|Young Stars in the Camelopardalis Dust and Molecular Clouds. I. The Cam OB1 Association|
The distribution of dust and molecular clouds in the direction ofGalactic longitudes 132--158° and latitudes ± 12\degr\ isinvestigated. The maps of dust distribution in the area were plottedfrom the following surveys: the star counts in the DSS I database byDobashi et al. (2005), the survey of the average infrared color excessesby Froebrich et al. (2007) and the thermal dust emission survey at 100μ m by Schlegel et al. (1998). The distribution of molecular cloudswas taken from the whole sky CO survey by Dame et al. (2001). All thesesurveys show very similar cloud patterns in the area. Using the radialvelocities of CO, the distances to separate clouds are estimated. Arevised list of the Cam OB1 association members contains 43 stars andthe open cluster NGC 1502. 18 young irregular variable and Hαemission stars are identified in the area. All this proves that the starforming process in the Camelopardalis clouds is still in progress.
|Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy|
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.
|Interstellar Extinction Along the Camelopardalis and Perseus Border|
Interstellar extinction in a ~ 100 sq. degree area at theCamelopardalis and Perseus border is investigated. The study is basedon the results of photoelectric photometry of 455 stars in theseven-color Vilnius photometric system published earlier. The nearest100 stars with Hipparcos parallaxes show that the extinction starts togrow at a distance of 110--150 pc. At a distance of 1 kpc theextinction A_V is within 1.2 and 2.4 mag. At larger distances theextinction determination is affected by the limiting magnitude effect.At distances >1.5 kpc a number of O--B stars with the extinctionsbetween 2 and 4 mag are found.
|Photometric Classification of Stars and the Interstellar Extinction near the Camelopardalis and Perseus Border|
157 stars down to 11th mag in a 3degr times 4degr area at l = 149degr ,b = --0.3degr have been measured in the Vilnius photometric system.Magnitudes V, color indices, spectral classes, absolute magnitudes,color excesses and distances of the stars are determined. Theinterstellar extinction in all the area appears at a distance of about100 pc, grows monotonically and at a distance of 500 pc it reaches ~ 2mag in the area of the dark cloud L 1391 and 0.7--1.7 mag in theremaining area. At larger distances the extinction is affected by aselection effect.
|Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data|
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Parameters of open star clusters from uvby-beta photometry.|
|Estimates of geometric and dynamic parameters of star-gas complexes in the Galaxy|
Parameters of geometric models of 11 gas-star complexes (GSCs) wereobtained. We used information about GSC projections onto the celestialsphere and the Galactic plane and about GSC extension along the line ofsight. GSCs were represented as triaxial ellipsoids. To estimate thesemiminor axis of the GSC ellipsoidal model and GSC slope angle to theGalactic plane, we used data on spatial location of open stellarclusters (OSCs) entering GSCs. GSC slopes to the Galactic plane varybetween 2.5 and 20.5 deg. Their semiminor axes are between 11 and 164pc. GSC total masses are estimated from GSC tidal effect on OSCs thatare members of the corresponding GSCs. The effect manifests itself insmaller sizes of young OSCs as compared to their tidal sizes in theforce field of the Galaxy. We used studies of stability of an OSC movingin the joint force field of the Galaxy and spheroidal stationary GSC, aswell as studies of evolution of a virialized cluster located at thecenter of a nonstationary ellipsoidal GSC. Estimated total masses fordifferent GSCs lie between 0.65 x 10 exp 5 solar masses and 11.5 x 10exp 7 solar masses.
|Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.|
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.
|Uvby-beta photometry of open clusters. IV. NGC 1444, NGC 1662, NGC 2129, NGC 2169 and NGC 7209.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1994RMxAA..28..139P&db_key=AST
|Formation and evolutionary properties of the Galactic open cluster system|
Results are reported from a statistical analysis of observational dataon 100 open clusters within 2 kpc of the sun, selected from the catalogof Lynga (1987). The selection criteria and the completeness of thesample are discussed; the data are compiled in a table; and the analysisresults are presented in a series of graphs and characterized in detail.A cluster formation rate of 0.45 clusters/kpc Myr is found,significantly lower than the rates determined previously (using clusterswithin 1 kpc of the sun) and corresponding to a cluster star-formationefficiency of 0.0063. The low average cluster lifetime (about 10 Myr)suggests that clusters are formed as unstable systems.
|What happens when the massive stars form?|
Observations show that O stars rapidly disrupt their parental molecularclouds and thus prevent more stars from forming in a cluster. The cloudsare eroded by stellar radiation and accelerated by stellar wind actingin concert with the Oort/Spitzer rocket effect. Once the visually opaquemolecular material is removed from the neighborhood of an OB cluster,the stars contribute significantly to the diffuse interstellar radiationfield and ionize a vast volume of space.
|A CO survey of regions around 34 open clusters. II - Physical properties of cataloged molecular clouds|
The physical properties of the 148 molecular clouds found in a CO surveyof regions around 34 young open clusters have been examined. Expressionsare given for the cloud size spectrum and the mass spectrum. Themass-radius relation implies that clouds of all size larger than a fewpc have about the same mean volume density. Power laws with slopes of0.6 and 3 describe, respectively, the relations of CO linewidth andcloud mass to cloud size. The clouds are distinctly nonspherical andappear to be randomly oriented with respect to the Galactic plane. Theobservations can be explained by a model for molecular clouds in whichclouds are ensembles of dense clumps of gas. Based on such a model, itis shown that molecular clouds are perturbed on a time scale shortcompared to the time required for them to reestablish virialequilibrium.
|A CO survey of regions around 34 open clusters|
Results are presented from a systematic search for CO emission fromregions around 34 young open clusters in the outer Galaxy. The clustershave well-determined distances ranging from about 1 to 5 kpc and agesnot greater than about 100 Myr. It was found that some moderately youngclusters have no associated CO emission. All the surveyed clustersyounger than about 5 Myr have associated with them at least onemolecular cloud more massive than 10,000 solar mass, while the molecularclouds associated with clusters older than about 10 Myr are not moremassive than a few thousands solar masses. It was also found thatmolecular clouds are receding from young clusters at a rate of about 10km/sec, and that they seem to be destroyed by their interaction with thestars. Sites of ongoing star formation were identified in a number ofclouds associated with young clusters.
|The effect of gas removal on the dynamical evolution of young stellar clusters|
In the present general analytical treatment of the dynamical effect ofrapid gas removal fron a young star-forming region, where said removalis effected by the newly formed stars, the incorporation of deviationsfrom virial equilibrium (VE) during mass loss and of allowances forstructural and kinematical differences between stellar and gaseouscomponents prior to gas removal is noted to exert a significantinfluence on the critical star formation efficiency (SFE) and on theexpansion factor and velocity dispersion of the emergent star cluster.During mass loss, the system is allowed to oscillate around VE; unboundsystems may result, and a range in critical SFEs exists whichcorresponds to different initial conditions of the oscillation.
|An optical spiral arm beyond the Perseus arm|
In the second galactic quadrant, optical spiral arm tracers have beencollected in a systematic literature search. A uniform reduction of thedata led to the detection of a distinct structure (probably a spiralarm) beyond the Perseus arm that is separated by a statisticallysignificant gap from the latter.
|Young stellar-gas complexes in the Galaxy|
It is found that about 90 percent of OB-associations and o-b2 clusterssituated within 3 kpc of the sun can be united into complexes withdiameters of 150-700 pc. Almost all of these clusters contain giantmolecular clouds with a mass greater than about 100,000 solar masses. Anumber of complexes are associated with giant H I clouds; a few of thesmall complexes are situated in the HI caverns. The concentration ofOB-associations and young clusters in star complexes attests to theircommon origin in the supergiant gaseous clouds.
|The classification of open clusters by the centroid method of cluster analysis|
The distribution of open clusters in the Galaxy are considered, withspace coordinates including mass, absolute magnitude, integrated colorindex, diameter, metallicity, and age. It is shown that the majority ofclusters belong to several classes which have parameter values in asufficiently narrow range. The classes form a linear sequence by age andmonotonic sequence on a color-magnitude diagram. They are not isolated,but move into each other continuously. This suggests that the process ofcluster formation contains no significant gaps. The bifurcation of theage sequence of classes depending on the mass and diameter values isfound. This bifucation makes an evolutionary interpretation possible.
|A cluster analysis of open clusters|
The Galactic distribution of 361 open clusters is studied using acluster analysis method. It is shown that more than half of the clustersenter groups with characteristic dimensions of several hundred parsecs.To distinguish physical clusters from random condensations, criteriabased on age similarity, the color of the main-sequence blue end, andthe integrated color and radial velocity of the clusters are used. Theproximity of these values suggests a physical unity and common origin ofclusters in a group.
|Catalog of open clusters and associated interstellar matter.|
|Star-forming loops in the IRAS sky images|
Loops containing diffuse and discrete emission are a feature of the IRASsky images. Some of these loops are limb-brightened shells resultingfrom supernovae or stellar winds acting on the interstellar medium.Secondary star formation appears to have occurred at the surface ofthese shells. A significant proportion of the early-type stars in thesolar neighborhood appear to have formed in stellar loops.
|Yellow evolved stars in open clusters|
This paper describes a program in which Galactic cluster post-AGBcandidates were first identified and then analyzed for clustermembership via radial velocities, monitored for possible photometricvariations, examined for evidence of mass loss, and classified ascompletely as possible in terms of their basic stellar parameters. Theintrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters.With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by thesupergiants decline. It appears that the evolutionary tracks ofluminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than ofclass III. Only two superluminous giant star candidates are found inopen clusters.
|Kinematics of young open clusters and the rotation curve of our Galaxy|
Published observational data on a sample of 105 kinematically andspatially distinct open clusters of early spectral type (up to B3) arecompiled in tables, graphs, and diagrams and characterizedstatistically. Findings reported include (1) solar motion expanding atLSR velocity 3 km/s or less (with no noncircular motion in the directionof rotation), (2) Oort constant A = 17.0 + or - 1.5 km/s kpc andsecond-order rotation term alpha = -2.0 + or - 0.6 km/s sq kpc at R-R0between -3 and 5 kpc, (3) maximum rotation-curve deviation + or - 10km/s at R-R0 about - or + 2 kpc, and (4) nondecreasing rotationalvelocities beyond about R-R0 = 3 kpc. The rotational velocities of H IIregions and molecular clouds in the Perseus arm are found to besignificantly lower than those of the open clusters.
|Catalogue of UBV Photometry and MK Spectral Types in Open Clusters (Third Edition)|
|High-resolution spectroscopy of the optical candidate for the X-ray transient X0331 + 53|
High-resolution spectral observations of the optical candidate for theX-ray transient X0331 + 53 are presented. The data show broad hydrogenand helium emission and strong interstellar absorption corresponding toa visual extinction of about 7 mag. No photospheric absorption in theemission lines, and no radial-velocity variations greater than 0.5 km/swere found over a three-day period. It is concluded that the opticalcontinuum does not arise at or near the primary star. As an example ofthe spectrographic data, a resolution profile of H-alpha emission inX0331 + 53 is provided.
|Kinematics of multiple Trapezium type systems|
The kinematics of selected multiple Trapezium type systems is studied onthe basis of currently available observational data, includingphotographic records. Among the 15 systems studied, 14 exhibitexpansion. Of these, 11 have an overall expansion, while three have onecomponent far from the primary component.
|Investigation of the initial mass spectrum of open star clusters|
The mass spectra of 228 open star clusters were derived by comparison ofcolor-magnitude diagrams with evolutionary tracks. The application tobinary stars showed the reliability of the mass determination. Thederived mass spectra were fitted by power laws as well as exponentiallaws. It could be shown that both approximate the mass spectra of openstar clusters on the same average significance level. The presentinvestigation revealed a correlation of the slope of the mass spectrawith the cluster age, whereas a detected correlation of the slope withgalactocentric distance is slight. The results suggest that the slope ofthe mass spectrum increases with increasing cluster and galactocentricdistance. These findings are discussed with respect to their reasons andprevious results concerning open clusters and field stars.
|Bibliography of Individual Radial Velocities for Stars in Open Clusters - Part Two - NGC and IC Clusters|
|The absolute masses of 72 galactic clusters and 12 OB associations|
The Reddish (1978) relative masses for 72 open clusters and 12 OBassociations are presently converted to absolute masses, within an errormargin of about 25 percent, using three calibration clusters of knownmass whose average mass is 300 solar masses. The Reddish techniqueassumes the initial stellar mass distribution function to be valid forall aggregates, together with a universal relationship between stellarmass and stellar luminosity.
|Open clusters and galactic structure|
A total of 610 references to 434 clusters are employed in thecompilation of a catalog of open clusters with color-magnitude diagramson the UBV or RGU systems. Estimates of reddening, distance modulus, ageand number of cluster members are included. Although the sample isconsidered representative of the discoverable clusters in the galaxy,the observed distribution is nonuniform because of interstellarobscuration. Cluster distribution in the galactic plane is found to bedominated by the locations of dust clouds rather than by spiralstructure. The distributions of clusters as a function of age andrichness class show that the lifetimes of poor clusters are much shorterthan rich ones, and that clusters in the outer disk survive longer thanthose in the inner disk. An outer disk age which is only about 50% theage of the globular clusters is indicated by cluster statistics. Thethickening of the galactic disk with increasing galactocentric distancemay be due to either a younger dynamical age or a lower gravitationalpotential in the outer regions.
|First Supplement to the list of transit tables for star numberings in open clusters.|