km s-1,(σ1,σ2,σ3) =(17.0+/-0.7,12.2+/-0.9,8.0+/-1.3) km s-1,(A,B) =(14.8+/-1.0,-13.0+/-2.7) km s-1 kpc-1, and (C,D) =(1.5+/-0.7,-1.2+/-1.5) km s-1 k pc-1. A discussionon the results and comparisons with what was obtained by other authorsis given.

Proper motion determination of open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue
We present the kinematics of hundreds of open clusters, based on theUCAC2 Catalogue positions and proper motions. Membership probabilitieswere obtained for the stars in the cluster fields by applying astatistical method uses stellar proper motions. All open clusters withknown distance were investigated, and for 75 clusters this is the firstdetermination of the mean proper motion. The results, including the DSSimages of the cluster's fields with the kinematic members marked, areincorporated in the Open Clusters Catalogue supported on line by ourgroup.

Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.

Morphology of Galactic Open Clusters
We analyzed the shapes of Galactic open clusters by the star-countingtechnique with the Two Micron All Sky Survey star catalog database.Morphological parameters such as the ellipticity and size have beenderived via stellar density distribution, weighed by clusteringprobability. We find that most star clusters are elongated, even for theyoungest star clusters of a few million years old, which are locatednear the Galactic disk. The shapes of young star clusters must reflectthe conditions in the parental molecular clouds and during the clusterformation process. As an open cluster ages, stellar dynamics cause theinner part of the cluster to circularize, but the overall radius getslarger and the stellar density becomes sparser. We discuss how theinternal relaxation process competes with Galactic external perturbationduring cluster evolution.

Comparison of the Luminosity Functions of Open Clusters Based on USNO-A1 Data
The luminosity and mass functions of a group of Galactic open clustersare constructed by applying a statistical method to photometric datafrom the USNO-A1 catalog. Despite some limitations, this catalog can beused for statistical analyses in Galactic astronomy. Pairwisecomparisons of the derived cluster luminosity functions are performedfor five age intervals. The differences between the luminosity functionsof the open clusters are not statistically significant in most cases. Itis concluded that the luminosity functions are approximately universalthroughout a large volume in the solar neighborhood. Combined luminosityand mass functions are constructed for six age intervals. The slope ofthe mass spectrum may vary somewhat from cluster to cluster, and themean slope may be somewhat higher than the Salpetervalue.

The relatively young, metal-poor and distant open cluster NGC 2324
We have obtained CCD photometry in the Johnson V, Kron-Cousins I andCT1 Washington systems for NGC 2324, a rich open clusterlocated ˜35° from the Galactic anticentre direction. We measuredV magnitudes and V-I colours for 2865 stars and T1 magnitudesand C-T1 colours for 1815 stars in an area of 13.6 arcmin× 13.6 arcmin. The comparison of the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams with isochrones of the Geneva group yield E(V-I) = 0.33± 0.07 and V-MV = 13.70 ± 0.15 for log t = 8.65(t = 440 Myr) and Z = 0.008 ([Fe/H] = -0.40), and E(C-T1) =0.40 ± 0.10 and T1-MT1 = 13.65 ±0.15 for the same age and metallicity level. The resulting E(V-I)reddening value implies E(B-V) = 0.25 ± 0.05 and a distance fromthe Sun of (3.8 ± 0.5) kpc. Star counts carried out within andoutside the cluster region allowed us to estimate the cluster angularradius as 5.3 arcmin ± 0.3 arcmin (5.9 pc). When using the E(B-V)reddening value here derived and the original Washington photometricdata of \citet{gcm91} for the stars confirmed as red cluster giants fromCoravel radial velocities, we found [Fe/H] = -0.31 ± 0.04, whichis in good agreement with the best fits of isochrones. Therefore, NGC2324 is found to be a relatively young, metal-poor and distant opencluster located beyond the Perseus spiral arm. A comparison of NGC 2324with 10 well-known open clusters of nearly the same age shows that thecluster metal abundance and its position in the Galaxy are consistentwith the existence of a radial abundance gradient of -0.07 dexkpc-1 in the Galactic disc.

Recent developments on studies of open clusters
Studies on open clusters are of great significance for astronomy andastrophysics, for which distinct developments have been made recently inboth observational and theoretical respects. In this paper, currentresearch of open cluster is reviewed, and membership determination,basic parameters determination, evolution of cluster and clustermembers, structure and dynamics of open cluster are also described indetail.

On the Galactic Disk Metallicity Distribution from Open Clusters. I. New Catalogs and Abundance Gradient
We have compiled two new open cluster catalogs. In the first one, thereare 119 objects with ages, distances, and metallicities available, whilein the second one, 144 objects have both absolute proper motion andradial velocity data, of which 45 clusters also have metallicity dataavailable. Taking advantage of the large number of objects included inour sample, we present an iron radial gradient of about -0.063+/-0.008dex kpc-1 from the first sample, which is quite consistentwith the most recent determination of the oxygen gradient from nebulaeand young stars, about -0.07 dex kpc-1. By dividing clustersinto age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past,which is consistent with the recent result from Galactic planetarynebulae data, and also consistent with inside-out galactic diskformation scenarios. Based on the cluster sample, we also discuss themetallicity distribution, cluster kinematics, and space distribution. Adisk age-metallicity relation could be implied by those properties,although we cannot give conclusive result from the age- metallicitydiagram based on the current sample. More observations are needed formetal-poor clusters. From the second catalog, we have calculated thevelocity components in cylindrical coordinates with respect to theGalactic standard of rest for 144 open clusters. The velocitydispersions of the older clusters are larger than those of youngclusters, but they are all much smaller than that of the Galactic thickdisk stars.

Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.

Morphological analysis of open clusters' propertiesII. Relationships projected onto the galactic plane
A morphological analysis study of open clusters' properties has beenachieved for a sample of 160 UBVCCD open star clusters of approximately128,000 stars near the galactic plane. The data was obtained and reducedfrom using the same reduction procedures, which makes this catalogue thelargest homogeneous source of open clusters' parameters.

NGC 1912 and NGC 1907: A close encounter between open clusters?
The possible physical relation between the closely projected openclusters NGC 1912 (M 38) and NGC 1907 is investigated. Previous studiessuggested a physical pair based on similar distances, and the presentstudy explores in more detail the possible interaction. Spatialvelocities are derived from available radial velocities and propermotions, and the past orbital motions of the clusters are retrieved in aGalactic potential model. Detailed N-body simulations of their approachsuggest that the clusters were born in different regions of the Galaxyand presently experience a fly-by.

Integrated photometric characteristics of galactic open star clusters
Integrated UBVRI photometric parameters of 140 galactic open clustershave been computed. Integrated I(V-R)0 and I(V-I)0colours as well as integrated parameters for 71 star clusters have beenobtained for the first time. These, in combination with published data,altogether 352 objects, are used to study the integrated photometriccharacteristics of the galactic open clusters. The I(MV)values range from -9.0 to -1.0 mag corresponding to a range in totalmass of the star clusters from ~ 25 to 4*E4 Msun.The integrated colours have a relatively narrow range, e.g., I(B-V){_0}varies from -0.4 to 1.2 mag. The scatter in integrated colours at agiven integrated magnitude can be understood in terms of differences infraction of red giants/supergiants in the clusters. The observedintegrated magnitudes and colours agree with the synthetic ones, exceptthe dependences of I(V-R)0 and I(V-I)0 colours forclusters younger than ~ 100 Myrs and also of the integrated magnitudesof oldest clusters. The large sample provides the most accurate agedependence of integrated magnitudes and colours determined so far. Theluminosity function of the I(MV) has a peak around -3.5 magand its slope indicates that only ~ 1% of the open clusters in thegalactic disc are brighter than I(MV)=-11 mag. No variationhas been found of integrated magnitude with galactocentric distance andmetallicity.

Morphological analysis of open clusters' propertiesI. Properties' estimations
A sample of 160 UBVCCD observations of open star clusters near thegalactic plane has been studied, and a catalogue of their propertiesobtained. The main photometrical properties have been re-estimated selfconsistently and the results have been compared with those of Lynga[Lynga, G., 1987. Catalog of Open Cluster Data, 5th Edition, StellarData Centers, Observatoire de Strasbourg, France].

Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Multicolor CCD Photometry and Stellar Evolutionary Analysis of NGC 1907, NGC 1912, NGC 2383, NGC 2384, and NGC 6709 Using Synthetic Color-Magnitude Diagrams
We present the first CCD photometric observations of NGC 2383 and NGC2384 in B, V, R, and I, NGC 1912, NGC 6709 in B, V, and I and NGC 1907in B and V passbands, reaching down to a limiting magnitude of V~20 magfor ~3300 stars put together. The results of the spectroscopicobservations of 43 bright stars in the field of NGC 1912, NGC 2383, NGC2384, and NGC 6709 are also presented. The color-magnitude diagrams(CMDs) of the clusters in V versus B-V, V versus V-R, and V versus V-Iare presented. The distances and reddening to these clusters aredetermined using the cluster CMDs. The distances to the clusters NGC1907, NGC 1912, NGC 2383, NGC 2384, and NGC 6709 are 1785+/-260,1820+/-265, 3340+/-490, 2925+/-430, and 1190+/-175 pc, respectively.Some gaps in the cluster main sequence have been identified. We havecompared the observed color-magnitude diagrams of these four openclusters with the synthetic ones derived from one classical and twoovershoot stellar evolutionary models. Overshoot models estimate olderages for clusters when compared to the classical models. The age of theclusters estimated using the isochrones of Bertelli et al. are 400, 250,400, 20, and 315 Myr for the clusters NGC 1907, NGC 1912, NGC 2383, NGC2384, and NGC 6709, respectively. A comparison of the syntheticcolor-magnitude diagrams with the observed ones indicates that theovershoot models should be preferred. The comparison of integratedluminosity functions do not clearly indicate as to which model is to bepreferred. The values of the mass function slopes estimated for theclusters are x=1.7+/-0.15 for NGC 1912 (mass range: 1.7-3.9 M_solar) andNGC 6709 (1.7-3.4 M_solar), x=1.3+/-0.15 for NGC 2383 (1.7-3.1 M_solar),and x=1.0+/-0.15 for NGC 2384 (2.0-14.0). The present age estimates showthat the closely located cluster pair NGC 1912 + NGC 1907 have similarages, indicating that they may have born together, making them a goodcandidate to be a binary open cluster.

Young star clusters of our galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud as test for stellar evolutionary models.
Not Available

The STACC Open Cluster Target List
Observations of variable stars offer a potential to test stellarstructure and evolution. The observations can be either of single,isolated stars, or of variable stars in clusters. The STACC group(Frandsen 1992) has for the last several years searched for openclusters with a population of delta Scuti stars. To make this searchmore efficient, we have produced a target list with a number ofpromising open clusters. The list includes parameters, finding charts,Colour-Magnitude diagrams (CM diagrams) and references for the clusters.This target list is presented here, and is thus made available toobservers interested in participating in the search for variable starsin open clusters. In this paper we describe the motivation, contents anduse of the STACC Open Cluster Target List. We also give some guidelineson how to make CCD observations of open clusters in order to search forvariable stars.

Corridors in the regions of young open stellar clusters.
Not Available

Thirty years of research with the Baldone Schmidt Telescope
We describe the research done with the Baldone Schmidt telescope(80/120/240 cm) of the Radioastrophysical Observatory. The telescope hastwo objective prisms with reciprocal dispersions of 600 and 1130 A/mm atH-gamma. One of the main research projects is the search for andphotometric study of galactic carbon stars. The telescope has also beenused for novae studies in M 31 and stellar photometry in open clustersand fields of special interest. Comet studies, particularly during theInternational Halley Watch, proved to be another successful applicationof the telescope. The archive of the Baldone Schmidt telescope containsnearly 20,000 direct and 2000 spectral plates and films.

Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Disk: Evidence for a Gradient Perpendicular to the Galactic Plane
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2813P&db_key=AST

Probable binary open star clusters in the Galaxy.
The existence of double/binary clusters in the Magellanic Clouds isfairly well established, whereas only one such pair, h + χ Persei,is known in the Galaxy. From the catalogues of open clusters of theGalaxy, we have identified 18 probable pairs of clusters (with knowndistances), with spatial separations less than 20pc. The tidaldisruption timescales for these pairs, due to Galactic differentialrotation are calculated, using cluster data where available or byassuming typical values. In some cases, these timescales are larger thanthe average open cluster lifetime, =~10^8^yr. About 8% of open clustersappear to be members of binary systems, and hence binary cluster systemsmay not be very uncommon in the Galaxy.

Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.

Integrated photometric properties of open clusters
Galactic open clusters provide an abundant sample of stellar aggregatesof various sizes, ages and metal abundances, apt to constitute atemplate for comparison with star systems in other galaxies. In thispaper we present and discuss a standard methodology to synthesize U,B,Vfluxes and colours, and apply it to a set of 138 open clusters. Resultsare compared with previous ones available in the literature. We wereable to calibrate a mass-luminosity relation by which we evaluated themass of ~400 open clusters, leading to a well defined present-day massfunction. The number-complete sample of galactic open clusters presentedin Battinelli & Capuzzo-Dolcetta (1991) is enlarged of a 15%.

An observational age-metallicity relation for the Galaxy
An observational Age-Metallicity Diagram for the Galaxy has beenconstructed on the base of star cluster data available in theliterature. This diagram exhibits two independent and simultaneousmetallicity enhancement processes identified with two dynamical galacticsubstructures: the thin and the thick disks. Within the observationaluncertainties both these processes can be satisfactory approximated byInfall-Inflow models of the chemical evolution with different high,although rapidly decaying with time, Star Formation and Infall Rates.The comparison of the galactic age-metallicity relations with that forthe Large Magellanic Cloud shows some similarities between processes ofthe chemical enhancement in the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Thin Disksubsystem in the Galaxy.

Metallicities of open clusters
An examination is conducted of available metallicity data on openclusters, gathering the largest possible set of homogeneous estimationsof this parameter and determining whether open cluster metallicities arerelated to the spatial and age distributions of such objects. The'composite' C-M diagrams for the two metallicity groups discussedexhibit interesting morphological differences which may be characterizedas the presence of numbered blue stragglers at the two metal-richclusters and a lack of such members in two metal-poor ones.

Radial velocities of stars in open clusters
A CORAVEL type spectrometer was used to measure precise radialvelocities of 116 late-type stars of spectral classes F5 - M5 in thefields of 18 open clusters. Probable cluster members were selected onthe basis of kinematic and photometric data. New or improved radialvelocities for 12 open clusters were thus obtained.

Eine Beobachtungsnacht im Herbst.
Not Available

Some characteristics of complexes of open star clusters
Mean coordinates and velocities, phase sizes, mean elements of galacticorbits, mean ages, and metal abundances are given for 11 complexes ofopen clusters, and correlations between these characteristics arediscussed. The possible existence of a supercomplex encompassing 9 or 10complexes, and probably a number of individual clusters, is discussed.This rotates at an angular velocity of 10 to 13 km/s kpc.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h28m06.00s
Apparent magnitude:8.2

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 1907

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