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|AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds. I. The C/M ratio|
Regions of different metallicity have been identified in the MagellanicClouds by using the ratio between Asymptotic Giant Branch stars ofspectral type C and M. In the Large Magellanic Cloud the ratio appearsto decrease radially while in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) there isno clear trend, reflecting either the large extension of the SMC alongthe line of sight or a more complex star formation history. Thedistribution of the C/M ratio is clumpy and corresponds to a spread in[Fe/H] of 0.75 dex in both Clouds. There is an indication of increasingC/M ratio, thus decreasing metallicity, towards the Bridge regionconnecting the two Clouds.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Satellites as Probes of the Masses of Spiral Galaxies|
We present H I observations and analyses of the kinematics of 24satellite-primary galaxy pairs with projected separations between 4.9and 240 kpc. The satellites have masses of less than 3% of their primaryspirals. Two estimates for the masses of the primaries are available,one from their rotation curves and one from the orbital properties ofthe satellites. Defining chi as the ratio of these two mass estimates,it is a measure of the presence, or absence, of a significant halo. Thechi-distribution for these 24 pairs is presented and the selectioneffects are discussed. Moreover, we show that the chi-distribution ofmore numerous pairs, with projected separations of less than 200 kpc,identified by Zaritsky et al., after adopting selection criteria quitedifferent from ours, is similar to our chi-distribution. We show thatthe observational biases have a negligible effect; the biased andunbiased distributions are essentially identical. In order to understandthis distribution, N-body calculations were executed to simulate thedynamical behavior of relatively low mass satellites orbiting primarydisk galaxies with and without extended halos. The models and the realgalaxies were ``observed'' in the same fashion. In addition, we made apartially analytical analysis of the behavior of orbits in a logarithmicpotential. We find that a ``generic'' model, characterized by a singledisk/halo combination, cannot reproduce the observed P(chi)distribution. However, a simple two-component population of galaxies,composed of not more than 60% with halos and 40% without halos, issuccessful, if galaxies have dimensions of order 200 kpc. If galaxiesare considerably larger with sizes extending to 400 kpc or more, theconstraints become more onerous. No generic model can describe the fullrange of the observed P(chi), particularly if the distribution forr_p<200 kpc is compared with that for r_p>200 kpc. Regardless ofthe mix of orbital eccentricities, neither pure halo, nor canonical(disk and halo masses are comparable within the disk radius) models willwork. A multicomponent approximation to reality can be constructed forwhich the canonical model must be mixed with a small fraction of systemsessentially devoid of a massive dark halo. Only by including thesecomplexities can the full range of P(chi) be modeled with any degree ofsuccess over all radial extents. We show that dynamical friction cannotbe ignored in these explorations and that the average mass of a galaxyis in the range of (1-5)x10^12 M_solar, with a mass-to-luminosity ratioof at most a few hundred. This is insufficient to close the universe.
|The Southern Sky Redshift Survey|
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.
|The morphological catalogue of galaxies equatorial survey|
We present 865 redshifts of galaxies located in the equatorial stripdelta between -17.5 deg and -2.5 deg in the right ascension rangebetween 20 h and 5 h. Redshifts have been obtained for the completesample of all 833 galaxies in the Morphological Catalog of Galaxies withmagnitudes brighter than m = 14.5 (corresponding approximately tom(Zwicky) = 15.0). This sample also includes three galaxies from othersources with more reliable magnitudes, satisfying this limit, and 29fainter galaxies, usually companions of the galaxies in the magnitudelimited sample. Our maps of a very large volume of nearby spacedemonstrate a variety of coherent large scale structures which includelarge voids, 20-50/h Mpc in diameter and large walls at least 70/h Mpcacross.
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