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|The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. II. Morphological refinement|
We present a refinement of the optical morphologies for galaxies in theCatalog of Isolated Galaxies that forms the basis of the AMIGA (Analysisof the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies) project. Uniformreclassification using the digitized POSS II data benefited from thehigh resolution and dynamic range of that sky survey. Comparison withindependent classifications made for an SDSS overlap sample of more than200 galaxies confirms the reliability of the early vs. late-typediscrimination and the accuracy of spiral subtypes within Δ T =1-2. CCD images taken at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada were alsoused to solve ambiguities in early versus late-type classifications. Aconsiderable number of galaxies in the catalog (n = 193) are flagged forthe presence of nearby companions or signs of distortion likely due tointeraction. This most isolated sample of galaxies in the local Universeis dominated by two populations: 1) 82% are spirals (Sa-Sd) with thebulk being luminous systems with small bulges (63% between types Sb-Sc)and 2) a significant population of early-type E-S0 galaxies (14%). Mostof the types later than Sd are low luminosity galaxies concentrated inthe local supercluster where isolation is difficult to evaluate. Thelate-type spiral majority of the sample spans a luminosity rangeMB-corr = -18 to -22 mag. Few of the E/S0 population are moreluminous than -21.0 marking the absence of the often-sought superL* merger (e.g. fossil elliptical) population. The rarity ofhigh luminosity systems results in a fainter derived M* forthis population compared to the spiral optical luminosity function(OLF). The E-S0 population is from 0.2 to 0.6 mag fainter depending onhow the sample is defined. This marks the AMIGA sample as unique amongsamples that compare early and late-type OLFs separately. In othersamples, which always involve galaxies in higher density environments,M^*_E/S0 is almost always 0.3-0.5 mag brighter than M^*_S, presumablyreflecting a stronger correlation between M* andenvironmental density for early-type galaxies.
|Revised positions for CIG galaxies|
We present revised positions for the 1051 galaxies belonging to theKarachentseva Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). New positions werecalculated by applying SExtractor to the Digitized Sky Survey CIG fieldswith a spatial resolution of 1 arcsper 2. We visually checked theresults and for 118 galaxies had to recompute the assigned positions dueto complex morphologies (e.g. distorted isophotes, undefined nuclei,knotty galaxies) or the presence of bright stars. We found differencesbetween older and newer positions of up to 38 arcsec with a mean valueof 2 arcsper 96 relative to SIMBAD and up to 38 arcsec and 2 arcsper 42respectively relative to UZC. Based on star positions from the APMcatalog we determined that the DSS astrometry of five CIG fields has amean offset in (alpha , delta ) of (-0 arcsper 90, 0 arcsper 93) with adispersion of 0 arcsper 4. These results have been confirmed using the2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources. The intrinsic errors of ourmethod combined with the astrometric ones are of the order of 0 arcsper5.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/391
|Galaxies with Rows|
The results of a search for galaxies with straight structural elements,usually spiral-arm rows (“rows” in the terminology ofVorontsov-Vel'yaminov), are reported. The list of galaxies that possess(or probably possess) such rows includes about 200 objects, of whichabout 70% are brighter than 14m. On the whole, galaxies with rows makeup 6 8% of all spiral galaxies with well-developed spiral patterns. Mostgalaxies with rows are gas-rich Sbc-Scd spirals. The fraction ofinteracting galaxies among them is appreciably higher than amonggalaxies without rows. Earlier conclusions that, as a rule, the lengthsof rows are similar to their galactocentric distances and that theangles between adjacent rows are concentrated near 120° areconfirmed. It is concluded that the rows must be transient hydrodynamicstructures that develop in normal galaxies.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system|
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.
|Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members|
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.
|H I survey of face-on galaxies - The frequency of distortions in H I disks|
The full results of an H I survey of face-on galaxies are presented andit is shown that narrow H I profiles are rare in normal spiral galaxies.This is due in part to the wider-than-expected range of the integraldispersion and in part to the frequent occurrence of large-scaledistortions in the H I disk. These factors reduce the number of galaxieswith half-power widths less than 30 km/s to about 24 percent of thosethat would occur if galaxies generally had quiescent, coplanar H Idisks. Two useful subsets may be drawn from this study of 212 face-ongalaxies with axial ratios greater than 0.87. Fifty-two spirals of allmorphological types have half-power widths smaller than 100 km/s and maybe used for studies that benefit from a small velocity spread and anenhanced beam-filling factor. About 40 galaxies have velocity widthsmuch larger than expected and are of interest in studies of dynamicallypeculiar systems.
|Far-infrared properties of cluster galaxies|
Far-infrared properties are derived for a sample of over 200 galaxies inseven clusters: A262, Cancer, A1367, A1656 (Coma), A2147, A2151(Hercules), and Pegasus. The IR-selected sample consists almost entirelyof IR normal galaxies, with Log of L(FIR) = 9.79 solar luminosities, Logof L(FIR)/L(B) = 0.79, and Log of S(100 microns)/S(60 microns) = 0.42.None of the sample galaxies has Log of L(FIR) greater than 11.0 solarluminosities, and only one has a FIR-to-blue luminosity ratio greaterthan 10. No significant differences are found in the FIR properties ofHI-deficient and HI-normal cluster galaxies.
|A catalog of radio, optical, and infrared observations of spiral galaxies in clusters|
The results of a major observational program on the luminosities,colors, and gas contents of spiral galaxies in clusters of galaxies arepresented. The data have been used as part of a detailed investigationinto the nature of cluster spirals and for revisions of the distancescale using the infrared Tully-Fisher relation. The observationalstrategies, reduction procedures, and sources or error are brieflydiscussed. The data include 21-cm H I observations, UBVR multiaperturephotometry, and H-band photometry of several hunderd spiral galaxies in10 clusters.
|Gas deficiency in cluster galaxies - A comparison of nine clusters|
The available 21 cm line data in the literature for galaxies in nineclusters is combined with new high-sensitivity observations of 51galaxies in five of the nine clusters in order to test fordiscriminating circumstances between those clusters which show H Ideficiency among their spiral population and those which do not. An H Ideficiency for the complete cluster sample is derived employing acomparison sample of galaxies chosen from the Catalog of IsolatedGalaxies. The deficiency and its radial dependence is summarized foreach cluster and a composite. A comparison of the environments indifferent clusters leads to the conclusion that the occurrence of H Ideficiency is correlated with the presence of a hot X-ray intraclustermedium, and that an ongoing interaction process is active through thecores of X-ray clusters.
|Radio emission in isolated and cluster spiral galaxies|
In the 2380-MHz continuum radio observations presented for two samplesof spiral galaxies observed with the NAIC Arecibo 305-m telescope, thesamples have been chosen in such a way that they differ markedly in thedensity of surrounding galaxies. One sample includes exclusivelygalaxies from the Karachentseva (1973) Catalog of Isolated Galaxies, theother only galaxies found within one Abell radius from the center ofnearby Abell clusters. The goal is to obtain a comparison of the radioproperties of the galaxies in these two samples, to ascertain whetherenvironmental processes affect significantly their radio emissivity.Above a threshold of five times the rms confusion, 7 percent of thecluster galaxies and 5 percent of the isolated ones are detected. Withthe caution required by the effects of confusion on the single-dishobservations, no significant differences are found in theradio-continuum properties of these two samples.
|Neutral hydrogen in isolated galaxies. IV - Results for the Arecibo sample|
A standard sample for the comparison of the H I content of galaxies invarious intergalactic environments is presently defined by means ofobservations of 324 isolated galaxies lying in the declination rangeaccessible to the Arecibo 305-m telescope. Both mapping and single pointspectra are used to compute the integral properties of these galaxies.Neutral hydrogen was detected in 288 of the 324 galaxies surveyed, andit is noted that the optical diameter of a spiral disk is bettercorrelated with the hydrogen mass than the morphological type. When usedto define a measure of H I content, the isolated galaxy sample canpredict 'normalcy' with an accuracy that carries a standard error ofabout 0.20 in the log of the H I mass, if a dependence on disk size, aswell as type, is taken into account.
|H I line studies of galaxies. III - Distance moduli of 822 disk galaxies|
The distance scale established on the basis of a distance moduli catalog(for 822 galaxies) that was derived from 21-cm line widths via theB-band Tully-Fisher relation is compared with several independent scaleshaving a common zero point, that are based on the indicators forluminosity index, redshift, ring diameters, brightest superassociations,and effective diameters. These are in excellent systematic agreement,and confirm the linearity of the H I scale in the 24-35 modulusinterval, but indicate a small systematic zero point difference of about0.2 mag, which must be added to the H I moduli to place them on the same'short' distance scale defined by the others.
|The Cancer Cluster - an unbound collection of groups|
A surface density contour map of the Cancer Cluster derived from galaxycounts in the Zwicky catalog is presented. The contour map shows thatthe galaxy distribution is clumpy. When this spatial distribution iscombined with nearly complete velocity information, the clumps stand outmore clearly; there are significant differences in the mean velocitiesof the clumps which exceed their internal velocity dispersions. TheCancer Cluster is not a proper 'cluster' but is a collection of discretegroups, each with a velocity dispersion of approximately 300 km/s,separating from one another with the cosmological flow. Themass-to-light ratio for galaxies in the main concentration isapproximately 320 solar masses/solar luminosities (H0 = 100km/s Mpc).
|Neutral hydrogen in isolated galaxies. II - The large angular diameter galaxies|
Fifty-two of the large-angular-diameter (greater than or equal to 2.5arcmin) galaxies included in the 21-cm survey of isolated galaxies beingundertaken at Arecibo are mapped along their optical major axes usingthe 305-m telescope and the low sidelobe flat feed system. The observedfluxes are then compared with a numerical convolution of an assumed H Idistribution and the beam pattern to produce an estimate of thecharacteristic size. The derived H I scale length is that radiusinterior to which 70% of the model's H I mass is contained. With stillan appreciable scatter, the H I diameter is on the average about 1.2times the UGC blue diameter (1), and exhibits no dependence onmorphological type for types later than Sa. Applying the observedrelationship between H I size and optical diameter and an assumed doubleGaussian (centrally depressed) H I surface density distribution givesproper corrections for source-to-beam size.
|Velocity dispersion profiles of clusters of galaxies|
Line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles (sigma profiles) arepresented for 13 clusters of galaxies having at least 30 radialvelocities. The clusters considered include A2151, A1367, Virgo, A426,A1656, A2199, Cancer, A194, Fornax, A262, Centaurus, A2319, and PegasusI. All the sigma profiles are fitted to simple power laws over theradial interval from 0.1 to 2.0 times the virial radius and are found tofall into four classifications. In view of the amount of masssegregation implied, the amount of central concentration observed, andthe predominant galaxy morphology, it is suggested that theseclassifications represent a dynamical age sequence. Statistical testsare applied to two features appearing in some sigma profiles: thepresence of a local minimum that coincides with the local minimum notedin surface density or surface brightness profiles and a decrease inline-of-sight velocity dispersion in the cores of certain clusters.Possible dynamical implications of these features are discussed in termsof Wielen's (1974) N-body simulations.
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