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The connection between shear and star formation in spiral galaxies
We present a sample of 33 galaxies for which we have calculated (i) theaverage rate of shear from published rotation curves, (ii) thefar-infrared luminosity from IRAS fluxes, and (iii) theKs-band luminosity from the Two Micron All Sky Survey(2MASS). We show that a correlation exists between the shear rate andthe ratio of the far-infrared to Ks-band luminosity. Thisratio is essentially a measure of the star formation rate per unit mass,or the specific star formation rate. From this correlation we show thata critical shear rate exists, above which star formation would turn offin the discs of spiral galaxies. Using the correlation between shearrate and spiral arm pitch angle, this shear rate corresponds to thelowest pitch angles typically measured in near-infrared images of spiralgalaxies.

On the Relation between Circular Velocity and Central Velocity Dispersion in High and Low Surface Brightness Galaxies
In order to investigate the correlation between the circular velocityVc and the central velocity dispersion of the spheroidalcomponent σc, we analyzed these quantities for a sampleof 40 high surface brightness (HSB) disk galaxies, eight giant lowsurface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies, and 24 elliptical galaxiescharacterized by flat rotation curves. Galaxies have been selected tohave a velocity gradient <=2 km s-1 kpc-1 forR>=0.35R25. We used these data to better define theprevious Vc-σc correlation for spiralgalaxies (which turned out to be HSB) and elliptical galaxies,especially at the lower end of the σc values. We findthat the Vc-σc relation is described by alinear law out to velocity dispersions as low as σc~50km s-1, while in previous works a power law was adopted forgalaxies with σc>80 km s-1. Ellipticalgalaxies with Vc based on dynamical models or directlyderived from the H I rotation curves follow the same relation as the HSBgalaxies in the Vc-σc plane. On the otherhand, the LSB galaxies follow a different relation, since most of themshow either higher Vc or lower σc withrespect to the HSB galaxies. This argues against the relevance of baryoncollapse to the radial density profile of the dark matter halos of LSBgalaxies. Moreover, if the Vc-σc relation isequivalent to one between the mass of the dark matter halo and that ofthe supermassive black hole, then these results suggest that the LSBgalaxies host a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with a smaller masscompared to HSB galaxies with an equal dark matter halo. On the otherhand, if the fundamental correlation of SMBH mass is with the halocircular velocity, then LSB galaxies should have larger black holemasses for a given bulge dispersion. Elliptical galaxies withVc derived from H I data and LSB galaxies were not consideredin previous studies.Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory telescopesat the Paranal Observatory under programs 67.B-0283, 69.B-0573, and70.B-0171.

Beyond the Bulge: A Fundamental Relation between Supermassive Black Holes and Dark Matter Halos
The possibility that the masses MBH of supermassive blackholes (SBHs) correlate with the total gravitational mass of their hostgalaxy, or the mass MDM of the dark matter halo in which theypresumably formed, is investigated using a sample of 16 spiral and 20elliptical galaxies. The bulge velocity dispersion σc,typically defined within an aperture of size R<~0.5 kpc, is found tocorrelate tightly with the galaxy's circular velocity vc, thelatter measured at distances from the Galactic center at which therotation curve is flat, R~20-80 kpc. By using the well-knownMBH-σc relation for SBHs and a prescriptionto relate vc to the mass of the dark matter haloMDM in a standard ΛCDM cosmology, the correlationbetween σc and vc is equivalent to onebetween MBH and MDM. Such a correlation is foundto be nonlinear, with the ratio MBH/MDM decreasingfrom 2×10-4 for MDM~1014Msolar to 10-5 for MDM~1012Msolar. Preliminary evidence suggests that halos of masssmaller than ~5×1011 Msolar are increasinglyless efficient at forming SBHs-perhaps even unable to form them.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

HI observations of loose galaxy groups. I. Data and global properties
At Nançay, 21-cm H I line observations were made of 15spiral-dominated loose groups of galaxies, divided into two samples: an``interacting'' sample containing at least one pair of interactinggalaxies, and a ``control'' sample having no optical evidence ofinteractions or morphological disturbances among the group members. Theinteracting sample consists of 62 galaxies representing 9 differentgroups, and the control sample contains 40 galaxies representing 6groups. Of the 91 galaxy and galaxy pairs observed, 74 were detected,while upper limits were placed on the remaining 17 objects. Thesehomogeneous H I data, which will be used in future analyses, providecomparative information on the H I content of groups and serve as aprobe of the vicinity of the target spirals for H I clouds or very lowsurface brightness gas-rich galaxies.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

A Dynamical Study of Galaxies in the Hickson Compact Groups
To investigate dynamical properties of spiral galaxies in the Hicksoncompact groups (HCGs), we present rotation curves of 30 galaxies in 20HCGs. We found as follows: (1) There is no significant relation betweendynamical peculiarity and morphological peculiarity in HCG spiralgalaxies. (2) There is no significant relation between the dynamicalproperties and the frequency distribution of nuclear activities in HCGspiral galaxies. (3) There are no significant correlations between thedynamical properties of HCG spiral galaxies and any group properties(i.e., size, velocity dispersion, galaxy number density, and crossingtime). (4) Asymmetric and peculiar rotation curves are more frequentlyseen in the HCG spiral galaxies than in field spiral galaxies or incluster ones. However, this tendency is more obviously seen in late-typeHCG spiral galaxies. These results suggest that the dynamical propertiesof HCG spiral galaxies do not strongly correlate with the morphology,the nuclear activity, and the group properties. Our results also suggestthat more frequent galaxy collisions occur in the HCGs than in the fieldand in the clusters.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Dark matter in early-type spiral galaxies: the case of NGC 2179 and of NGC 2775
We present the stellar and ionized-gas velocity curves andvelocity-dispersion profiles along the major axis for six early-typespiral galaxies. Two of these galaxies, namely NGC 2179 and NGC 2775,are particularly suited for the study of dark matter halos. Using theirluminosity profiles and modeling their stellar and gaseous kinematics,we derive the mass contributions of the luminous and the dark matter tothe total potential. In NGC 2179 we find that the data (measured out toabout the optical radius R_opt) unambiguously require the presence of amassive dark halo. For the brighter and bigger object NGC 2775, we canrule out a significant halo contribution at radii R <~ 0.6 R_opt.Although preliminary, these results agree with the familiar massdistribution trend known for late-type spirals of comparable mass. Basedon observations carried out at ESO, La Silla (Chile) (ESO N. 52, 1-020)and on observations obtained with the VATT: the Alice P. LennonTelescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility. Tables 4 to 42are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

Near-infrared surface photometry of early-type spiral galaxies. I. Bulge and disk decomposition
We present near-infrared (NIR) surface photometry of a sample of 14early-type spirals with observed rotation curves. In this first paper,we report the results of two-dimensional parametric and non-parametricdecompositions to separate the bulge and disk components; the parametricbulge is modeled with a generalized exponential law of integer index n,and the disk with a simple exponential. We find that the derived bulgeparameters, for a given galaxy, vary systematically with the bulge shapeindex n. The mean early-type bulge has a best-fit n = 2.6, and 80% ofthe sample has best n of 2 or 3. Bulges are rarely spherical; the medianbulge intrinsic ellipticity is 0.33. The median early-type disk has(J-K)_d more than 0.1 mag bluer than the bulge, and a NIR disk surfacebrightness more than 1 mag arcsec(-2) brighter than later-type disks.Our data are consistent with the well-established correlation of bothbulge and disk surface brightness with physical scale length, and wenote that the location of bulges within this projection of thefundamental plane depends on their shape index n. In agreement withprevious work, the ratios of bulge and disk scale lengths are consistentwith a constant value r_e/r_d = 0.3; however, such value again dependson the bulge index n, implying that claims for a scale-free Hubblesequence may be premature. Based on observations taken at TIRGO(Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CAISMI--CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Near-infrared surface photometry of early-type spiral galaxies. II. M/L ratios and dark halos
We present mass distributions obtained from near-infrared (NIR) surfacebrightness decompositions and rotation curve fitting of a sample ofearly-type spiral galaxies. Bulge and disk mass-to-light (M/L) ratios,dark halo parameters, and the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND)acceleration parameter are derived. We find that the mean disk NIR M/Lis higher than that of the bulge, and comparison with stellar populationsynthesis models implies that early-type spiral bulges are, on average,younger and more metal rich than disks. NIR disk M/L is found to dependon disk luminosity, consistently with previously reported trends inellipticals and spirals, and with cold dark matter models for diskformation. Within the optical radius, the mean ratio of stellar to darkmatter is 2 and the typical dark halo mass is 10(11) M_sun. The value ofthe MOND acceleration parameter that best accommodates the sample as awhole is 1.3*10(-8) cm s(-2) . Based on observations taken at TIRGO(Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CAISMI--CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy

On the question of radio emission of spiral galaxies in groups of galaxies
It has been shown that the radio emission properties of spiral galaxies,if the other conditions are the same, are determined rather by thepresence of the close neighbours than by space density of galaxiesaround them. The rate of occurence of radio sources and their radioluminosities among the spiral members of groups of galaxies depend onthe projected seperation between them and their nearest neighbour. Theshorter this seperation the higher the probability of radio emission.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Dark Matter Particles and the Flat Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies
Not Available

Kinematics and dynamics of the MKW/AWM poor clusters
We report 472 new redshifts for 416 galaxies in the regions of the 23poor clusters of galaxies originally identified by Morgan, Kayser, andWhite (MKW), and Albert, White, and Morgan (AWM). Eighteen of the poorclusters now have 10 or more available redshifts within 1.5/h Mpc of thecentral galaxy; 11 clusters have at least 20 available redshifts. Basedon the 21 clusters for which we have sufficient velocity information,the median velocity scale is 336 km/s, a factor of 2 smaller than foundfor rich clusters. Several of the poor clusters exhibit complex velocitydistributions due to the presence of nearby clumps of galaxies. We checkon the velocity of the dominant galaxy in each poor cluster relative tothe remaining cluster members. Significantly high relative velocities ofthe dominant galaxy are found in only 4 of 21 poor clusters, 3 of whichwe suspect are due to contamination of the parent velocity distribution.Several statistical tests indicate that the D/cD galaxies are at thekinematic centers of the parent poor cluster velocity distributions.Mass-to-light ratios for 13 of the 15 poor clusters for which we havethe required data are in the range 50 less than or = M/LB(0)less than or = 200 solar mass/solar luminosity. The complex nature ofthe regions surrounding many of the poor clusters suggests that thesegroupings may represent an early epoch of cluster formation. Forexample, the poor clusters MKW7 and MKWS are shown to be gravitationallybound and likely to merge to form a richer cluster within the nextseveral Gyrs. Eight of the nine other poor clusters for which simpletwo-body dynamical models can be carried out are consistent with beingbound to other clumps in their vicinity. Additional complex systems withmore than two gravitationally bound clumps are observed among the poorclusters.

Arm structure in normal spiral galaxies, 1: Multivariate data for 492 galaxies
Multivariate data have been collected as part of an effort to develop anew classification system for spiral galaxies, one which is notnecessarily based on subjective morphological properties. A sample of492 moderately bright northern Sa and Sc spirals was chosen for futurestatistical analysis. New observations were made at 20 and 21 cm; thelatter data are described in detail here. Infrared Astronomy Satellite(IRAS) fluxes were obtained from archival data. Finally, new estimatesof arm pattern radomness and of local environmental harshness werecompiled for most sample objects.

The mass-to-light ratio in spiral galaxies
The galactocentric variation of the dynamical mass-to-light ratio for alarge sample of field and Hickson compact group spirals has beenexamined in a systematic way. The majority of galaxies in this sample donot have a constant M/LR, but rather one that increases with radius. Thegradient in M/LR between 0.2 and 0.6 R25 is correlated with totalluminosity, in that faint galaxies have a higher proportion of darkmatter at large radii. The absolute value of M/LR at 0.5 R25 isconsistent with early type spirals having more dark matter. Highermetallicity gas is found in galaxies with a deeper gravitationalpotential.

Dark-to-luminous mass ratio in spiral galaxies
We have calculated the mass-to-light ratios of spiral galaxies in theblue band and the H-band by using a chemical and photometric evolutionmodel with a two-component bulge-disc system. The slopes of thetheoretical M/L(b) vs. (B-V) and M/L(h) vs. (B-H) relations are muchsmaller than those of Larson and Tinsley (1978), which were adopted inprevious studies. The model predictions agree with the data of Rubin etal. (1982, 1985) and Burstein et al. (1982); the masses referred to arethose within a radius corresponding to the isophotal level of surfacebrightness at 25th B mag/sq arcsec. We find no evidence which supportsthe previous claims that bluer galaxies have relatively more massivedark halos. We conclude that the ratio of dark-to-luminous mass isuniform among spiral galaxies, contrary to the conventional view.

The neutral hydrogen content of early type disk galaxies
This paper presents the results of a sensitive 21-cm survey of massiveearly type galaxies made with the Arecibo radio telescope. Of the 81galaxies observed, the detections comprise 48 percent of the S0s, 73percent of the S0a's, and 96 percent of the Sa's. The values of thehybrid, distance-independent H I surface densities of the S0 galaxies inthe sample ranged continuously from amounts comparable to the mostgas-rich Sa galaxies to low estimated upper limts of the H I content.CCD images of most of the gas-rich S0s revealed either faint spiralfeatures or patchy structure in the disks. While no firm correlationbetween H I content and environmental density is apparent for thegalaxies in the sample, two-sample statistics suggest a differencebetween the highest and the lowest density bins. Early-type diskgalaxies within low density environments tend to have higher gas surfacedensities than those within high-density environments.

Kinematical observations of ordinary spiral galaxies - A bibliographical compilation
Data extracted from 280 papers reporting observations of the kinematicsof 245 nonbarred spiral galaxies are presented. Information is providedon the type of observations (instruments, spectral lines used, etc.) andthe derived geometrical and kinematical parameters of the galaxies(major axis position angle, inclination, heliocentric systemic velocity,maximum extension of the kinematical measurements, etc.). In addition,whenever possible, a 'mean' rotation curve has been considered, fromwhich the maximum rotational velocity of the galaxy and a parameterdescribing the essential shape of the rotation curve within r25 havebeen derived. Histograms illustrating the distribution of morphologicaltypes, inclinations, extensions of the kinematical measurements, andmaximum rotational velocities account for the statistical properties ofthis sample of spiral galaxies.

Does the dark component influence the shape of the inner rotation curves of spiral galaxies?
A statistical analysis of the relation between the essential shape ofthe rotation curve, the morphology, and the absolute luminosity ofspiral galaxies is presented for a sample of 167 objects. At variancewith Burstein and Rubin's (1985) results, it is found that the shape ofrotation curves of spirals inside the 'optical' region correlates withthe Hubble type. This fact reflects a correlation between light and massdistributions in the inner galaxian regions, showing that the lineardynamics is not usually controlled by the dark component.

The distribution of mass for spiral galaxies in clusters and in the field
A comparison is made between the mass distributions of spiral galaxiesin clusters and in the field using Burstein's mass-type methodology.Both the H-alpha emission-line rotation curves and more extended H Irotation curves are used. The fitting technique for determining masstypes used by Burstein and coworkers has been replaced by an objectivechi-sq method. Mass types are shown to be a function of both the Hubbletype and luminosity, contrary to earlier results. The present data showa difference in the distribution of mass types for spiral galaxies inthe field and in clusters, in the sense that mass type I galaxies, wherethe inner and outer velocity gradients are similar, are generally foundin the field rather than in clusters. This can be understood in terms ofthe results of Whitmore, Forbes, and Rubin (1988), who find that therotation curves of galaxies in the central region of clusters aregenerally failing, while the outer galaxies in a cluster and fieldgalaxies tend to have flat or rising rotation curves.

Cosmology from a galaxy group catalog. I - Binaries
A new, completely objective group-finding algorithm is described andapplied to the CfA redshift catalog. The binary galaxies are isolatedfor analysis. The assumptions underlying the analysis are (1) that lighttraces mass, (2) that our binary galaxy subsets are representative lighttracers, and (3) that the binary orbits are circular. The primary resultof the work is that the resulting bias-free binary catalogs are afunction of the assumed cosmological model. For virtually any inputvalue of Omega(0) in the range 0.01-5.00, there is a reasonablyconsistent interpretation of the CfA survey such that the specifiedvalue of Omega(0) can be derived from the binary sample obtained underthat interpretation. A secondary result is that the higher the inputvalue of Omega(0), the broader the intrinsic distribution in M/L, andhence the less valid the assumption that light traces mass.

Dark matter in spiral galaxies. III - The SA galaxies
Luminosity profiles have been obtained for 14 Sa galaxies with opticalrotation curves measured by Rubin et al. (1985). The rotation curves andbulge dynamics for about half of the galaxies were found to agree withtheoretical predictions assuming a typical mass/light ratio. The otherhalf have slow-rising rotation curves that are inconsistent with thelight distribution and bulge dynamics. The proposed explanation for thisinconsistency is that the rotation curves in the bulge-dominated partsof these galaxies are not measuring their true velocities. Central bulgevelocity dispersions are computed by using the measured bulge lightdistribution and a mass profile given by the rotation curves. For the'normal' velocities, the predicted dispersions match the observed valuesreasonably well, while for the 'massless bulge' galaxies the predicteddispersion is always low, by a factor of 3 in the worst case.

A catalog of stellar velocity dispersions. I - Compilation and standard galaxies
A catalog of central stellar velocity dispersion measurements ispresented, current through June 1984. The catalog includes 1096measurements of 725 galaxies. A set of 51 standard galaxies is definedwhich consists of galaxies with at least three reliable, concordantmeasurements. It is suggested that future studies observed some of thesestandard galaxies in the course of their observations so that differentstudies can be normalized to the same system. Previous studies arecompared with the derived standards to determine relative accuracies andto compute scale factors where necessary.

The distribution of mass in spiral galaxies
On the basis of recent optical and 21 cm observations of orbitalvelocities within galaxies it has been concluded that as much as 90percent of the mass of the universe is presently detected only by itsgravitational attraction. Although the nature of this nonluminous matteris obscure, certain conclusions regarding its properties can be derivedfrom the observations. Questions concerning the study of the massdistributions are discussed. It is found that the mass distribution in aspiral galaxy is a combination of luminous and nonluminous material atall radii in the galaxy. The sum of luminous and nonluminous matter in aspiral galaxy has a form which is unlike either of its components, whilethe relative size of the bulge in a spiral galaxy is not an importantdeterminant of the integral mass distribution form.

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