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# IC 5217

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 IC 5217 as a double-shell, point-symmetric planetary nebula with a very narrow waistAims.Identification of the structural components and analysis of theinternal kinematics in the planetary nebula IC 5217. Methods:.Narrow-band images and high resolution long-slit spectra in theHα, [N ii] and [O iii] emission lines, and VLA 6 cm continuumdata. Results: .IC 5217 is composed of a very bright equatorialring, open bipolar lobes, off-axis point-symmetric features, on-axisdistant faint regions, and an off-axis very elongated bipolar structure.The ring, open lobes, point-symmetric features and distant faint regionsappear as elements of a single point-symmetric bipolar shell with a verynarrow waist. This shell presents an axis ratio of ~37 and an aspectratio of ~5. The 6 cm data show that the ring is an extremely flat diskwith a central hole. Expansion velocity in the ring ranges from ≤10km s-1 in He ii up to ≃27 km s-1 in [N ii],whereas a velocity of ~460 km s-1 is estimated for the polarregions of the bipolar shell. Strong acceleration of the outer regionsof the ring is observed. The elongated bipolar structure probablyrepresents a highly collimated (aspect ratio ~12), high velocitycylindrical-like shell. A collimated agent (wind or jet) would accountfor the shaping of the bipolar shell if this agent has operated in thedirection perpendicular to the equatorial disk. The point-symmetricfeatures and cylindrical shell are probably related to collimatedejections but that occurred when the basic nebular shape had alreadybeen established. Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Wolf-Rayet Nuclei III. Kinematical Analysis of a Large Sample of NebulaeExpansion velocities (V_{exp}) of different ions and line widths at thebase of the lines are measured and analyzed for 24 PNe with [WC]-typenuclei (WRPNe), 9 PNe ionized by WELS (WLPNe) and 14 ordinary PNe. Acomparative study of the kinematical behavior of the sample clearlydemonstrates that WRPNe have on average 40-45% larger V_{exp}, andpossibly more turbulence than WLPNe and ordinary PNe. WLPNe havevelocity fields very much like the ones of ordinary PNe, rather than theones of WRPNe. All the samples (WRPNe, WLPNe and ordinary PNe) showexpansion velocities increasing with age indicators, for example is larger for low-density nebulae and also it is largerfor nebulae around high-temperature stars. This age effect is muchstronger for evolved WRPNe, suggesting that the [WC] winds have beenaccelerating the nebulae for a long time, while for non-WRPNe theacceleration seems to stop at some point when the star reaches atemperature of about 90,000 - 100,000. Non-WR nebulae reach a maximumV_{exp} ≤ 30 km s(-1) evolved WRPNe reach maximum V_{exp} about 40km s(-1) . For all kinds of objects (WRPNe and non-WRPNe) it is foundthat on average V_{exp}(N(+) ) is slightly larger than V_{exp}(O(++) ),indicating that the nebulae present acceleration of the external shells. A Spectrophotometric Survey of K-Band Emission Lines in Planetary NebulaeWe present observations of 16 planetary nebulae (PNs) in the 2 μm (Kband) spectral region, obtained with a long-slit near-infraredspectrometer at McDonald Observatory. In general, the strongest featuresin our spectra are recombination lines of H I, He I, and (in some cases)He II. Half the sample shows emission from vibrationally excitedH2. Some of the observed PNs (e.g., M 1-13) displayH2 line ratios characteristic of shocked, thermalized gas,while others (e.g., BD +30 3639) have ratios intermediate between pureradiative (UV) and shock excitation, consistent with either acombination of the mechanisms or UV illumination of dense material. Ourspectra of J900 and M 1-13 confirm that published narrowband imagestrace the H2 emission, and we find that the H2emission in SwSt 1 has a larger spatial extent than previously reported.In IC 5117, SwSt 1, and NGC 40 we detect the [Kr III] 2.199 μm lineidentified by Dinerstein in 2001, with strengths indicating that kryptonis enriched relative to the solar abundance, most markedly so in NGC 40.We also detect several lines from the 3G term of [Fe III] inVy 2-2, SwSt 1, and marginally in Cn 3-1. The [Kr III] and [Fe III]lines fall near in wavelength to H2 transitions, which areoften used as diagnostics for UV excitation because they arise fromhigher vibrationally excited levels (v=2, 3). For moderate spectralresolving power, R<=600, these lines may be blended with, or evenmistaken for, the corresponding H2 lines, leading tomisinterpretation of the H2 emission. The strength of boththe Kr and Fe nebular emission lines can be enhanced by specialcircumstances, Kr because of nucleosynthetic self-enrichment in theprogenitor star and Fe due to inefficient initial dust condensation orpartial destruction of the dust after formation, causing a largerfraction of the elemental iron to reside in the gas phase. The abundance discrepancy - recombination line versus forbidden line abundances for a northern sample of galactic planetary nebulaeWe present deep optical spectra of 23 galactic planetary nebulae, whichare analysed in conjunction with archival infrared and ultravioletspectra. We derive nebular electron temperatures based on standardcollisionally excited line (CEL) diagnostics as well as the hydrogenBalmer jump and find that, as expected, the Balmer jump almost alwaysyields a lower temperature than the [OIII] nebular-to-auroral lineratio. We also make use of the weak temperature dependence of helium andOII recombination line ratios to further investigate the temperaturestructure of the sample nebulae. We find that, in almost every case, thederived temperatures follow the relation , which is the relationpredicted by two-component nebular models in which one component is coldand hydrogen-deficient. Te(OII) may be as low as a fewhundred Kelvin, in line with the low temperatures found for thehydrogen-deficient knots of Abell 30 by Wesson, Liu and Barlow.Elemental abundances are derived for the sample nebulae from both CELsand optical recombination lines (ORLs). ORL abundances are higher thanCEL abundances in every case, by factors ranging from 1.5 to 12. Fiveobjects with O2+ abundance discrepancy factors greater than 5are found. DdDm 1 and Vy 2-2 are both found to have a very largeabundance discrepancy factor of 11.8.We consider the possible explanations for the observed discrepancies.From the observed differences between Te(OIII) andTe(BJ), we find that temperature fluctuations cannot resolvethe abundance discrepancies in 22 of the 23 sample nebulae, implyingsome additional mechanism for enhancing ORL emission. In the oneambiguous case, the good agreement between abundances derived fromtemperature-insensitive infrared lines and temperature-sensitive opticallines also points away from temperature fluctuations being present. Theobserved recombination line temperatures, the large abundancediscrepancies and the generally good agreement between infrared andoptical CEL abundances all suggest instead the existence of a coldhydrogen-deficient component within the normal' nebular gas. The originof this component is as yet unknown. The Chemical Composition of Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Regard to Inhomogeneity in the Gas Density in Their EnvelopesThe results of a study of the chemical compositions of Galacticplanetary nebulae taking into account two types of inhomogeneity in thenebular gas density in their envelopes are reported. New analyticalexpressions for the ionization correction factors have been derived andare used to determine the chemical compositions of the nebular gas inGalactic planetary nebulae. The abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Arhave been found for 193 objects. The Y Z diagrams for various Heabundances are analyzed for type II planetary nebulae separately andjointly with HII regions. The primordial helium abundance Y p andenrichment ratio dY/dZ are determined, and the resulting values arecompared with the data of other authors. Radial abundance gradients inthe Galactic disk are studied using type II planetary nebulae. Helium recombination spectra as temperature diagnostics for planetary nebulaeElectron temperatures derived from the HeI recombination line ratios,designated Te(HeI), are presented for 48 planetary nebulae(PNe). We study the effect that temperature fluctuations inside nebulaehave on the Te(HeI) value. We show that a comparison betweenTe(HeI) and the electron temperature derived from the Balmerjump of the HI recombination spectrum, designated Te(HI),provides an opportunity to discriminate between the paradigms of achemically homogeneous plasma with temperature and density variations,and a two-abundance nebular model with hydrogen-deficient materialembedded in diffuse gas of a normal' chemical composition (i.e.~solar), as the possible causes of the dichotomy between the abundancesthat are deduced from collisionally excited lines and those deduced fromrecombination lines. We find that Te(HeI) values aresignificantly lower than Te(HI) values, with an averagedifference of = 4000 K. Theresult is consistent with the expectation of the two-abundance nebularmodel but is opposite to the prediction of the scenarios of temperaturefluctuations and/or density inhomogeneities. From the observeddifference between Te(HeI) and Te(HI), we estimatethat the filling factor of hydrogen-deficient components has a typicalvalue of 10-4. In spite of its small mass, the existence ofhydrogen-deficient inclusions may potentially have a profound effect inenhancing the intensities of HeI recombination lines and thereby lead toapparently overestimated helium abundances for PNe. A reexamination of electron density diagnostics for ionized gaseous nebulaeWe present a comparison of electron densities derived from opticalforbidden line diagnostic ratios for a sample of over a hundred nebulae.We consider four density indicators, the [O II]λ3729/λ3726, [S II] λ6716/λ6731, [Cl III]λ5517/λ5537 and [Ar IV] λ4711/λ4740 doubletratios. Except for a few H II regions for which data from the literaturewere used, diagnostic line ratios were derived from our own high qualityspectra. For the [O II] λ3729/λ3726 doublet ratio, we findthat our default atomic data set, consisting of transition probabilitiesfrom Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1982}) and collision strengths from Pradhan(\cite{pradhan}), fit the observations well, although at high electrondensities, the [O II] doublet ratio yields densities systematicallylower than those given by the [S II] λ6716/λ6731 doubletratio, suggesting that the ratio of transition probabilities of the [OII] doublet, A(λ3729)/A(λ3726), given by Zeippen(\cite{zeippen1982}) may need to be revised upwards by approximately 6per cent. Our analysis also shows that the more recent calculations of[O II] transition probabilities by Zeippen (\cite{zeippen1987a}) andcollision strengths by McLaughlin & Bell (\cite{mclaughlin}) areinconsistent with the observations at the high and low density limits,respectively, and can therefore be ruled out. We confirm the earlierresult of Copetti & Writzl (\cite{copetti2002}) that the [O II]transition probabilities calculated by Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}) yieldelectron densities systematically lower than those deduced from the [SII] λ6716/λ6731 doublet ratio and that the discrepancy ismost likely caused by errors in the transition probabilities calculatedby Wiese et al. (\cite{wiese}). Using our default atomic data set for [OII], we find that Ne([O II])  Ne([S II]) ≈Ne([Cl III])< Ne([Ar IV]). Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scaleThe distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy. On the O II Ground Configuration Energy LevelsThe most accurate way to measure the energy levels for the O II2p3 ground configuration has been from the forbidden lines inplanetary nebulae. We present an analysis of modern planetary nebuladata that nicely constrain the splitting within the 2D termand the separation of this term from the ground4S3/2 level. We extend this method to H II regionsusing high-resolution spectroscopy of the Orion Nebula, covering all sixvisible transitions within the ground configuration. These data confirmthe splitting of the 2D term while additionally constrainingthe splitting of the 2P term. The energies of the2P and 2D terms relative to the ground(4S) term are constrained by requiring that all six linesgive the same radial velocity, consistent with independent limits placedon the motion of the O+ gas and the planetary nebula data. Electron temperatures and densities of planetary nebulae determined from the nebular hydrogen recombination spectrum and temperature and density variationsA method is presented to derive electron temperatures and densities ofplanetary nebulae (PNe) simultaneously, using the observed hydrogenrecombination spectrum, which includes continuum and line emission. Bymatching theoretical spectra to observed spectra around the Balmer jumpat about 3646 Å, we determine electron temperatures and densitiesfor 48 Galactic PNe. The electron temperatures based on this method -hereafter Te(Bal) - are found to be systematically lower thanthose derived from [OIII] λ4959/λ4363 and [OIII] (88 μm+ 52 μm)/λ4959 ratios - hereafterTe([OIII]na) andTe([OIII]fn). The electron densities based on thismethod are found to be systematically higher than those derived from[OII] λ3729/λ3726, [SII] λ6731/λ6716,[ClIII] λ5537/λ5517, [ArIV] λ4740/λ4711 and[OIII] 88 μm/52 μm ratios. These results suggest that temperatureand density fluctuations are generally present within nebulae. Thecomparison of Te([OIII]na) and Te(Bal)suggests that the fractional mean-square temperature variation(t2) has a representative value of 0.031. A majority oftemperatures derived from the Te([OIII]fn) ratioare found to be higher than those of Te([OIII]na),which is attributed to the existence of dense clumps in nebulae - those[OIII] infrared fine-structure lines are suppressed by collisionalde-excitation in the clumps. By comparingTe([OIII]fn), Te([OIII]na)and Te(Bal) and assuming a simple two-density-componentmodel, we find that the filling factor of dense clumps has arepresentative value of 7 × 10-5. The discrepanciesbetween Te([OIII]na) and Te(Bal) arefound to be anticorrelated with electron densities derived from variousdensity indicators; high-density nebulae have the smallest temperaturediscrepancies. This suggests that temperature discrepancy is related tonebular evolution. In addition, He/H abundances of PNe are found to bepositively correlated with the difference betweenTe([OIII]na) and Te(Bal), suggestingthat He/H abundances might have been overestimated generally because ofthe possible existence of H-deficient knots. Electron temperatures anddensities deduced from spectra around the Paschen jump regions at 8250Åare also obtained for four PNe: NGC 7027, NGC 6153, M 1-42 andNGC 7009. Electron densities derived from spectra around the Paschenjump regions are in good agreement with the corresponding values derivedfrom spectra around the Balmer jump, whereas temperatures deduced fromthe spectra around the Paschen jump are found to be lower than thecorresponding values derived from spectra around the Balmer jump for allthe four cases. The reason remains unclear. A reanalysis of chemical abundances in galactic PNe and comparison with theoretical predictions New determinations of chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, Ar and Sare derived for all galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) so far observedwith a relatively high accuracy, in an effort to overcome differences inthese quantities obtained over the years by different authors usingdifferent procedures. These include: ways to correct for interstellarextinction, the atomic data used to interpret the observed line fluxes,the model nebula adopted to represent real objects and the ionizationcorrections for unseen ions. A unique good quality' classical-typeprocedure, i.e. making use of collisionally excited forbidden lines toderive ionic abundances of heavy ions, has been applied to allindividual sets of observed line fluxes in each specific position withineach PN. Only observational data obtained with linear detectors, andsatisfying some quality' criteria, have been considered. Suchobservations go from the mid-1970s up to the end of 2001. Theobservational errors associated with individual line fluxes have beenpropagated through the whole procedure to obtain an estimate of theaccuracy of final abundances independent of an author's prejudices'.Comparison of the final abundances with those obtained in relevantmulti-object studies on the one hand allowed us to assess the accuracyof the new abundances, and on the other hand proved the usefulness ofthe present work, the basic purpose of which was to take full advantageof the vast amount of observations done so far of galactic PNe, handlingthem in a proper homogeneous way. The number of resulting PNe that havedata of an adequate quality to pass the present selection amounts to131. We believe that the new derived abundances constitute a highlyhomogeneous chemical data set on galactic PNe, with realisticuncertainties, and form a good observational basis for comparison withthe growing number of predictions from stellar evolution theory. Owingto the known discrepancies between the ionic abundances of heavyelements derived from the strong collisonally excited forbidden linesand those derived from the weak, temperature-insensitive recombinationlines, it is recognized that only abundance ratios between heavyelements can be considered as satisfactorily accurate. A comparison withtheoretical predictions allowed us to assess the state of the art inthis topic in any case, providing some findings and suggestions forfurther theoretical and observational work to advance our understandingof the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars. 12C/13C Ratio in Planetary Nebulae from the IUE ArchivesWe investigated the abundance ratio of 12C/13C inplanetary nebulae by examining emission lines arising from C III2s2p3Po2,1,0-->2s21S0.Spectra were retrieved from the International Ultraviolet Explorerarchives, and multiple spectra of the same object were co-added toachieve improved signal-to-noise ratio. The 13C hyperfinestructure line at 1909.6 Å was detected in NGC 2440. The12C/13C ratio was found to be ~4.4+/-1.2. In allother objects, we provide an upper limit for the flux of the 1910Å line. For 23 of these sources, a lower limit for the12C/13C ratio was established. The impact on ourcurrent understanding of stellar evolution is discussed. The resultinghigh-signal-to-noise ratio C III spectrum helps constrain the atomicphysics of the line formation process. Some objects have the measured1907/1909 Å flux ratio outside the low-electron densitytheoretical limit for 12C. A mixture of 13C with12C helps to close the gap somewhat. Nevertheless, someobserved 1907/1909 Å flux ratios still appear too high to conformto the currently predicted limits. It is shown that this limit, as wellas the 1910/1909 Å flux ratio, are predominantly influenced byusing the standard partitioning among the collision strengths for themultiplet1S0-3PoJaccording to the statistical weights. A detailed calculation for thefine-structure collision strengths between these individual levels wouldbe valuable. Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. IV. Synthesis and the Sulfur AnomalyWe have compiled a large sample of O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar abundances thathave been determined for 85 Galactic planetary nebulae in a consistentand homogeneous manner using spectra extending from 3600 to 9600Å. Sulfur abundances have been computed using the near-IR lines of[S III] λλ9069, 9532 along with [S III] temperatures. Wefind average values, expressed logarithmically with a standarddeviation, of log(S/O)=-1.91+/-0.24, log(Cl/O)=-3.52+/-0.16, andlog(Ar/O)=-2.29+/-0.18, numbers consistent with previous studies of bothplanetary nebulae and H II regions. We also find a strong correlationbetween [O III] and [S III] temperatures among planetary nebulae. Inanalyzing abundances of Ne, S, Cl, and Ar with respect to O, we find atight correlation for Ne-O, and loose correlations for Cl-O and Ar-O.All three trends appear to be colinear with observed correlations for HII regions. S and O also show a correlation, but there is a definiteoffset from the behavior exhibited by H II regions and stars. We suggestthat this S anomaly is most easily explained by the existence ofS+3, whose abundance must be inferred indirectly when onlyoptical spectra are available, in amounts in excess of what is predictedby model-derived ionization correction factors in PNe. Finally for thedisk PNe, abundances of O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar all show gradients whenplotted against Galactocentric distance. The slopes are statisticallyindistinguishable from one another, a result which is consistent withthe notion that the cosmic abundances of these elements evolve inlockstep. Characteristics of Planetary Nebulae with [WC] Central StarsWe have analyzed the plasma diagnostics (electron densities andtemperatures and abundance ratios), and the kinematics of a large sampleof planetary nebulae around [WC] stars by means of high resolutionspectra. The results have been compared with characteristics ofplanetary nebulae around WELS and non-WR central stars. We find that theproportion of nitrogen rich nebulae is larger in WRPNe than innon-WRPNe. None of the 9 nebulae around WELS in our sample showsN-enrichment. WRPNe have larger expansion velocities and/or largerturbulence than non-WRPNe demonstrating that the mechanical energy ofthe massive [WC] stellar wind largely affects the kinematical behaviorof nebulae. A weak relation between stellar temperature and expansionvelocities has been found for all kind of nebulae, indicating that oldernebulae expand faster. The effect is more important for WRPNe. Thiscould be useful in testing the evolutionary sequence [WC]-late ->[WC]-early, proposed for [WC] stars. The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulaeWe have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology. Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinatesWe have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029} Quantitative classification of WR nuclei of planetary nebulaeWe analyse 42 emission-line nuclei of Planetary Nebulae (PNe), in theframework of a large spectrophotometric survey of [WC] nuclei of PNeconducted since 1994, using low/medium resolution spectra obtained atESO and at OHP. We construct a grid of selected line-intensities(normalized to C Iv-5806 Å= 100) ordered by decreasing ionisationpotential going from 871 to 24 eV. In this grid, the stars appear tobelong clearly to prominent O (hot [WO1-4] types) or C (cooler [WC4-11]types) line-sequences, in agreement with the classification of massiveWR stars applied to Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPNe) byCrowther et al. \cite{crowther98} (CMB98). We propose 20 selected lineratios and the FWHM of C Iv and C Iii lines as classificationdiagnostics, which agree well with the 7 line ratios and the FWHMproposed by CMB98. This classification based on ionisation is related tothe evolution of the temperature and of the stellar wind, reflecting themass-loss history. In particular, inside the hot [WO4]-class, wediscover four stars showing very broad lines over the whole spectralrange. These stars possibly mark the transition from the initialmomentum-driven phase to the later energy-driven phase of the CSPNealong their evolution from the post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB)phase through [WC] late, [WC4] and [WO]-types. The HR diagram and thediagram linking the terminal velocity and the temperature indicatehighly dispersed values of the stellar mass for our sample, around amean mass higher than for normal CSPNe. The distribution of the 42 starsalong the ionisation sequence shows 24% of [WO1-3], 21% of [WO4], 17% of[WC4] hot stars, and 26% of [WC9-11] cool stars. The [WC5-8] classesremain poorly represented (12%). This distribution is confirmed on thebasis of a large compilation of the 127 known emission-lines CSPNe,which represent about 5% of the known PNe.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla (Chile), and at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP,France).Table \ref{liste} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Gas temperature and excitation classes in planetary nebulaeEmpirical methods to estimate the elemental abundances in planetarynebulae usually use the temperatures derived from the [O III] and [N II]emission-line ratios, respectively, for the high- and low-ionizationzones. However, for a large number of objects these values may not beavailable. In order to overcome this difficulty and allow a betterdetermination of abundances, we discuss the relationship between thesetwo temperatures. Although a correlation is not easily seen when asample of different PNe types is used, the situation is improved whenthey are gathered into excitation classes. From [OII]/[OIII] andHeII/HeI line ratios, we define four excitation classes. Then, usingstandard photoionization models which fit most of the data, a linearrelation between the two temperatures is obtained for each of the fourexcitation classes. The method is applied to several objects for whichonly one temperature can be obtained from the observed emission linesand is tested by recalculation of the radial abundance gradient of theGalaxy using a larger number of PNe. We verified that our previousgradient results, obtained with a smaller sample of planetary nebulae,are not changed, indicating that the temperature relation obtained fromthe photoionization models are a good approximation, and thecorresponding statistical error decreases as expected. Tables 3-5, 7 and9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Study of electron density in planetary nebulae. A comparison of different density indicatorsWe present a comparison of electron density estimates for planetarynebulae based on different emission-line ratios. We have considered thedensity indicators [O Ii]lambda 3729/lambda 3726, [S Ii]lambda6716/lambda 6731, [Cl Iii]lambda 5517/lambda 5537, [Ar Iv]lambda4711/lambda 4740, C Iii]lambda 1906/lambda 1909 and [N I]lambda5202/lambda 5199. The observational data were extracted from theliterature. We have found systematic deviations from the densityhomogeneous models, in the sense that: Ne(ion {N}i) <~Ne(ion {O}{ii}) < Ne(ion {S}{ii}, ion {C}{iii},ion {Cl}{iii} or ion {Ar}{iv}) and Ne(ion {S}{ii}) ~Ne(ion {C}{iii}) ~ Ne(ion {Cl}{iii}) ~Ne(ion {Ar}{iv}). We argue that the lower [O Ii] densityestimates are likely due to errors in the atomic parameters used. Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon in Planetary Nebulae. I. Observations and Abundances in a Northern SampleThis paper is the first of a series specifically studying the abundancesof sulfur, chlorine, and argon in type II planetary nebulae (PNe) in theGalactic disk. Ratios of S/O, Cl/O, and Ar/O constitute important testsof differential nucleosynthesis of these elements and serve as strictconstraints on massive star yield predictions. We present newground-based optical spectra extending from 3600-9600 Å for asample of 19 type II northern PNe. This range includes the strongnear-infrared lines of [S III] λλ9069,9532, which allowsus to test extensively their effectiveness as sulfur abundanceindicators. We also introduce a new, model-tested ionization correctionfactor for sulfur. For the present sample, we find average values ofS/O=1.2×10-2+/-0.71×10-2,Cl/O=3.3×10-4+/-1.6×10-4, andAr/O=5.0×10-3+/-1.9×10-3. Helium contamination from the progenitor stars of planetary nebulae: The He/H radial gradient and the ΔY / ΔZ enrichment ratioIn this work, two aspects of the chemical evolution of 4He inthe Galaxy are considered on the basis of a sample of disk planetarynebulae (PN). First, an application of corrections owing to thecontamination of 4He from the evolution of the progenitorstars shows that the He/H abundance by number of atoms is reduced by0.012 to 0.015 in average, leading to an essentially flat He/H radialdistribution. Second, a determination of the helium to heavy elementenrichment ratio using the same corrections leads to values in the range2.8 < ΔY / ΔZ < 3.6 for Y p = 0.23 and 2.0< ΔY / ΔZ < 2.8 for Y p = 0.24, in goodagreement with recent independent determinations and theoretical models. Abundances in the Planetary Nebula IC 5217High-resolution optical wavelength spectroscopic data were secured inthe optical wavelengths, 3700-10050 Å, for the planetary nebula IC5217 with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. Theseoptical spectra have been analyzed along with the near-UV and UV archivedata. Diagnostic analyses indicate a nebular physical condition withelectron temperature of about 10,700 K (from the [O III] lines) and thedensity of Nɛ=5000 cm-1. Ionicconcentrations have been derived with the representative diagnostics,and with the aid of a photoionization model construction, we derived theelemental abundances. Contrary to the previous studies found in theliterature, He and C appear to be depleted compared to the averageplanetary nebula and to the Sun (and S marginally so), while theremaining elements appear to be close to the average value. IC 5217 mayhave evolved from an O-rich progenitor, and the central star temperatureof IC 5217 is likely to be 92,000 K. An analysis of the observed radio emission from planetary nebulaeWe have analysed the radio fluxes for 264 planetary nebulae for whichreliable measurements of fluxes at 1.4 and 5 GHz, and of nebulardiameters are available. For many of the investigated nebulae, theoptical thickness is important, especially at 1.4 GHz. Simple modelslike the one specified only by a single optical thickness or spherical,constant density shells do not account satisfactorily for theobservations. Also an r-2 density distribution is ruled out.A reasonable representation of the observations can be obtained by atwo-component model having regions of two different values of opticalthickness. We show that the nebular diameters smaller than 10arcsec areuncertain, particularly if they come from photographic plates orGaussian fitting to the radio profile. While determining theinterstellar extinction from an optical to radio flux ratio, cautionshould be paid regarding optical thickness effects in the radio. We havedeveloped a method for estimating the value of self absorption. At 1.4GHz self absorption of the flux is usually important and can exceed afactor of 10. At 5 GHz self absorption is negligible for most of theobjects, although in some cases it can reach a factor of 2. The Galacticbulge planetary nebulae when used to calibrate the Shklovsky method givea mean nebular mass of 0.14 Msun. The statistical uncertaintyof the Shklovsky distances is smaller than a factor of 1.5. Table 1 isonly available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. Galactic planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet nuclei. II. A consistent observational data setWe present high resolution spectrophotometric data for a sample of 34planetary nebulae with [WC] spectral type central stars (WRPNe) in ourGalaxy. The observed objects cover a wide range in stellarcharacteristics: early and late [WC] type stars, as well asweak-emission line stars (WELS). Physical conditions in the nebulae(electron density and temperatures) have been obtained from variousdiagnostic line ratios, and chemical abundances have been derived withthe usual empirical scheme. Expansion velocities were estimated in aconsistent manner from the line profiles for most objects of the sample.A statistical study was developed for the derived data in order to findfundamental relationships casting some light on the evolutionary statusof WRPNe. We found evidence for a strong electron temperature gradientin WRPNe which is related to nebular excitation. Such a gradient is notpredicted in simple photoionization models. Abundance ratios indicatethat there seems to be no preferential stellar mass for the Wolf-Rayetphenomenon to occur in the nucleus of a planetary nebula. Two objects, M1-25 and M 1-32, were found to have a very small Ne/O ratio, a propertydifficult to understand. We reexamined the relation between the nebularproperties of the WRPNe and the spectral types of the central stars. Ourdata confirm the trend found by other authors of the electron densitydecreasing with decreasing spectral type, which was interpreted asevidence that [WC] stars evolve from late to early [WC] types. On theother hand, our data on the expansion velocities do not show theincrease of expansion velocity with decreasing spectral type, that onemight expect in such a scenario. Two objects with very late [WC] typecentral stars, K 2-16 and PM 1-188, do not follow the general densitysequence, being of very low density for their spectral types. We suggestthat the stars either underwent a late helium flash (the born again''scenario) or that they have had a particularly slow evolution from theAGB. The 6 WELS of our sample follow the same density vs. [WC]-typerelation as the bona fide WRPNe, but they tend to have smaller expansionvelocities. Considerations about the evolutionary status of WELS mustawait the constitution of a larger observational sample. The analysis ofthe differences between the WRPNe in the Magellanic Clouds (distributionof [WC] spectral types, N/O ratios) and in the Galaxy indicates thatmetallicity affects the [WR] phenomenon in central stars of planetarynebulae. Based on data obtained at the Observatorio AstronómicoNacional, SPM, B.C., México Tables 2 and 3 are only available athttp://www.edpsciences.org The Galactic disc distribution of planetary nebulae with warm dust emission features - IWe investigate the Galactic disc distribution of a sample of planetarynebulae characterized in terms of their mid-infrared spectral features.The total number of Galactic disc PNe with 8-13μm spectra is broughtup to 74 with the inclusion of 24 new objects, the spectra of which wepresent for the first time. 54 PNe have clearly identified warm dustemission features, and form a sample that we use to construct thedistribution of the C/O chemical balance in Galactic disc PNe. The dustemission features complement the information on the progenitor massesbrought by the gas-phase N/O ratios: PNe with unidentified infraredemission bands have the highest N/O ratios, while PNe with the silicatesignature have either very high N enrichment or close to none. We find atrend for a decreasing proportion of O-rich PNe towards the third andfourth Galactic quadrants. Two independent distance scales confirm thatthe proportion of O-rich PNe decreases from 30\pm 9 per cent inside the solar circle to 14\pm 7 per cent outside. PNe with warm dustare also the youngest. PNe with no warm dust are uniformly distributedin C/O and N/O ratios, and do not appear to be confined to C/O\sim 1. They also have higher 6-cmfluxes, as expected from more evolved PNe. We show that the IRAS fluxesare a good representation of the bolometric flux for compact andIR-bright PNe, which are probably optically thick. Selection of objectswith \fontshape{it}{F}(12\hphantom{0}\mu m)>0.5\hphantom{0} Jyshould probe a good portion of the Galactic disc for these young, denseand compact nebulae, and the dominant selection effects are rooted inthe PN catalogues. Gravity distances of planetary nebulae II. Aplication to a sample of galactic objects.Not Available On the abundance gradient of the galactic diskEstimates of the gas temperature in planetary nebulae obtained from the[O III] emission line ratio and from the Balmer discontinuity indicatedifferences reaching up to 6000 K (Liu & Danziger 1993). The [O III]temperature is commonly used to obtain the ionic fractions of highlyionized ions, particularly the O++ and Ne++ ions when using theempirical method to calculate the elemental abundances of photoionizedgas from the observed emission line intensities. However, if the gastemperature is overestimated the elemental abundances may beunderestimated. In particular this may lead to an incorrect elementalabundance gradient for the Galaxy, usually used as a constraint for thechemical evolution models. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we calculatethe systematic error introduced in the abundance gradient obtained fromplanetary nebulae by an overestimation of the gas temperature. Theresults indicate that the abundance gradient in the Galaxy should besteeper than previously assumed. The dust content of planetary nebulae: a reappraisalWe have performed a statistical analysis using broad band IRAS data onabout 500 planetary nebulae with the aim of characterizing their dustcontent. Our approach is different from previous studies in that it usesan extensive grid of photoionization models to test the methods forderiving the dust temperature, the dust-to-gas mass ratio and theaverage grain size. In addition, we use only distance independentdiagrams. With our models, we show the effect of contamination by atomiclines in the broad band IRAS fluxes during planetary nebula evolution.We find that planetary nebulae with very different dust-to-gas massratios exist, so that the dust content is a primordial parameter for theinterpretation of far infrared data of planetary nebulae. In contrastwith previous studies, we find no evidence for a decrease in thedust-to-gas mass ratio as the planetary nebulae evolve. We also showthat the decrease in grain size advocated by Natta & Panagia(\cite{NattaPanagia}) and Lenzuni et al. (\cite{Lenzuni}) is an artefactof their method of analysis. Our results suggest that the timescale fordestruction of dust grains in planetary nebulae is larger than theirlifetime. Table~1 is only accessible in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Infrared Planetary Nebulae in the NRAO VLA Sky SurveyIn order to construct a sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) unbiased bydust extinction, we first selected the 1358 sources in the IRAS PointSource Catalog north of J2000 declination delta=-40^deg having measuredS(25 μm)>=1 Jy and colors characteristic of PNe: detections orupper limits consistent with both S(12 μm)<=0.35S(25 μm) andS(25 μm)>=0.35S(60 μm). The majority are radio-quietcontaminating sources such as asymptotic giant branch stars. Free-freeemission from genuine PNe should make them radio sources. The 1.4 GHzNRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) images and source catalog were used to rejectradio-quiet mid-infrared sources. We identified 454 IRAS sources withradio sources brighter than S~2.5 mJy beam^-1 (equivalent to T~0.8 K inthe 45" FHWM NVSS beam) by positional coincidence. They comprise 332known PNe in the Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulaeand 122 candidate PNe, most of which lie at very low Galactic latitudes.Exploratory optical spectroscopic observations suggest that most ofthese candidates are indeed PNe optically dimmed by dust extinction,although some contamination remains from H II regions, Seyfert galaxies,etc. Furthermore, the NVSS failed to detect only 4% of the known PNe inour infrared sample. Thus it appears that radio selection can greatlyimprove the reliability of PN candidate samples withoutsacrificingcompleteness. Shaping Bipolar and Elliptical Planetary Nebulae: Effects of Stellar Rotation, Photoionization Heating, and Magnetic FieldsWe present two-dimensional hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamicalsimulations of the evolution of planetary nebulae formed through theinteraction of two succeeding, time-independent stellar winds. Bothwinds are modeled according to a consistent physical prescription forthe latitudinal dependence of their properties. We propose that singlestars with initial masses above ~1.3 M_solar can achieve near-criticalrotation rates during their superwind'' phase at the tip of theasymptotic giant branch (AGB). We show that the resulting equatoriallyconfined winds and their subsequent inflation to a double lobe structureby the post-AGB wind leads to the typical hourglass shape found in manyplanetary nebulae, such as MyCn 18. Following Chevalier & Luo andRóżyczka & Franco, we then combine the effect of amagnetic field in the post-AGB wind with rotating AGB winds. We obtainhighly collimated bipolar nebula shapes, reminiscent of M2-9 or He2-437. For sufficiently strong fields, ansae and jets, similar to thoseobserved in IC 4593 are formed in the polar regions of the nebula.Weaker fields are found to be able to account for the shapes ofclassical elliptical nebulae, e.g., NGC 6905, in the case of sphericallysymmetric AGB winds, which we propose for single stars with initialmasses below ~1.3 M_solar. Photoionization, via instabilities in theionization-shock front, can generate irregularities in the shape of thesimulated nebulae. In particular, it leads to the formation of cometaryknots, similar to those seen in the Helix nebula (NGC 7293). This effectmay also be responsible for large-scale irregularities like those foundin Sh 2-71 or WeSb 4. We arrive at a scenario in which the majority ofthe planetary nebula with their diverse morphologies is obtained fromsingle stars. This scenario is consistent with the Galactic distributionof the different nebula types, since spherical and ellipticalnebulae-which have a distribution with a large scale height above theGalactic plane-are ascribed to progenitor masses below ~1.3 M_solar,with magnetic effects introducing ellipticities. Bipolar nebulae, on theother hand-which are on average closer to the Galactic plane-are foundto stem from progenitors with initial masses above ~1.3 M_solar.
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