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|The evolution of actively star-forming galaxies in the mid-infrared|
In this paper we analyze the evolution of actively star-forming galaxiesin the mid-infrared (MIR). This spectral region, characterized bycontinuum emission by hot dust and by the presence of strong emissionfeatures generally ascribed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)molecules, is the most strongly affected by the heating processesassociated with star formation and/or active galactic nuclei (AGNs).Following the detailed observational characterization of galaxies in theMIR by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have updated themodelling of this spectral region in our spectrophotometric modelGRASIL. In the diffuse component we have updated the treatment of PAHsaccording to the model by Li & Draine. As for the dense phase of theinterstellar medium associated with the star-forming regions, themolecular clouds, we strongly decrease the abundance of PAHs as comparedto that in the cirrus, based on the observational evidence of the lackor weakness of PAH bands close to the newly formed stars, possibly dueto the destruction of the molecules in strong ultraviolet fields. Therobustness of the model is checked by fitting near-infrared to radiobroad-band spectra and the corresponding detailed MIR spectra of a largesample of galaxies, at once. With this model, we have analyzed thelarger sample of actively star-forming galaxies by Dale et al. We showthat the observed trends of galaxies in the ISO-IRAS-radio colour-colourplots can be interpreted in terms of the different evolutionary phasesof star formation activity, and the consequent different dominance inthe spectral energy distribution of the diffuse or dense phase of theISM. We find that the observed colours indicate a surprising homogeneityof the starburst phenomenon, allowing only a limited variation of themost important physical parameters, such as the optical depth of themolecular clouds, the time-scale of the escape of young stars from theirfor mation sites, and the gas consumption time-scale. In this paper wedo not attempt to reproduce the far-infrared coolest region in thecolour-colour plots, as we concentrate on models meant to reproduceactive star-forming galaxies, but we discuss possible requirements of amore complex modelling for the coldest objects.
|Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database|
We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
|Infrared Emission of Normal Galaxies from 2.5 to 12 Micron: Infrared Space Observatory Spectra, Near-Infrared Continuum, and Mid-Infrared Emission Features|
We present ISOPHOT spectra of the regions 2.5-4.9 μm and 5.8-11.6μm for a sample of 45 disk galaxies from the US Infrared SpaceObservatory Key Project on Normal Galaxies. The galaxies were selectedto span the range in global properties of normal, star-forming diskgalaxies in the local universe. The spectra can be decomposed into threespectral components: (1) continuum emission from stellar photospheres,which dominates the near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-4.9 μm) spectral region;(2) a weak NIR excess continuum, which has a color temperature of~103 K, carries a luminosity of a few percent of the totalfar-infrared (FIR) dust luminosity LFIR and most likelyarises from the interstellar medium (ISM); and (3) the well-known broademission features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm, which are generallyattributed to aromatic carbon particles. These aromatic features inemission (AFEs) dominate the mid-infrared (MIR; 5.8-11.6 μm) part ofthe spectrum and resemble the so-called type A spectra observed in manynonstellar sources and the diffuse ISM in our own Galaxy. The fewnotable exceptions include NGC 4418, where a dust continuum replaces theAFEs in MIR, and NGC 1569, where the AFEs are weak and the strongestemission feature is [S IV] 10.51 μm. The relative strengths of theAFEs vary by 15%-25% among the galaxies. However, little correlation isseen between these variations and either IRAS 60 μm/100 μm fluxdensity ratio R(60/100) or the FIR/blue luminosity ratioLFIR/LB, two widely used indicators of the currentstar formation activity, suggesting that the observed variations are nota consequence of the radiation field differences among the galaxies. Wedemonstrate that the NIR excess continuum and AFE emission arecorrelated, suggesting that they are produced by similar mechanisms andsimilar (or the same) material. On the other hand, as the current starformation activity increases, the overall strengths of the AFEs and theNIR excess continuum drop significantly with respect to that of the FIRemission from large dust grains. In particular, the summed luminosity ofthe AFEs falls from ~0.2 LFIR for the most ``IR-quiescent''galaxies to ~0.1 LFIR for the most ``IR-active'' galaxies.This is likely a consequence of the preferential destruction in intenseradiation fields of the small carriers responsible for the NIR/AFEemission.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA member states (especially the PI countries, France, Germany, theNetherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISASand NASA.
|The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample|
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.
|Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Normal Galaxies: Physical Conditions in the Interstellar Medium|
The most important cooling lines of the neutral interstellar medium(ISM) lie in the far-infrared (FIR). We present measurements by theInfrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer of seven linesfrom neutral and ionized ISM of 60 normal, star-forming galaxies. Thegalaxy sample spans a range in properties such as morphology, FIR colors(indicating dust temperature), and FIR/blue ratios (indicating starformation activity and optical depth). In two-thirds of the galaxies inthis sample, the [C II] line flux is proportional to FIR dust continuum.The other one-third show a smooth decline inL[CII]/LFIR with increasing Fν(60μm)/Fν(100 μm) and LFIR/LB,spanning a range of a factor of more than 50. Two galaxies at the warmand active extreme of the range haveL[CII]/LFIR<2×10-4 (3 σupper limit). This is due to increased positive grain charge in thewarmer and more active galaxies, which leads to less efficient heatingby photoelectrons from dust grains. The ratio of the two principalphotodissociation region (PDR) cooling linesL[OI]/L[CII] shows a tight correlation withFν(60 μm)/Fν(100 μm), indicating thatboth gas and dust temperatures increase together. We derive atheoretical scaling between [N II] (122 μm) and [C II] from ionizedgas and use it to separate [C II] emission from neutral PDRs and ionizedgas. Comparison of PDR models of Kaufman et al. with observed ratios of(1) L[OI]/L[CII] and(L[CII]+L[OI])/LFIR and (2)L[OI]/LFIR and Fν(60μm)/Fν(100 μm) yields far-UV flux G0 andgas density n. The G0 and n values estimated from the twomethods agree to better than a factor of 2 and 1.5, respectively, inmore than half the sources. The derived G0 and n correlatewith each other, and G0 increases with n asG0~nα, where α~1.4 . We interpret thiscorrelation as arising from Strömgren sphere scalings if much ofthe line and continuum luminosity arises near star-forming regions. Thehigh values of PDR surface temperature (270-900 K) and pressure(6×104-1.5×107 K cm-3)derived also support the view that a significant part of grain and gasheating in the galaxies occurs very close to star-forming regions. Thedifferences in G0 and n from galaxy to galaxy may be due todifferences in the physical properties of the star-forming clouds.Galaxies with higher G0 and n have larger and/or denserstar-forming clouds.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|The Mid-Infrared Spectra of Normal Galaxies|
The mid-infrared spectra (2.5-5 and 5.7-11.6 μm) obtained by ISOPHOTreveal the interstellar medium emission from galaxies powered by starformation to be strongly dominated by the aromatic features at 6.2, 7.7,8.6, and 11.3 μm. Additional emission appears in between thefeatures, and an underlying continuum is clearly evident at 3-5 μm.This continuum would contribute about a third of the luminosity in the3-13 μm range. The features together carry 5%-30% of the 40-120 μmfar-infrared (FIR) luminosity. The relative fluxes in individualfeatures depend very weakly on galaxy parameters such as thefar-infrared colors, direct evidence that the emitting particles are notin thermal equilibrium. The dip at 10 μm is unlikely to result fromsilicate absorption since its shape is invariant among galaxies. Thecontinuum component has a fν~ν+0.65 shapebetween 3 and 5 μm and carries 1%-4% of the FIR luminosity; itsextrapolation to longer wavelengths falls well below the spectrum in the6-12 μm range. This continuum component is almost certainly ofnonstellar origin and is probably due to fluctuating grains withoutaromatic features. The spectra reported here typify the integratedemission from the interstellar medium of the majority of star-forminggalaxies and could thus be used to obtain redshifts of highly extinctedgalaxies up to z=3 with SIRTF.
|ISO Mid-Infrared Observations of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies: The Key Project Sample|
We present mid-infrared maps and preliminary analysis for 61 galaxiesobserved with the ISOCAM instrument aboard the Infrared SpaceObservatory. Many of the general features of galaxies observed atoptical wavelengths-spiral arms, disks, rings, and bright knots ofemission-are also seen in the mid-infrared, except the prominent opticalbulges are absent at 6.75 and 15 μm. In addition, the maps are quitesimilar at 6.75 and 15 μm, except for a few cases where a centralstarburst leads to lower Iν(6.75μm)/Iν(15 μm) ratios in the inner region. We alsopresent infrared flux densities and mid-infrared sizes for thesegalaxies. The mid-infrared color Iν(6.75μm)/Iν(15 μm) shows a distinct trend with thefar-infrared color Iν(60 μm)/Iν(100μm). The quiescent galaxies in our sample [Iν(60μm)/Iν(100 μm)<~0.6] show Iν(6.75μm)/Iν(15 μm) near unity, whereas this ratio dropssignificantly for galaxies with higher global heating intensity levels.Azimuthally averaged surface brightness profiles indicate the extent towhich the mid-infrared flux is centrally concentrated, and provideinformation on the radial dependence of mid-infrared colors. Thegalaxies are mostly well resolved in these maps: almost half of themhave <10% of their flux in the central resolution element. Acomparison of optical and mid-infrared isophotal profiles indicates thatthe flux at 4400 Å near the optical outskirts of the galaxies isapproximately 8 (7) times that at 6.75 μm (15 μm), comparable toobservations of the diffuse quiescent regions of the Milky Way. Thispaper is based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory(ISO). ISO is an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA memberstates (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands,and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.
|The Southern Sky Redshift Survey|
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.
|Kinematics of the local universe. VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies|
This paper presents 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the meridian transit Nan\c cay radiotelescope. Amongthese data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement thoselisted in three previous papers of this series. These new measurements,together with the HI data collected in LEDA, put to 6 700 the number ofgalaxies with 21-cm line width, radial velocity, and apparent diameterin the so-called KLUN sample. Figure 5 and Appendices A and B forcorresponding comments are available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com
|A comparative study of morphological classifications of APM galaxies|
We investigate the consistency of visual morphological classificationsof galaxies by comparing classifications for 831 galaxies from sixindependent observers. The galaxies were classified on laser print copyimages or on computer screen using scans made with the Automated PlateMeasuring (APM) machine. Classifications are compared using the RevisedHubble numerical type index T. We find that individual observers agreewith one another with rms combined dispersions of between 1.3 and 2.3type units, typically about 1.8 units. The dispersions tend to decreaseslightly with increasing angular diameter and, in some cases, withincreasing axial ratio (b/a). The agreement between independentobservers is reasonably good but the scatter is non-negligible. In spiteof the scatter, the Revised Hubble T system can be used to train anautomated galaxy classifier, e.g. an artificial neural network, tohandle the large number of galaxy images that are being compiled in theAPM and other surveys.
|Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Analysis of the Nuclear and Long-Slit Data|
A spectroscopic survey of a sample of 200 luminous IRAS galaxies (LIGs:L_ir_^7^ > 3 x 10^10^ L_sun_; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^) was carriedout using the Palomar 5 meter and University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescopes.Kim et al. (1995) described the data-taking and data-reductionprocedures and presented line and continuum measurements extracted fromthe nucleus of these objects. In this paper, the nuclear data arecombined with circumnuclear measurements on 23 of these galaxies toinvestigate the properties of the line-emitting gas and underlyingstellar population in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear spectra ofthese galaxies were classified as H II region-like" or "AGN-like" usinga large number of line-ratio diagnostics corrected for the underlyingstellar absorption features. This correction is an important source oferrors in some previous studies. The emission-line spectra of many AGNswere found to-be of relatively low ionization level and were thereforeclassified as LINER. We confirm that both the fraction of LIGs with AGNspectra and the fraction of Seyferts among the AGN increase withinfrared luminosity, reaching values of 62% and 54% at the highestobserved luminosities, respectively. The fraction of LINERs, on theother hand, is relatively constant at ~27%. The source of the ionizationof the emission-line gas often is a function of the distance from thenucleus. Based on the emission-line ratios and the strengths of thestellar absorption features, circumnuclear starburst activity is acommon feature of LIGs, regardless of their nuclear spectral types. Theemission-line, absorption-line, continuum, radio, and IRAS properties ofthe LINERs suggest that most of the LINER emission in theseinfrared-selected galaxies is produced through shock ionization ratherthan photoionization by a genuine active nucleus. The nuclear region ofSeyfert LIGs is found to be slightly less reddened than that of theLINERs and H II galaxies. The dust distribution generally isconcentrated toward the nucleus, in agreement with the often peakydistribution of the molecular gas observed in these galaxies. Inverteddust profiles in which the nucleus appears less dusty than thecircumnuclear region are observed in only three LIGs, all of which haveAGN emission-line characteristics (one Seyfert 2 galaxy and two LINERs).Low nuclear dust content appears to favor the detection of activenuclei. This may be due to selection effects or may reflect realphysical differences between these classes of objects: galaxies withSeyfert emission lines may be at a more advanced stage of dustdestruction/expulsion than H II LIGs. Complex optical depth effects mayalso explain these results without invoking a smaller amount of dust inthe nucleus. The Hβ and Mg I b absorption features are stronger inthe nuclei of AGNs (especially among the LINERs) than in H II LIGs,suggesting that AGN LIGs are at a more advanced stage of stellarevolution than H II LIGs. Further support for this scenario comes fromthe fact that AGNs are found more frequently in advanced mergers than HII galaxies (only two Seyfert galaxies are detected in systems withwell-separated nuclei). However, this last result may be a luminosityeffect rather than an effect related to the dominant nuclear source ofionization. Moreover, the absorption-line data may simply reflect thefact that galaxies with powerful H II regions show evidence for youngstars while galaxies with AGNs do not. The radial variations of theHβ and Mg I b absorption features indicate the presence of a strongsource of featureless continuum in the nucleus of nearly all LIGs,regardless of their nuclear spectral types. Contamination by thecircumnuclear starburst prevents us from determining the extent of thiscontinuum source. The [O III] profiles of both Seyfert and LINER LIGswere found to be broader on average than those of H II objects. Nearly20% of the LIGs in our sample have line widths larger than 600 km s^-1^.We find that most of the galaxies in which we could determine the radialvariations of the [O III] line width present broader profiles in thecircumnuclear region than at the nucleus. When combined with publisheddata on a few other well-studied LIGs, these results suggest thatlarge-scale nuclear winds are common in these objects and are anefficient way of getting rid of the obscuring material in the nuclearregion. The spatially extended LINER emission observed in many of theseobjects is probably due to shock ionization resulting from theinteraction of the wind-accelerated gas with the ambient material of thehost galaxy.
|Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. I. Nuclear Data|
A spectroscopic survey of a large sample of luminous infrared galaxies[log (L_ir_/L_sun_)^7^ ~ 10.5-12.5; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^] has beencarried out using the Palomar 5 m telescope,, and the University ofHawaii 2.2 m telescope. Long-slit spectra covering 375o-8000 A at aresolution of ~10 A were obtained of 200 IRAS galaxies, including 114objects from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Survey, and 86 objects with fainterinfrared fluxes selected on the basis of their "warm" far-infrared(S_60_/S_100_) colors. The methods of observation and data reduction arediscussed. An atlas of the spectra extracted from the nuclear region ofthese objects is presented along with a large number of parametersdescribing the properties of the emission lines, the stellar absorptionlines, and the continuum emission that were measured from the spectra.An analysis of these data is presented in a companion paper (Veilleux etal. 1995) along with a discussion of the spatial variations of theseparameters in a subsample of twenty-three objects.
|Multiwavelength Energy Distributions and Bolometric Luminosities of the 12 Micron Galaxy Sample|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...453..616S&db_key=AST
|The extended 12 micron galaxy sample|
We have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members|
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.
|A 1.49 GHz atlas of the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample|
The VLA has been used in its A-, B-, C-, and D-configurations to make1.49 GHz maps of sources in both the original and revised IRAS BrightGalaxy Samples of strong extragalactic sources selected at a wavelengthof 60 microns. Integrated 1.49 GHz flux densities were obtained from thelowest resolution maps, and maps were made with higher resolution sothat nearly all of the radio sources have been at least partiallyresolved. Only NGC 1377 was not detected at 1.49 GHz. An atlas ofcontour maps, a table of total flux densities plus other radio sourceparameters, and references to published radio maps are given. Since theinfrared and radio continuum brightness distributions of IR-selectedgalaxies are usually similar, these high-resolution radio maps can beused as substitutes for the unavailable IR maps to indicate the sizesand precise locations of the IR-emitting regions.
|Models for infrared emission from IRAS galaxies|
The far-infrared spectra of galaxies detected in four wavelength bandsby IRAS have been modeled in terms of a cool disk component, a warmerstarburst component, and a Seyfert component peaking at 25 microns.Although the models are found to fit the observed spectra of non-Seyfertand several Seyfert galaxies, a more complex geometry for the dustdistribution is indicated for NGC 1068 and many other Seyfert galaxies.In some cases, the dust in the narrow-line region has a nonsphericallysymmetric geometry.
|Lunar occultations of IRAS point sources, 1991-2000|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1989ApJS...69..651C&db_key=AST
|The 12 micron galaxy sample. I - Luminosity functions and a new complete active galaxy sample|
An all-sky 12 micron flux-limited sample of active galaxies was selectedfrom the IRAS Point Source Catalog. Most of the sample galaxies are inexisting catalogs, and 99 percent have measured redshifts. The 12-micronand the far-infrared luminosity functions of active and normal galaxiesare derived using IRAS co-added data. A total of 22 percent of thesample galaxies harbor active nuclei. The sample consists almost equallyof Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and LINER nuclei. The derived luminosityfuctions for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies are indistinguishable fromthose of the optically selected CfA sample. Thus, 12 micron selection isthe most efficient available technique for finding complete activegalaxy samples.
|The IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample. IV - Complete IRAS observations|
Total flux densities, peak flux densities, and spatial extents at 12,25, 60, and 100 microns are presented for the 330 sources in the IRASBright Galaxy Sample. The flux density ratios Snu (60microns)/Snu (100 microns) and Snu (12microns)/Sn (25 microns) are found to correlate with both theinfrared luminosity and the ratio of IR to visible flux. The relationbetween these two flux density ratios is shown to follow that foundpreviously, with different slopes appearing for the warmer and coldergalaxies in the sample. The results suggest that single photon heatingof small grains (often the dominant source of 12 and 25 micron radiationfrom galaxies) significantly affects the emission of some galaxies at 60microns, and that optical depth effects may alter the emergent radiationat 12 and 25 microns.
|The IRAS bright galaxy sample. II - The sample and luminosity function|
A statistically complete sample of 324 of the brightest infraredgalaxies discovered at 60 microns in the IRAS all-sky survey isdescribed. The results show that far-infrared emission is a significantluminosity component in the local universe, representing 25 percent ofthe luminosity emitted by stars in the same volume. Above 10 to the 11thsolar luminosities, the infrared luminous galaxies are the dominantpopulation of objects in the universe, being as numerous as the Seyfertgalaxies and more numerous than quasars at higher luminosities. Theinfrared luminosity appears to be independent of the optical luminosityof galaxies. Most infrared bright galaxies appear to require much of theinterstellar matter to be contributing to the observed infraredluminosity. Approximately 60-80 percent of the far-infrared luminosityof the local universe can be attributed, directly or indirectly, torecent or ongoing star formation.
|Lunar occultations of IRAS point sources, 1986-1990|
A complete listing is given for objects in the IRAS Point Source Catalogwhich will be occulted by the moon over the course of 1986-1990. A totalof 14,148 ASCII card images is encompassed by the complete listing ofobjects having geocentric events during this period. The resultscontained in this complete listing are illustrated in two of the presenttables for the brightest objects at 12 and 100 micron wavelengths.
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