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|Kinematic properties and stellar populations of faint early-type galaxies - I. Velocity dispersion measurements of central Coma galaxies|
We present velocity dispersion measurements for 69 faint early-typegalaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, spanning -22.0<~MR<~-17.5 mag. We examine the L-σ relation forour sample and compare it to that of bright elliptical galaxies (Es)from the literature. The distribution of the the faint early-typegalaxies in the L-σ plane follows the relationL~σ2.01+/-0.36, which is significantly shallower fromL~σ4 as defined for the bright Es. While increasedrotational support for fainter early-type galaxies could account forsome of the difference in slope, we show that it cannot explain it. Wealso investigate the colour-σ relation for our Coma galaxies.Using the scatter in this relation, we constrain the range of galaxyages as a function of their formation epoch for different formationscenarios. Assuming a strong coordination in the formation epoch offaint early-type systems in Coma, we find that most had to be formed atleast 6 Gyr ago and over a short 1-Gyr period.
|Study of the Structure of the Coma Cluster Based on a Hierarchical Force Clustering Method|
Six subclusters in the Coma cluster have been selected on the basis of ahierarchical clustering method that takes the gravitational interactionamong galaxies into account. Of these, 3 central subclusters around thegalaxies NGC 4889, NGC 4874, and NGC 4839 have been singled out. We haveused the objective statistical criterion applied by Vennik and Anosovain studies of close groups of galaxies to evaluate each member includedin a subcluster with a high probability. Galaxies with a significantdeficit of hydrogen HI, including objects from the Bravo-Alfaro list,have been identified with members of the subclusters, with the greatestnumber of them in the subclusters around NGC 4874 and NGC 4839. Aquantitative estimate of the hydrogen deficit using the HI index in theRCG3 catalog reveals a statistically significant excess value for thosegalaxies that are members of the subclusters compared to galaxies with ahydrogen deficit in the overall Coma cluster field. A substantial numberof the spiral galaxies with a hydrogen deficit in the subclusters turnedout to be radio galaxies as well.
|Quantitative Morphology of Galaxies in the Core of the Coma Cluster|
We present a quantitative morphological analysis of 187 galaxies in aregion covering the central 0.28 deg2 of the Coma Cluster.Structural parameters from the best-fitting Sérsicr1/n bulge plus, where appropriate, exponential disk model,are tabulated here. This sample is complete down to a magnitude of R=17mag. By examining the recent compilation by Edwards et al. of galaxyredshifts in the direction of Coma, we find that 163 of the 187 galaxiesare Coma Cluster members and that the rest are foreground and backgroundobjects. For the Coma Cluster members, we have studied differences inthe structural and kinematic properties between early- and late-typegalaxies and between the dwarf and giant galaxies. Analysis of theelliptical galaxies reveals correlations among the structural parameterssimilar to those previously found in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters.Comparing the structural properties of the Coma Cluster disk galaxieswith disk galaxies in the field, we find evidence for an environmentaldependence: the scale lengths of the disk galaxies in Coma are 30%smaller. An analysis of the kinematics shows marginal differencesbetween the velocity distributions of elliptical galaxies withSérsic index n<2 (dwarfs) and those with n>2 (giants), thedwarf galaxies having a greater (cluster) velocity dispersion. Finally,our analysis of all 421 background galaxies in the catalog of Edwards etal. reveals a nonuniform distribution in redshift with contrasts indensity of ~3, characterized by a void extending from ~10,000 to ~20,000km s-1, and two dense and extended structures centered at~20,000 and ~47,000 km s-1.
|Intergalactic Globular Clusters and the Faint End of the Galaxy Number Counts in A1656 (Coma)|
The existence of an intergalactic globular cluster population in theComa cluster of galaxies has been tested using surface brightnessfluctuations. The main result is that the intergalactic globular clustersurface density (NIGC) does not correlate with the distanceto the center of Coma and hence with the environment. Furthermore,comparing these results with different Coma mass distribution modelpredictions, it is suggested that NIGC must in fact be zeroall over Coma. On the other hand, the results for NIGC andthe faint end of the galaxy number counts (beyond mR=23.5)are connected. So NIGC=0 settles the slope of this function,which turns out to be γ=0.36+/-0.01 down to mR=26.5.The fact that NIGC=0 all over Coma suggests that globularclusters were formed only, or almost only, from protogalactic clouds.None, or perhaps very few, could have formed in isolated regions. Italso seems inappropriate to advocate a relationship betweenintergalactic globular clusters and dark matter distributions, althoughit is true that the relationship could still exist but not be strongenough to have been detected. Finally, since our conclusion is thatintergalactic globular clusters do not exist in Coma, accretion ofintergalactic globular clusters might not be significant in galaxyformation and evolutionary processes in the Coma galaxies.
|1.65-μm (H -band) surface photometry of galaxies - VIII. The near-IR κ space at z =0|
We present the distribution of a statistical sample of nearby galaxiesin the κ -space (κ 1 ~logM , κ 2~logI e 3 M /L , κ 3 ~logM /L ).Our study is based on near-IR (H -band: λ =1.65μm)observations, for the first time comprising early- and late-typesystems. Our data confirm that the mean effective dynamicalmass-to-light ratio M /L of the E+S0+S0a galaxies increases withincreasing effective dynamical mass M , as expected from the existenceof the Fundamental Plane relation. Conversely, spiral and Im/BCDgalaxies show a broad distribution in M /L with no detected trend of M/L with M , the former galaxies having M /L values about twice largerthan the latter, on average. For all the late-type galaxies, the M /Lincreases with decreasing effective surface intensity I e ,consistent with the existence of the Tully-Fisher relation. Theseresults are discussed on the basis of the assumptions behind theconstruction of the κ -space and their limitations. Our study iscomplementary to a previous investigation in the optical (B -band:λ =0.44μm) and allows us to study wavelength dependences ofthe galaxy distribution in the κ -space. As a first result, wefind that the galaxy distribution in the κ 1 -κ2 plane reproduces the transition from bulgeless tobulge-dominated systems in galaxies of increasing dynamical mass.Conversely, it appears that the M /L of late-types is higher (lower)than that of early-types with the same M in the near-IR (optical). Theorigins of this behaviour are discussed in terms of dust attenuation andstar formation history.
|New clues to the evolution of dwarf early-type galaxies|
Surface photometry of 18 Virgo cluster dwarf elliptical (dE) and dwarflenticular (dS0) galaxies, made by Gavazzi et al. in the H band(1.65μm) and in the B band (0.44μm), shows that the ratio of theeffective radii of these stellar systems in the B and H bands, r eB /r eH , ranges between 0.7 and 2.2. In particular,dwarf ellipticals and lenticulars with a red total colour index B -H(i.e. with 3.2
|Globular Cluster Specific Frequencies in Coma|
Globular cluster systems (GCSs) have been observed in 17 ellipticalgalaxies located in Coma. Surface brightness fluctuations (SBF) and a2.5-m ground-based telescope (INT, La Palma) have been used to determinetotal populations of Globular clusters (GCs) and specific frequency(SN) has been evaluated for each individual galaxy.
|Globular Cluster Systems in Elliptical Galaxies of Coma|
Globular cluster systems of 17 elliptical galaxies have been studied inthe Coma Cluster of galaxies. Surface-brightness fluctuations have beenused to determine total populations of globular clusters, and specificfrequency (SN) has been evaluated for each individual galaxy.Enormous differences in SN between similar galaxies arefound. In particular, SN results vary by an order ofmagnitude from galaxy to galaxy. Extreme cases are the following: (1) atthe lower end of the range, NGC 4673 has SN=1.0+/-0.4, asurprising value for an elliptical galaxy, but typical for spiral andirregular galaxies; (2) at the upper extreme, MCG +5-31-063 hasSN=13.0+/-4.2 and IC 4051 has SN=12.7+/-3.2, andthey are more likely to belong to supergiant cD galaxies than to``normal'' elliptical galaxies. Furthermore, NGC 4874, the centralsupergiant cD galaxy of the Coma Cluster, also exhibits a relativelyhigh specific frequency (SN=9.0+/-2.2). The other galaxiesstudied have SN in the range [2, 7], the mean value beingSN=5.1. No single scenario seems to account for the observedspecific frequencies, so the history of each galaxy must be deducedindividually by suitably combining the different models (in situ,mergers, and accretions). The possibility that Coma is formed by severalsubgroups is also considered. If only the galaxies of the main subgroupdefined by Gurzadyan & Mazure are used, a trend in SNarises in the sense of SN being bigger in higher-densityregions. This result needs further confirmation.
|The Color-Magnitude Relation in Coma: Clues to the Age and Metallicity of Cluster Populations|
We have observed three fields of the Coma Cluster of galaxies with anarrowband (modified Strömgren) filter system. Observed galaxiesinclude 31 in the vicinity of NGC 4889, 48 near NGC 4874, and 60 nearNGC 4839, complete to M5500=-18 in all three subclusters.Spectrophotometric classification finds all three subclusters of Coma tobe dominated by red, E-type (elliptical/S0) galaxies with a mean bluefraction, fB, of 0.10. The blue fraction increases to fainterluminosities, possible remnants of dwarf starburst population or theeffects of dynamical friction removing bright, blue galaxies from thecluster population by mergers. We find the color-magnitude (CM) relationto be well defined and linear over the range of M5500=-13 to-22. The observational error is lower than the true scatter around theCM relation, indicating that galaxies achieve their final positions inthe mass-metallicity plane by stochastic processes. After calibration tomultimetallicity models, bright elliptical galaxies are found to haveluminosity-weighted mean [Fe/H] values between -0.5 and +0.5, whereaslow-luminosity elliptical galaxies have [Fe/H] values ranging from -2 tosolar. The lack of CM relation in our continuum color suggests that asystematic age effect cancels the metallicity effects in this bandpass.This is confirmed with our age index Δ(bz-yz), which finds a weakcorrelation between luminosity and mean stellar age in ellipticalgalaxies such that the stellar populations of bright elliptical galaxiesare 2-3 Gyrs younger than low-luminosity elliptical galaxies. Withrespect to environmental effects, there is a slight decreasingmetallicity gradient with respect to distance to each subcluster center,strongest around NGC 4874. Since NGC 4874 is the dynamic and X-raycenter of the Coma Cluster, this implies that environmental effects onlow-luminosity elliptical galaxies are strongest at the cluster corecompared with outlying subgroups.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample|
This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEARsurvey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong toclusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction ofa Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes newmeasurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift,velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameterdn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopicdata are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometryis presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations withexternal data sets are used to construct a final merged catalogconsisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objectivecriteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from completeredshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies toclusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct thetemplate Dn-σ distance relation for early-typegalaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derivepeculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observationsat Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement betweenthe Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory,National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; theFred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dosDias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísicaand the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.
|Spectroscopic constraints on the stellar population of elliptical galaxies in the Coma cluster|
Near-infrared spectra for a sample of 31 elliptical galaxies in the Comacluster are obtained. The galaxies are selected to be ellipticals (nolenticulars), with a large spatial distribution, covering both the coreand outskirts of the cluster (i.e. corresponding to regions with largedensity contrasts). COsp (2.3-μm) absorption indices,measuring the contribution from intermediate-age red giant andsupergiant stars to the near-infrared light of the ellipticals, are thenestimated. It is found that the strength of COsp features inelliptical galaxies increases from the core (r<0.2°) to theoutskirts (r>0.2°) of the Coma cluster. Using the Mg2strengths, it is shown that the observed effect is not caused bymetallicity and is mostly caused by the presence of a younger population(giant and supergiant stars) in ellipticals in the outskirts(low-density region) of the cluster. Using the COsp features,the origin of the scatter on the near-infrared Fundamental Plane (therelation between the effective diameter, effective surface brightnessand velocity dispersion) of elliptical galaxies is studied. Correctingthis relation for contributions from the red giant and supergiant stars,the rms scatter reduces from 0.077 to 0.073dex. Although measurable, thecontribution from these intermediate-age stars to the scatter on thenear-infrared Fundamental Plane of ellipticals is only marginal. Arelation is found between the COsp and V-K colours ofellipticals, corresponding to a slope of 0.036+/-0.016, significantlyshallower than that from the Mg2-(V-K) relation. This isstudied using stellar synthesis models.
|Luminosity versus Phase-Space-Density Relation of Galaxies Revisited|
We reexamined the correlation between the BTmagnitude and the phase-space-density parameterw=(D225vc)-1 of galaxies forthe Virgo, the Coma, the Fornax, and the Perseus clusters in an effortto better understand the physical underpinning of the fundamental plane.A tight correlation (BT=alog w+b) common to differentmorphological types of galaxies (E, S0, S) was found for the Virgo andthe Coma clusters, with a=1.87+/-0.10 and 1.33+/-0.11, respectively. Aninvestigation using only E galaxies was made for the four clusters. Theresults indicated that the empirical linear relation might be commonamong the Coma, the Fornax, and the Perseus clusters, with the VirgoCluster showing deviation. This relation, which is another way toproject the fundamental plane, has an expression insensitive to themorphology and may be suitable for treating galaxies of differentmorphological types collectively.
|1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. III. observations of 558 galaxies with the TIRGO 1.5 m telescope|
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm ) surface photometry of 558galaxies in the Coma Supercluster and in the Virgo cluster. This dataset, obtained with the Arcetri NICMOS3 camera ARNICA mounted on theGornergrat Infrared Telescope, is aimed at complementing, withobservations of mostly early-type objects, our NIR survey of spiralgalaxies in these regions, presented in previous papers of this series.Magnitudes at the optical radius, total magnitudes, isophotal radii andlight concentration indices are derived. We confirm the existence of apositive correlation between the near-infrared concentration index andthe galaxy H-band luminosity Based on observations taken at TIRGO(Gornergrat, Switzerland). TIRGO is operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|1.65 μm (H-band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decomposition of 1157 galaxies|
We present near-infrared H-band (1.65 μm) surface brightness profiledecomposition for 1157 galaxies in five nearby clusters of galaxies:Coma, A1367, Virgo, A262 and Cancer, and in the bridge between Coma andA1367 in the ``Great Wall". The optically selected (mpg≤16.0) sample is representative of all Hubble types, from E to Irr+BCD,except dE and of significantly different environments, spanning fromisolated regions to rich clusters of galaxies. We model the surfacebrightness profiles with a de Vaucouleurs r1/4 law (dV), withan exponential disk law (E), or with a combination of the two (B+D).From the fitted quantities we derive the H band effective surfacebrightness (μe) and radius (re) of each component, theasymptotic magnitude HT and the light concentration indexC31. We find that: i) Less than 50% of the Ellipticalgalaxies have pure dV profiles. The majority of E to Sb galaxies is bestrepresented by a B+D profile. All Scd to BCD galaxies have pureexponential profiles. ii) The type of decomposition is a strong functionof the total H band luminosity (mass), independent of the Hubbleclassification: the fraction of pure exponential decompositionsdecreases with increasing luminosity, that of B+D increases withluminosity. Pure dV profiles are absent in the low luminosity rangeLH<1010 L\odot and become dominantabove 1011 L\odot . Based on observations taken atTIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland (operated by CAISMI-CNR, Arcetri,Firenze, Italy) and at the Calar Alto Observatory (operated by theMax-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) jointly with theSpanish National Commission for Astronomy). Table 2 and Figs. 2, 3, 4are available in their entirety only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Gravo-thermal properties and formation of elliptical galaxies|
We have analyzed a sample of galaxies belonging to three clusters: Coma,Abell 85, and Abell 496 (real galaxies) and a sample of simulatedelliptical galaxies formed in a hierarchical merging scheme (virtualgalaxies). We use the Sérsic law to describe their light profile.The specific entropy (Boltzmann-Gibbs definition) is then calculatedsupposing that the galaxies behave as spherical, isotropic,one-component systems. We find that, to a good approximation ( ~ 10%),both real and virtual galaxies have an almost unique specific entropy.Within this approximation the galaxies are distributed in a thin planein the space defined by the three Sérsic law parameters, which wecall the Entropic Plane. A further analysis shows that both real andvirtual galaxies are in fact located on a thin line, thereforeindicating the existence of another - and yet unknown - physicalproperty, besides the uniqueness of the specific entropy. A more carefulexamination of the virtual galaxies sample indicates a very smallincrease of their specific entropy with merging generation. In ahierarchical scenario, this implies a correlation between the specificentropy and the total mass, which is indeed seen in our data. Thescatter and tilt of the Entropic Line, defined by Lima Neto et al.(1999a), are reduced when this correlation is taken into account.Although one cannot distinguish between various generations for realgalaxies, the distribution of their specific entropy is similar to thatin the virtual sample, suggesting that hierarchical merging processescould be an important mechanism in the building of elliptical galaxies.Based on observations collected at the Canada France Hawaii Telescopeand at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile
|A Test for Large-Scale Systematic Errors in Maps of Galactic Reddening|
Accurate maps of Galactic reddening are important for a number ofapplications, such as mapping the peculiar velocity field in the nearbyuniverse. Of particular concern are systematic errors which vary slowlyas a function of position on the sky, as these would induce spuriousbulk flow. We have compared the reddenings of Burstein & Heiles (BH)and those of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (SFD) to independentestimates of the reddening, for Galactic latitudes |b|>10^deg. Ourprimary source of Galactic reddening estimates comes from comparing thedifference between the observed B-V colors of early-type galaxies, andthe predicted B-V color determined from the B-V-Mg_2 relation. We havefitted a dipole to the residuals in order to look for large-scalesystematic deviations. There is marginal evidence for a dipolar residualin the comparison between the SFD maps and the observed early-typegalaxy reddenings. If this is due to an error in the SFD maps, then itcan be corrected with a small (13%) multiplicative dipole term. Weargue, however, that this difference is more likely to be due to a small(0.01 mag) systematic error in the measured B-V colors of the early-typegalaxies. This interpretation is supported by a smaller, independentdata set (globular cluster and RR Lyrae stars), which yields a resultinconsistent with the early-type galaxy residual dipole. BH reddeningsare found to have no significant systematic residuals, apart from theknown problem in the region 230^deg
|The specific entropy of elliptical galaxies: an explanation for profile-shape distance indicators?|
Dynamical systems in equilibrium have a stationary entropy; we suggestthat elliptical galaxies, as stellar systems in a stage ofquasi-equilibrium, may have in principle a unique specific entropy. Thisuniqueness, a priori unknown, should be reflected in correlationsbetween the fundamental parameters describing the mass (light)distribution in galaxies. Following recent photometrical work onelliptical galaxies by Caon et al., Graham & Colless and Prugniel& Simien, we use the Sérsic law to describe the light profileand an analytical approximation to its three-dimensional deprojection.The specific entropy is then calculated, supposing that the galaxybehaves as a spherical, isotropic, one-component system in hydrostaticequilibrium, obeying the ideal-gas equations of state. We predict arelation between the three parameters of the Sérsic law linked tothe specific entropy, defining a surface in the parameter space, an`Entropic Plane', by analogy with the well-known Fundamental Plane. Wehave analysed elliptical galaxies in two rich clusters of galaxies (Comaand ABCG 85) and a group of galaxies (associated with NGC 4839, nearComa). We show that, for a given cluster, the galaxies follow closely arelation predicted by the constant specific entropy hypothesis with atypical dispersion (one standard deviation) of 9.5per cent around themean value of the specific entropy. Moreover, assuming that the specificentropy is also the same for galaxies of different clusters, we are ableto derive relative distances between Coma, ABGC 85, and the group of NGC4839. If the errors are due only to the determination of the specificentropy (about 10per cent), then the error in the relative distancedetermination should be less than 20per cent for rich clusters. Wesuggest that the unique specific entropy may provide a physicalexplanation for the distance indicators based on the Sérsicprofile put forward by Young & Currie and recently discussed byBinggeli & Jerjen.
|E and S0 galaxies in the central part of the Coma cluster: ages, metal abundances and dark matter|
Mean ages and metal abundances are estimated for the stellar populationsin a sample of 115 E and S0 galaxies in the central 64 arcmin × 70arcmin of the Coma cluster. The estimates are based on the absorptionline indices Mg2, and HβG, and themass-to-light ratios (M/L). Single stellar population models fromVazdekis et al. were used to transform from the measured line indicesand M/L ratios to mean ages and mean metal abundances ([Mg/H] and[Fe/H]). The non-solar abundance ratios [Mg/Fe] were taken into accountby assuming that for a given age and iron abundance, a [Mg/Fe] differentfrom solar will affect the Mg2 index but not the M/L ratio orthe and HβG indices. The derived ages andabundances are the luminosity-weighted mean values for the stellarpopulations in the galaxies.By comparing the mean ages derived from theMg2-HβG diagram with those derived from theMg2-M/L diagram, we estimate the variations of the fractionof dark matter. Alternatively, the difference between the two estimatesof the mean age may be caused by variations in the initial mass functionor any non-homology of the galaxies.The distributions of the derived mean ages and abundances show thatthere are real variations in both the mean ages and the abundances. Wefind an intrinsic rms scatter of [Mg/H], [Fe/H] and [Mg/Fe] of 0.2 dex,and an intrinsic rms scatter of the derived ages of 0.17 dex. Themagnesium abundances [Mg/H] and the abundance ratios [Mg/Fe] are bothstrongly correlated with the central velocity dispersions of thegalaxies, while the iron abundances [Fe/H] are uncorrelated with thevelocity dispersions. Further, [Mg/H] and [Fe/H] are stronglyanticorrelated with the mean ages of the galaxies. This is not the casefor [Mg/Fe].We have tested whether the slopes of the scaling relations between theglobal parameters for the galaxies (the Mg2-σ relation,the -σ relation, the HβG-σrelation and the Fundamental Plane) are consistent with the relationbetween the ages, the abundances and the velocity dispersions. We findthat all the slopes, except the slope of the Fundamental Plane, can beexplained in a consistent way as resulting from a combination betweenvariations of the mean ages and the mean abundances as functions of thevelocity dispersions. The slope of the Fundamental Plane is `steeper'than predicted from the variations in the ages and abundances.Because of the correlation between the mean ages and the meanabundances, substantial variations in the ages and the abundances arepossible while maintaining a low scatter of all the scaling relations.When this correlation is taken into account, the observed scatter of thescaling relations is consistent with the rms scatter in the derived agesand abundances at a given velocity dispersion.
|The peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions - II. The spectroscopic data|
We present the spectroscopic data for the galaxies studied in the EFARproject, which is designed to measure the properties and peculiarmotions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions. We have obtained1319 spectra of 714 early-type galaxies over 33 observing runs on 10different telescopes. We describe the observations and data reductionsused to measure redshifts, velocity dispersions and the Mgb and Mg_2Lick linestrength indices. Detailed simulations and intercomparison ofthe large number of repeat observations lead to reliable error estimatesfor all quantities. The measurements from different observing runs arecalibrated to a common zero-point or scale before being combined,yielding a total of 706 redshifts, 676 velocity dispersions, 676 Mgblinestrengths and 582 Mg_2 linestrengths. The median estimated errors inthe combined measurements are Delta cz=20 km s^-1, Delta sigma sigma=9.1 per cent, Delta Mgb Mgb=7.2 per cent and Delta Mg_2=0.015 mag.Comparison of our measurements with published data sets shows nosystematic errors in the redshifts or velocity dispersions, and onlysmall zero-point corrections to bring our linestrengths on to thestandard Lick system. We have assigned galaxies to physical clusters byexamining the line-of-sight velocity distributions based on EFAR andZCAT redshifts, together with the projected distributions on the sky. Wederive mean redshifts and velocity dispersions for these clusters, whichwill be used in estimating distances and peculiar velocities and to testfor trends in the galaxy population with cluster mass. The spectroscopicparameters presented here for 706 galaxies combine high-quality data,uniform reduction and measurement procedures, and detailed erroranalysis. They form the largest single set of velocity dispersions andlinestrengths for early-type galaxies published to date.
|The near-infrared Fundamental Plane of elliptical galaxies|
Near-infrared (2.2 μm) observations of a sample of 48 ellipticalgalaxies in the Coma cluster have been carried out and used to study thenear-infrared Fundamental Plane (FP) of ellipticals in this cluster. Anrms scatter of 0.072 dex is found for this relation, similar to that ofits optical counterpart, using the same sample of galaxies. Thiscorresponds to an uncertainty of 18 per cent in distances to individualgalaxies derived from this relation. The sensitivity of thenear-infrared FP to the star formation or changes in metallicity andstellar population among the ellipticals is explored and found to besmall, although a likely source of scatter in this relation iscontributions from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) population to thenear-infrared light. Allowing for observational uncertainties, we findan intrinsic scatter of 0.060 dex in the near-infrared FP. The clustergalaxies presented here provide the zero-point for the peculiar velocitystudies, using the near-infrared FP. Changes in the slopes of theD-sigma and L-sigma relations of ellipticals between the optical andnear-infrared wavelengths are investigated and found to be due tovariations in metallicity or age (or a combination of them). However, itis not possible to disentangle the effects of age and metallicity inthese relations. We find M/L~M^alpha with alpha=0.18+/-0.01 in thenear-infrared and alpha=0.23+/-0.01 at optical wavelengths, using thesame sample of galaxies. This relation is interpreted as being due to amass-metallicity effect or changes in age or the initial mass functionslope with mass. Using evolutionary population synthesis models, we findthat the effects of age and metallicity decouple in the (M/L)_K versusMg_2 and (M/L)_K versus (V-K) diagrams. The models suggest that theobserved trends in these relations may be due to an age sequence, whilemetallicity mainly contributes to the scatter.
|Fundamental plane distances to early-type field galaxies in the South Equatorial Strip. I. The spectroscopic data|
Radial velocities and central velocity dispersions are derived for 238E/S0 galaxies from medium-resolution spectroscopy. New spectroscopicdata have been obtained as part of a study of the Fundamental Planedistances and peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in three selecteddirections of the South Equatorial Strip, undertaken in order toinvestigate the reality of large-scale streaming motion; results of thisstudy have been reported in Müller et al. (1998). The new APM SouthEquatorial Strip Catalog (-17fdg 5 < delta < +2fdg 5) was used toselect the sample of field galaxies in three directions: (1) 15h10 -16h10; (2) 20h30 - 21h50; (3) 00h10 - 01h30. The spectra obtained have amedian S/N per Å of 23, an instrumental resolution (FWHM) of ~ 4Å, and the spectrograph resolution (dispersion) is ~ 100 kms-1. The Fourier cross-correlation method was used to derivethe radial velocities and velocity dispersions. The velocity dispersionshave been corrected for the size of the aperture and for the galaxyeffective radius. Comparisons of the derived radial velocities with datafrom the literature show that our values are accurate to 40 kms-1. A comparison with results from Jo rgensen et al. (1995)shows that the derived central velocity dispersion have an rms scatterof 0.036 in log sigma . There is no offset relative to the velocitydispersions of Davies et al. (1987).
|The tilt of the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies: wavelength dependence|
The photometric parameters R_e and mu_e of 74 early-type (E+S0+S0a)galaxies within 2 deg projected radius from the Coma cluster centre arederived for the first time in the near-infrared H band (1.65 μm).These are used, coupled with measurements of the central velocitydispersion sigma found in the literature, to determine the H-bandFundamental Plane (FP) relation of this cluster: logR_e~Alogsigma+bmu_e. The same procedure is applied to previouslyavailable photometric data in the BVrIK bands, to perform amultiwavelength study of the FP relation. Because systematicuncertainties in the value of the FP parameters are introduced both bythe choice of the fitting algorithm used to derive the FP template, andby the presence of statistical biases connected with the sampleselection procedure, we emphasize the importance of deriving the FPparameters in the six different photometric bands using an identicalfitting algorithm, and appropriate corrections to eliminate the effectsof sample incompleteness. Once these corrections are applied, we findthat the FP b coefficient is stable with wavelength (~0.35+/-0.02),while the A coefficient increases significantly with increasingwavelength: from ~1.35 to ~1.70 (+/-0.1) from the optical to theinfrared, in agreement with an earlier result presented recently byPahre and Djorgovski. Therefore the slope of the FP relation, althoughchanging with wavelength, never approaches the virial theoremexpectation A=2.0 when the central velocity dispersion only is used tobuild the FP. We also find that the magnitude of the slope change can beentirely explained by the presence of the well-known relation betweencolour and magnitude among early-type galaxies. We conclude that thetilt of the Fundamental Plane is significant, and must be the result ofsome form of broken homology among early-type galaxies, while itswavelength dependence derives from whatever mechanism (currently thepreferred one is the existence of a mass-metal content sequence)produces the colour-magnitude relation in those galaxies.
|The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersion measurements for 325 early-typegalaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies, including newobservations for 212 galaxies. The clusters and groups are the A262,A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer, and Pegasus Clusters and the NGC 383and NGC 507 Groups. The new measurements were derived frommedium-dispersion spectra that cover 600 Å centered on the Mg I btriplet at lambda ~ 5175 Å. Velocity dispersions were measuredusing the Tonry & Davis cross-correlation method, with a typicalaccuracy of 6%. A detailed comparison with other data sources is made.
|The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Sample Definition and I-Band Photometric Data|
As part of a project to compare the fundamental plane and Tully-Fisherdistance scales, we present here I-band CCD photometry for 636early-type galaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies. These arethe A262, A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer and Pegasus Clusters, andthe NGC 383 and NGC 507 Groups. Sample selection, cluster properties,and cluster membership assignment criteria are discussed. We presentphotometric parameters that are used in the fundamental plane relation,the effective radius r_e, and the effective surface brightness mu_e, asderived from a r^1/4 fit to the observed radial photometric profile ofeach galaxy. A comparison with similar data found in the literature forthe Coma Cluster shows that large systematic uncertainties can beintroduced in the measurement of r_e and mu_e by the particular methodused to derive those parameters. However, the particular combination ofthese two parameters that enters in the fundamental plane relation is aquantity that can be measured with high accuracy.
|A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters|
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp 126.96.36.199. Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in two distant regions. III - The photometric data|
We present R-band CCD photometry for 776 galaxies observed in the EFARproject. The photometry is compared with photoelectric data, showingthat a common zero-point good to better than 1 per cent and a precisionof 0.03 mag per zero-point have been achieved. We give the circularlyaveraged surface brightness profiles and the photometric parameters ofthe 762 program galaxies, D(n) diameters, half-luminosity radii, totalmagnitudes, and average effective surface brightnesses. More than 80percent of the profiles have a global S/N ratio larger than 300. Theextrapolation needed to derive total magnitudes is less than 10 percentfor 80 percent of the fits. More than 80 percent of the galaxies havemean effective surface brightness larger than the observed skybrightness. In 90 percent of the profiles the estimate of thecontamination of the sky by the galaxy light is less than 1 percent. Wederive total magnitudes and half-luminosity radii to better than 0.15mag and 25 percent, respectively, for 90 percent of our sample. Incontrast, external comparisons show that data in the literature can bestrongly affected by systematic errors due to large extrapolations,small radial range, sky subtraction errors, seeing effects, and the useof a simple R exp 1/4 fit. The resulting errors can easily amount tomore than 0.5 mag in the total magnitudes and 50 percent in thehalf-luminosity radii.
|Abell 2199 and Abell 2634 revisited|
Previous D_n-sigma work found surprisingly large negative peculiarvelocities for Abell 2199 and Abell 2634. In order to assess theseresults independently we have made new spectroscopic and photometricobservations. We report 141 new redshift, velocity dispersion (sigma)and Mg_2 index measurements, and photometry for 79 early-type galaxies.Special attention has been paid to linking the new sigma measurements onto a standard system that minimizes systematic errors. While the Abell2199 sigma measurements are in good agreement with our previouslyreported FLEX values, for Abell 2634 galaxies the new sigmas aresystematically lower. The FLEX measurements for some Abell 2634 galaxiesappear to have been erroneous due to a smearing problem with the CCDdetector. The new photometric data are in excellent agreement withpreviously reported values. We also present a new compilation of datafor 72 early-type Coma cluster galaxies. Assuming that the Coma clusterlies at rest with respect to the cosmic microwave background frame, wederive peculiar velocities of -160+/-380 and -670+/-490 km s^-1 forAbell 2199 and Abell 2634 respectively. We estimate that the likelysystematic errors on these measurements are less than 200kms^-1. Thederived peculiar velocities are considerably less than previousestimates and are not significantly different from zero.
|The Relative Distance Between the Clusters of Galaxies A2634 and Coma|
The Tully-Fisher (TF) and Fundamental Plane (FP) relations are used toobtain two independent estimates of the relative distance between theclusters A2634 and Coma. Previously published studies of A2634 showed alarge discrepancy between the distance estimates obtained with the TFand the \dns\ relations, questioning the reliability ofredshift-independent distances obtained using these relations. Becauseof the importance of this issue, we have obtained new distance estimatesfor A2634, based on much larger samples than previously used, andselected according to rigorous membership criteria. New I band CCDphotometry for 175 galaxies, new 21 cm observations of 11 galaxies, andnew velocity dispersion measurements for 62 galaxies are used togetherwith previously published data in building these samples. As part of alarger project to compare the TF and FP distance-scales, we haveobtained a new FP template using for the first time I band photometry.The template is derived using a sample of 109 E and S0 galaxies that aremembers of the Coma cluster. Its parameters are in very good agreementwith recent determinations of the FP obtained at shorter wavelengths.The uncertainty with which the FP can provide peculiar velocityestimates for single galaxies is =~ 0.43 mag in the distance modulus, or20% of the distance. This uncertainty is slightly larger than thetypical uncertainty that characterizes TF estimates. However thisdisadvantage is partly compensated by the fact that the sampleincompleteness bias has a less severe effect on FP cluster distanceestimates than it has on the corresponding TF distance estimates. Also,cluster membership is more readily established for early-type objectsthan for spirals. After the appropriate corrections for sampleincompleteness have been taken into account, we find the TF and FPdistance estimates to be in good agreement, both indicating that A2634has a negligibly small peculiar velocity with respect to the CosmicMicrowave Background reference frame. Because of the high accuracy withwhich the two distance estimates have been obtained, their agreementstrongly supports the universality of the TF and FP relations, andtherefore their reliability for the estimate of redshift-independentdistances.
|The Peculiar Motions of Early-Type Galaxies in Two Distant Regions. I. Cluster and Galaxy Selection|
The EFAR project is a study of 736 candidate elliptical galaxies in 84clusters lying in two regions, toward Hercules-Corona Borealis andPerseus-Pisces-Cetus, at distances cz ~ 6000-15,000 km s^-1^. In thispaper (the first of a series), we present an introduction to the EFARproject and describe in detail the selection of the clusters andgalaxies in our sample. Fundamental data for the galaxies and clustersare given, including accurate new positions for each galaxy andredshifts for each cluster. The galaxy selection functions aredetermined by using diameters measured from Schmidt sky survey imagesfor 2185 galaxies in the cluster fields. Future papers in this serieswill present the spectroscopic and photometric observations of thissample, investigate the properties of the fundamental plane forelliptical galaxies, and determine the large- scale peculiar velocityfields in these two regions of the universe.
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