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Gas and Stars in an H I-Selected Galaxy Sample
We present the results of a J-band study of the H I-selected AreciboDual-Beam Survey and Arecibo Slice Survey galaxy samples using TwoMicron All Sky Survey data. We find that these galaxies span a widerange of stellar and gas properties. However, despite the diversitywithin the samples, we find a very tight correlation between luminosityand size in the J band, similar to that found in a previous paper byRosenberg & Schneider between the H I mass and size. We also findthat the correlation between the baryonic mass and the J-band diameteris even tighter than that between the baryonic mass and the rotationalvelocity.

Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus. V. On the origin of bulges
We investigate the scaling relations of bulge and disk structuralparameters for a sample of 108 disk galaxies. Structural parameters ofindividual galaxies are obtained from two-dimensional bulge/diskdecomposition of their H-band surface brightness distributions. Bulgesare modelled with a generalized exponential (Sérsic) withvariable integer shape index n. We find that bulge effectivescalelengths reB and luminosity MBincrease with increasing n, but disk properties are independent of bulgeshape. As Hubble type T increases, bulges become less luminous and theirmean effective surface brightness <μeB>gets fainter; disk <μeD> shows a similar,but much weaker, trend. When bulge parameters(<μeB>, reB,MB) are compared with disk ones(<μeD>, reD,MD), they are tightly correlated for n=1 bulges. Thecorrelations gradually worsen with increasing n such that n=4 bulgesappear virtually independent of their disks. The Kormendy relation,<μeB> vs. reB, isshown to depend on bulge shape n; the two parameters are tightlycorrelated in n=4 bulges (r=0.8), and increasingly less so as ndecreases; disk <μeD> andreD are well correlated (r=0.7). Bulge-to-disksize ratios reB/reD areindependent of Hubble type, but smaller for exponential bulges; the meanreB/reD for n=1 bulges is 4times smaller than that for n=4, with a spread which is 9 times smaller.Strongly barred SB galaxies with exponential bulges are more luminousthan their unbarred counterparts. Exponential bulges appear to beclosely related to their underlying disks, while bulges with higher nvalues are less so; n=4 bulges and their disks apparently have norelation. We interpret our results as being most consistent with asecular evolutionary scenario, in which dissipative processes in thedisk are responsible for building up the bulges in most spirals.Based on observations at the TIRGO, NOT, and VATT telescopes. TIRGO(Gornergrat, CH) is operated by IRA-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze. NOT (LaPalma, Canary Islands) is operated by NOTSA, the Nordic ObservatoryScientific Association. VATT (Mt. Graham, AZ) is operated by VORG, theVatican Observatory Research Group.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/905.

The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.

An X-Ray Atlas of Groups of Galaxies
A search was conducted for a hot intragroup medium in 109 low-redshiftgalaxy groups observed with the ROSAT PSPC. Evidence for diffuse,extended X-ray emission is found in at least 61 groups. Approximatelyone-third of these detections have not been previously reported in theliterature. Most of the groups are detected out to less than half of thevirial radius with ROSAT. Although some spiral-rich groups do contain anintragroup medium, diffuse emission is restricted to groups that containat least one early-type galaxy.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus. IV. Color maps of 41 cluster spirals
We present near-infrared (NIR) color maps of a sample of 41 diskgalaxies in the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. The sample objects, mainlymembers of the Pisces cluster, are a subset of larger sample imaged inthe H band. For most objects we present J-H and J-K images andelliptically-averaged radial color profiles; for some objects this isdone only for the H-K color. We compute global colors, hybridNIR-optical colors, and estimate the colors of the structuralcomponents. The J-K (global) color correlates weakly with absoluteluminosity and morphological type. We observe no trend with the presenceof bars and AGNs, nor with position within the cluster. The NIR diskcolors are slightly bluer than the global ones, with the possibleexception of those in the earliest spiral types. Finally, NIR colorgradients in the images and in the radial color profiles are examined.NIR disk color gradients are small and prevalently negative; the fewpositive values are perhaps associated with the reddest disks. Based onobservations at the TIRGO, NOT, and VATT telescopes. TIRGO (Gornergrat,CH) is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze. NOT (La Palma, CanaryIslands) is operated by NOTSA, the Nordic Observatory ScientificAssociation. VATT (Mt. Graham, Az) is operated by VORG, the VaticanObservatory Research Group.

The formation of galaxy bulges: Spectrophotometric constraints
We have measured Mg2, Fe 5270 and Fe 5335 spectrophotometricindices (LICK system) in the bulge of 89 galaxies, mostly spirals fromthe Héraudeau (\cite{her96}) sample. The indices are reduced to anull velocity dispersion and normalized to an aperture of 0.2h-1 kpc. The mean errors are 0.009 mag on Mg2, and0.3 Å on the iron indices. These measurements almost double theamount of similar data already available on spiral galaxies. Our dataconfirm the existence of the relation between Mg2, andsigma0, the central stellar velocity dispersion; we find aneven tighter relation between Mg2, andVmrot, the maximum rotational velocity of thegalaxy, deduced from HI observations. For the most massive bulges, thesecorrelations may be interpreted as a mass-metallicity relation. However,the presence of young stellar populations, traced by the detection of[OIII] lambda 5007 Å, emission, provides clear evidence that ageeffects do play a role. Since the contribution of the young populationis anti-correlated to the mass of the galaxy, it continues theMg2, vs. sigma0 , relation toward thelow-sigma0, region and globally increases its slope. We alsopresent evidence for a new positive correlation between Fe indices andsigma0, and for a significant correlation between theline-strength indices and the total or disk luminosity. We propose tomodel the whole sequence of bulges within the folowing framework: bulgesare composed of a primary population formed prior to the disk, duringthe initial collapse, and of a secondary population formed during itsevolution. The whole family of bulges can be classified into threeclasses: (A) the bulges dominated by young populations are generallysmall, have ionized gas, low velocity dispersion and low line strengths;(B) the bulges dominated by the primary population lie along themass-metallicity sequence defined for elliptical galaxies; and (C) thebulges where the secondary population is significant are lessMg-over-abundant than (B)-type bulges and deviate from theMg2, vs. sigma0, relation of elliptical galaxies.Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence.Table 3 is presented in electronic form only at the CDS. Tables 1 and 2are also available form at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/366/68

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

An X-Ray Survey of Galaxies in Pairs
Results are reported from the first survey of X-ray emission fromgalaxies in pairs. The sample consists of 52 pairs of galaxies from theCatalog of Paired Galaxies whose coordinates overlap the ROSAT PositionSensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations. The mean observedlogl_X for early-type pairs is 41.35+/-0.21, while the mean logl_Xpredicted using the l_X-l_b relationship for isolated early-typegalaxies is 42.10+/-0.19. With 95% confidence, the galaxies in pairs areunderluminous in the X-ray, compared with isolated galaxies, for thesame l_b. A significant fraction of the mixed pair sample also appearssimilarly underluminous. A spatial analysis shows that the X-rayemission from pairs of both types typically has an extent of ~10-50 kpc,much smaller than the group intergalactic medium, and thus likelyoriginates from the galaxies. CPG 564, the most X-ray luminousearly-type pair, 4.7x10^42 ergs s^-1, is an exception. The extent of itsX-ray emission, greater than 169 kpc, and HWHM, ~80 kpc, is comparableto that expected from an intergalactic medium. The sample shows only aweak correlation, ~81% confidence, between l_X and l_b, presumably dueto variations in gas content within the galaxies. No correlation betweenl_X and the pair velocity difference (Deltav), separation (Deltar), orfar-infrared luminosity (l_fir) is found, although the detection rate islow, 22%.

Molecular Gas in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. I. CO (1-0) Observations
We present observations of the CO (1-0) line in 80 interacting galaxiesas part of a program to study the role of interactions and mergers intriggering starbursts. The sample, which only includes obviouslyinteracting pairs of galaxies, is the largest such sample observed inCO. The observations were carried out at the NRAO 12 m and IRAM 30 mtelescopes. CO emission was detected in 56 galaxies (of which 32 are newdetections), corresponding to a detection rate of 70%. Because mostgalaxies are slightly larger than the telescope beam, correction factorswere applied to include CO emission outside the beam. The correctionfactors were derived by fitting a Gaussian function or an exponential CObrightness distribution to galaxies with multiple pointings and byassuming an exponential model for galaxies with single pointing. Wecompared the global CO fluxes of 10 galaxies observed by us at bothtelescopes. We also compared the measured fluxes for another 10 galaxiesobserved by us with those by other authors using the NRAO 12 m and FCRAO14 m telescopes. These comparisons provide an estimate of the accuracyof our derived global fluxes, which is ~40%. Mapping observations of twoclose pairs of galaxies, UGC 594 (NGC 317) and UGC 11175 (NGC 6621), arealso presented. In subsequent papers we will report the statisticalanalyses of the molecular properties in our sample galaxies and makecomparisons between isolated spirals and interacting galaxies.

Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).

Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus. I. vec H-band surface photometry of 174 spiral
We present near-infrared, H-band (1.65 $() μm), surface photometry of174 spiral galaxies in the area of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. Theimages, acquired with the ARNICA camera mounted on various telescopes,are used to derive radial profiles of surface brightness, ellipticities,and position angles, together with global parameters such as H-bandmagnitudes and diameters Radial profiles in tabular form and images FITSfiles are also available upon request from gmorio@arcetri.astro.it.}.The mean relation between H-band isophotal diameter D_{21.5} and theB-band D25 implies a B-H color of the outer disk bluer than3.5; moreover, D_{21.5}/D25 depends on (global) color andabsolute luminosity. The correlations among the various photometricparameters suggest a ratio between isophotal radius D_{21.5}/2 and diskscale length of ~ m3.5 and a mean disk central brightness ~ meq 17.5H-mag arcsec^{-2}. We confirm the trend of the concentration indexC31$ with absolute luminosity and, to a lesser degree, withmorphological type. We also assess the influence of non-axisymmetricstructures on the radial profiles and on the derived parameters. Basedon observations at the TIRGO, NOT, and VATT telescopes. TIRGO(Gornergrat, CH) is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze. NOT (LaPalma, Canary Islands) is operated by NOTSA, the Nordic ObservatoryScientific Association. VATT (Mt. Graham, Az) is operated by VORG, theVatican Observatory Research Group Table 3 and Fig. 4 are only availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

Stellar kinematic data for the central region of spiral galaxies. II.
We present a second dataset of absorption spectroscopy on the innerregion of spiral galaxies. We have determined the central velocitydispersion for 42 Sa-Sc objects and, for 32 of them, stellar rotationcurves and velocity-dispersion profiles. Some of these profiles arelimited to the bulge, some others do reach a region dominated by theluminosity of the disk. These data are intended to provide basicmaterial for the study of the mass distribution and dynamical status inthe central regions of spiral galaxies. Although no elaboratebulge-and-disk photometric decomposition is performed, we estimate theeffects of limited resolution and contamination by disk light on thecentral velocity dispersion of the bulge. All the material presented inthis paper, in particular the spectra, is available on-line. Based onobservations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. Tables 2and 3 are presented in electronic form only; Tables 1 through 3 areavailable from the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

A Deep Survey of H I-selected Galaxies: The Sample and the Data
In a 21 cm neutral hydrogen survey of approximately 55 deg^2 out to aredshift of cz = 8340 km s^-1, we have identified 75 extragalactic H Isources. These objects comprise a well-defined sample of extragalacticsources chosen by means that are independent of optical surfacebrightness selection effects. In this paper we describe the Arecibosurvey procedures and H I data, follow-up VLA H I observations made ofseveral unusual sources, and Kitt Peak B-, R-, and I-band photometry fornearly all of the galaxies. We have also gathered information for someof the optically detected galaxies within the same search volume. Weexamine how samples generated by different types of search techniquesoverlap with selection by H I flux. Only the least massive H I object,which is among the lowest mass H I sources previously found, does nothave a clear optical counterpart, but a nearby bright star may hide lowsurface brightness emission. However, the newly detected systems do haveunusual optical properties. Most of the 40 galaxies that were notpreviously identified in magnitude-limited catalogs appear to begas-dominated systems, and several of these systems have H Imass-to-light ratios among the largest values ever previously found.These gas-dominated objects also tend to have very blue colors, lowsurface brightnesses, and no central bulges, which correlate stronglywith their relative star-to-gas content.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Testing the physical reality of binaries and compact groups. Properties of early-type galaxies in groups with diffuse X-ray emission
We present data on the stellar kinematics of the brightest ellipticalsin HCG 62, HCG 68, NGC 2300 groups. Moreover, we report on ASCA GIS aswell as optical observations of the early-type member of the pair K 416(NGC 5480/5481) similar, in many respects, to the dominant pair in theNGC 2300 group. The kinematics of HCG 62a/b and HCG 68a/b indicate thatthey are not interacting pairs. HCG 62a is instead possibly interactingwith HCG 62c, as suggested by their morphology (see Mendes de Oliveiraand Hickson 1994), In contrast to the results for the NGC 2300/2276group, ASCA observations indicate a significant absence of hot gas inthe K 416 system. Whether the NGC 2300 multiplet is viewed as a loosegroup or as a massive E+S pair, it is clear that similar morphologicalentities do not always show similar X-ray properties. Under thehypothesis that diffuse X-ray emission marks the group potential, weconsider the possibility that K 416 is an unbound encounter. In thisscenario, morphological distortions are indicative of the ongoinginteraction, but are only circumstantially correlated with the physicalreality of a pair/multiplet as a bound system. Based on observationsobtained at 1.93m telescope of Observatoire de Haute Provence operatedby INSU.

AGNs with composite spectra.
The use of the Baldwin et al. (1981PASP...93....5B) or Veilleux &Osterbrock (1987ApJS...63..295V) diagnostic diagrams allows theunambiguous classification of the nuclear emission line regions of mostgalaxies into one of three categories: nuclear HII regions orstarbursts, Seyfert 2 galaxies and Liners. However, a small fraction ofthem have a "transition" spectrum. We present spectral observations of15 "transition" objects at high-dispersion (66Å/mm) around theHα, [NII]λλ6548,6584 and/or Hβ,[OIII]λλ4959,5007 emission lines. We show that most ofthese spectra are composite, due to the simultaneous presence on theslit of a Seyfert nucleus and a HII region. Seyfert 2s and Liners seemto occupy relatively small and distinct volumes in the three-dimensionalspace λ5007/Hβ, λ6584/Hα,λ6300/Hα.

Photometric Signatures of Starbursts in Interacting Galaxies and the Butcher-Oemler Effect
This paper presents new and synthetic narrowband photometry ofellipticals, spirals, Seyferts, and interacting galaxies in an attemptto identify the cause of the unusually high fraction of blue clustergalaxies in distance clusters (Butcher-Oemler effect). The propertiesand distribution of the low-redshift sample specifically points tostarbursts as the origin of the blue narrowband colors in interactingArp galaxies. Comparison between theoretical models and multicolordiagrams, particularly 4000 A break colors, indicates a photometricsignature that differs from both normal disk galaxy star formation andnonthermal components. This photometric signature is absent for theButcher-Oemler galaxies whose general color distribution, compared topresent-day clusters, is consistent with a majority of the bluepopulation involved in normal star formation rates (spiral-like) withthe addition of a small fraction of bright, blue interacting/mergersystems. This photometric picture of the Butcher-Oemler galaxies is inagreement with the morphological evidence from Hubble Space Telescopeimaging.

The Intragroup Medium in Poor Groups of Galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...456...80M&db_key=AST

On the question of radio emission of spiral galaxies in groups of galaxies
It has been shown that the radio emission properties of spiral galaxies,if the other conditions are the same, are determined rather by thepresence of the close neighbours than by space density of galaxiesaround them. The rate of occurence of radio sources and their radioluminosities among the spiral members of groups of galaxies depend onthe projected seperation between them and their nearest neighbour. Theshorter this seperation the higher the probability of radio emission.

A multifrequency radio continuum and IRAS faint source survey of markarian galaxies
Results are presented from a multifrequency radio continumm survey ofMarkarian galaxies (MRKs) and are supplemented by IRAS infrared datafrom the Faint Source Survey. Radio data are presented for 899 MRKsobserved at nu = 4.755 GHz with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory(NRAO)-Green Bank 300 foot (91 m) telescope, including nearly 88% ofthose objects in Markarian lists VI-XIV. In addition, 1.415 GHzmeasurements of 258 MRKs, over 30% of the MRKs accessible from theNational Aeronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC)-Arecibo, are reported.Radio continuum observations of smaller numbers of MRKs were made at10.63 GHz and at 23.1 GHz and are also presented. Infrared data from theIRAS Faint Source Survey (Ver. 2) are presented for 944 MRKs, withreasonably secure identifications extracted from the NASA/IPACExtragalactic Database. MRKs exhibit the same canonical infraredcharacteristics as those reported for various other galaxy samples, thatis well-known enhancement of the 25 micrometer/60 micrometer color ratioamong Seyfert MRKs, and a clear tendency for MRKs with warmer 60micrometer/100 micrometer colors to also possess cooler 12 micrometer/25micrometer colors. In addition, non-Seyfert are found to obey thewell-documented infrared/radio luminosity correlation, with the tightestcorrelation seen for starburst MRKs.

The high-energy diffuse cosmic gamma-ray background radiation from blazars
We predict the spectrum and flux of the high-energy diffuse cosmicgamma-ray background radiation produced by blazars. Our calculations arebased on the Compton Observatory EGRET observations of high-energygamma-rays from these objects, the Whipple observation of TeV gamma-raysfrom Mrk 421, and radio population studies of flat-spectrum radiosources. Our statistical analysis gives a result consistent with alinear correlation. We then use the radio luminosity function andredshift evolution to calculate the gamma-ray background. We find thatblazars cannot account for the flux level or steep spectrum of thebackground observed by SAS 2 in the sub-GeV range, but could likelyprovide the dominant background component in the multi-GeV energy rangeand above. We predict a differential photon spectral index for thiscomponent of about 2 up to about 10 GeV. Above that energy, the spectrumshould gradually steepen owing to pair production by interactions of thegamma-rays with intergalactic infrared photons. Using the calculationsof this effect by Stecker et al. (1992), we estimate a spectral index ofabout 3.5 for energies above a TeV.

A near-infrared imaging survey of interacting galaxies - The small angular-size ARP systems
Near-IR images of a large sample of interacting galaxies selected fromthe Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies by Arp (1966) have been obtained.Approximately 180 systems have been imaged in at least two, and usuallythree of the standard JHK bands. The survey and the observing and datareduction procedures, are described, and contour plots and aperturephotometry are presented. Future papers will analyze the imaging data bygroupings based on interaction type, stage, and progenitors. The goalsof the analysis are to explore the relationships between galaxyinteractions, activity, and morphology by studying the structure of thenear-IR luminosity distribution, where extinction effects are muchreduced relative to the optical and the major stellar mass component ofgalaxies dominates the observed light.

Pairing properties of Markarian starburst Galaxies
The environmental parameters of 516 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies werestudied in a redshift-bounded sample, supplemented by new spectra andredshift measures for possible companions, in order to evaluate theiroccurrence in galaxy pairs, defined through quantitative criteria. Itwas found that one-third of these galaxies occur in pairs (while only 6to 10 percent of optically-selected galaxies are known to be paired). Acomparison of various optical and IR properties of paired and nonpairedMarkarian galaxies showed no differences in the shape of the optical,far-IR, or H-alpha luminosity functions. It was found, however, that theMarkarian component is brighter than the other galaxy in each pair by0.66 magnitude in the mean at B.

The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.

Quantitative morphology of isolated E/S pairs of galaxies
We present a study of the morphology and geometry for 22 southern E+Spair candidates using high resolution CCD frames obtained at the ESO 2.2m telescope. We find a considerable number of true mixed pairs withabout 13/11 elliptical + spiral pairs in the present sample. Theremaining objects include about 3 'disky' pairs (composed of S0 and Smembers) and 3 'early-type' pairs comprising E and S0 members. Weestimate that between 10 and 25 percent of the pairs in any complete(non-hierarchical) sample will be of the E+S type. This suggests thatmorphological concordance is not the rule among paired galaxies. Wesuggest that interaction phenomena and the alterations they produce ingalaxy forms may explain many of the mixed pairs. Eight early-typecomponents show possible shell structure while 78 percent show anisophotal twisting of greater than 10 deg. Three of these objects andtwo additional pairs may be mergers in progress based upon their chaoticmorphologies. We suggest that the early-type components in many pairscould be merger products. These E+S pairs might then be a transientstage in the coalescence of compact groups.

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