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The Presence of Diffuse Interstellar Bands in the Spectra of Cool Stars
Data from the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) coudé feedtelescope were used to analyze the strength of three well-known diffuseinterstellar bands (DIBs; 5780, 5797, and 6614 Å). Ten mid-A,mid-F, and mid-G stars with moderate reddening (EB-V=0.2-1.2)were observed, along with one reddened B0 dwarf for comparison.Synthetic spectra were calculated to remove the interference of stellarfeatures. We report the detection of all three DIBs in A, F, and Gstars. We also find the correlation of DIB strengths with E(B-V), in oursight lines, to be consistent with previous results from Herbig (1993),demonstrating that DIB strength is not dependent on the spectral type ofthe target star.

Globulettes as Seeds of Brown Dwarfs and Free-Floating Planetary-Mass Objects
Some H II regions surrounding young stellar clusters contain tiny dustyclouds, which on photos look like dark spots or teardrops against abackground of nebular emission. From our collection of Hα imagesof 10 H II regions gathered at the Nordic Optical Telescope, we found173 such clouds, which we call ``globulettes,'' since they are muchsmaller than normal globules and form a distinct class of objects. Manyglobulettes are quite isolated and located far from the molecular shellsand elephant trunks associated with the regions. Others are attached tothe trunks (or shells), suggesting that globulettes may form as aconsequence of erosion of these larger structures. None of our objectsappear to contain stellar objects. The globulettes were measured forposition, dimension, and orientation, and we find that most objects aresmaller than 10 kAU. The Rosette Nebula and IC 1805 are particularlyrich in globulettes, for which the size distributions peak at mean radiiof ~2.5 kAU, similar to what was found by Reipurth and coworkers and DeMarco and coworkers for similar objects in other regions. We estimatetotal mass and density distributions for each object from extinctionmeasures and conclude that a majority contain <13 MJ,corresponding to planetary-mass objects. We then estimate the internalthermal and potential energies and find, when also including the effectsfrom the outer pressure, that a large fraction of the globulettes couldbe unstable and would contract on short timescales, <10 6yr. In addition, the radiation pressure and ram pressure exerted on theside facing the clusters would stimulate contraction. Since theglobulettes are not screened from stellar light by dust clouds fartherin, one would expect photoevaporation to dissolve the objects. However,surprisingly few objects show bright rims or teardrop forms. Wecalculate the expected lifetimes against photoevaporation. Theselifetimes scatter around 4×106 yr, much longer thanestimated in previous studies and also much longer than the free-falltime. We conclude that a large number of our globulettes have time toform central low-mass objects long before the ionization front, drivenby the impinging Lyman photons, has penetrated far into the globulette.Hence, the globulettes may be one source in the formation of browndwarfs and free-floating planetary-mass objects in the galaxy.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operatedon the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,and Sweden in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of theInstituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

Relation between the Luminosity of Young Stellar Objects and Their Circumstellar Environment
We present a new model-independent method of comparison of NIRvisibility data of YSOs. The method is based on scaling the measuredbaseline with the YSO's distance and luminosity, which removes thedependence of visibility on these two variables. We use this method tocompare all available NIR visibility data and demonstrate that itdistinguishes YSOs of luminosity L*<~103Lsolar (low L) from YSOs of L*>~103Lsolar (high L). This confirms earlier suggestions, based onfits of image models to the visibility data, for the difference betweenthe NIR sizes of these two luminosity groups. When plotted against the``scaled'' baseline, the visibility creates the following data clusters:low-L Herbig Ae/Be stars, T Tauri stars, and high-L Herbig Be stars. Wemodel the shape and size of clusters with different image models andfind that low-L Herbig stars are best explained by the uniformbrightness ring and the halo model, T Tauri stars with the halo model,and high-L Herbig stars with the accretion disk model. However, theplausibility of each model is not well established. Therefore, we try tobuild a descriptive model of the circumstellar environment consistentwith various observed properties of YSOs. We argue that low-L YSOs haveoptically thick disks with the optically thin inner dust sublimationcavity and an optically thin dusty outflow above the inner disk regions.High-L YSOs have optically thick accretion disks with high accretionrates enabling gas to dominate the NIR emission over dust. Althoughobservations would favor such a description of YSOs, the required dustdistribution is not supported by our current understanding of dustdynamics.

Is There Enhanced Depletion of Gas-Phase Nitrogen in Moderately Reddened Lines of Sight?
We report on the abundance of interstellar neutral nitrogen (N I) for 30sight lines, using data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer(FUSE) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). N I column densities arederived by measuring the equivalent widths of several ultravioletabsorption lines and subsequently fitting those to a curve of growth. Wefind a mean interstellar N/H of 51+/-4 ppm. This is below the mean foundby Meyer et al. of 62+4-3 ppm (adjusted for adifference in f-values). Our mean N/H is similar, however, to the(f-value adjusted) mean of 51+/-3 ppm found by Knauth et al. for alarger sample of sight lines with larger hydrogen column densitiescomparable to those in this study. We discuss the question of whether ornot nitrogen shows increased gas-phase depletion in lines of sight withcolumn densities logN(Htot)>~21, as claimed by Knauth etal. The nitrogen abundance in the line of sight toward HD 152236 isparticularly interesting. We derive very small N/H and N/O ratios forthis line of sight that may support a previous suggestion that membersof the Sco OB1 association formed from an N-deficient region.

Accretion rates in Herbig Ae stars
Aims.Accretion rates from disks around pre-main sequence stars are ofimportance for our understanding of planetary formation and diskevolution. We provide in this paper estimates of the mass accretionrates in the disks around a large sample of Herbig Ae stars.Methods: .We obtained medium resolution 2 μm spectra and used theresults to compute values of dot M_acc from the measured luminosity ofthe Brγ emission line, using a well established correlationbetween L(Brγ) and the accretion luminosity L_acc. Results:.We find that 80% of the stars, all of which have evidence of anassociated circumstellar disk, are accreting matter, with rates 3×10-9  dot M_acc  10-6 M_ȯ/yr; for 7objects, 6 of which are located on the ZAMS in the HR diagram, we do notdetect any line emission. Few HAe stars (25%) have dotM_acc>10-7 M_ȯ/yr. Conclusions: .In most HAestars the accretion rate is sufficiently low that the gas in the innerdisk, inside the dust evaporation radius, is optically thin and does notprevent the formation of a puffed-up rim, where dust is directly exposedto the stellar radiation. When compared to the dot M_acc values foundfor lower-mass stars in the star forming regions Taurus and Ophiuchus,HAe stars have on average higher accretion rates than solar-mass stars;however, there is a lack of very strong accretors among them, probablydue to the fact that they are on average older.

A survey for nanodiamond features in the 3 micron spectra of Herbig Ae/Be stars
Aims.We have carried out a survey of 60 Herbig Ae/Be stars in the 3micron wavelength region in search for the rare spectral features at3.43 and 3.53 micron. These features have been attributed to thepresence of large, hot, hydrogen-terminated nanodiamonds. Only twoHerbig Ae/Be stars, HD 97048 and Elias3-1 are known to display both these features. Methods:.We have obtained medium-resolution spectra (R ˜ 2500) with the ESOnear-IR instrument ISAAC in the 3.15-3.65 micron range. Results:.In our sample, no new examples of sources with prominent nanodiamondfeatures in their 3 micron spectra were discovered. Less than 4% of theHerbig targets show the prominent emission features at 3.43 and/or 3.53μm. Both features are detected in our spectrum of HD 97048. Weconfirm the detection of the 3.53 μm feature and the non-detection ofthe 3.43 μm feature in MWC 297. Furthermore, we report tentative 3.53μm detections in V921 Sco, HD 163296 and T CrA. The sources whichdisplay the nanodiamond features are not exceptional in the group ofHerbig stars with respect to disk properties, stellar characteristics,or disk and stellar activity. Moreover, the nanodiamond sources are verydifferent from each other in terms of these parameters. We do not findevidence for a recent supernova in the vicinity of any of thenanodiamond sources. We have analyzed the PAH 3.3 μm feature and thePfund δ hydrogen emission line, two other spectral features whichoccur in the 3 micron wavelength range. We reinforce the conclusion ofprevious authors that flared-disk systems display significantly more PAHemission than self-shadowed-disk sources. The Pf δ line detectionrate is higher in self-shadowed-disk sources than in the flared-disksystems. Conclusions: . We discuss the possible origin and paucityof the (nano)diamond features in Herbig stars. Different creationmechanisms have been proposed in the literature, amongst others in-situand supernova-induced formation. Our data set is inconclusive in provingor disproving either formation mechanism.

Few Skewed Disks Found in First Closure-Phase Survey of Herbig Ae/Be Stars
Using the three-telescope IOTA interferometer on Mount Hopkins, wereport results from the first near-infrared (λ=1.65 μm)closure-phase survey of young stellar objects (YSOs). These closurephases allow us to unambiguously detect departures from centrosymmetry(i.e., skew) in the emission pattern from YSO disks on the scale of ~4mas, expected from generic ``flared disk'' models. Six of 14 targetsshowed small, yet statistically significant nonzero closure phases, withlargest values from the young binary system MWC 361-A and the(pre-main-sequence?) Be star HD 45677. Our observations are quitesensitive to the vertical structure of the inner disk, and we confrontthe predictions of the ``puffed-up inner wall'' models of Dullemond,Dominik, & Natta (DDN). Our data support disk models with curvedinner rims because the expected emission appears symmetricallydistributed around the star over a wide range of inclination angles. Incontrast, our results are incompatible with the models possessingvertical inner walls because they predict extreme skewness (i.e., largeclosure phases) from the near-IR disk emission that is not seen in ourdata. In addition, we also present the discovery of mysterious H-band``halos'' (~5%-10% of light on scales 0.01"-0.50") around a few objects,a preliminary ``parametric imaging'' study for HD 45677, and the firstastrometric orbit for the young binary MWC 361-A.

The Herbig B0e star HD 53367: circumstellar activity and evidence of binarity
Aims.We investigate the spectroscopic behaviour of the young B0e star HD53367 within a cooperative observing programme conducted from 1994 to2005. Methods: .The data include more than 100 high-resolutionspectra collected at the Crimean Astronomical Observatory (CrAO) nearHα, Hβ, He i λ 5876, 6678 Å, DNa i, and O iiλ 6641 Å lines. Two spectra obtained at theObservatório do Pico dos Dias (LNA), in the spectral bandsλλ 4575-4725 Å and λλ 5625-5775Å, were used for spectral classification of HD 53367. The temporalbehaviour of the circumstellar lines Hα and Hβ as well as thephotospheric lines O ii λ 6641 Å and He i λ 6678Å were investigated during different stages of the photometricactivity of this object. Results: .We confirm that the long-termphotometric variability of HD 53367 is related to the alternation of twostates of this object when the gaseous circumstellar envelope disappearsand rises again. Both these processes start near the star and spread tothe outlying parts of the envelope. We find that the radial velocitiesof He i and O ii photospheric lines demonstrate a cyclic variabilitywith a period of P=183.7 days and semi-amplitude K=19 km s-1.The radial velocity change is interpreted in the framework of a model inwhich the star is a component of an eccentric binary system. An orbitalsolution is derived and the system's parameters estimated. We find thatthe orbital eccentricity is e=0.28, and the mean companion separation is1.7 AU. Conclusions: .Based on the estimated parameters, weconclude that the system consists of a massive (~20 M_ȯ) mainsequence primary B0e star, and a secondary which is most likely a 5solar mass pre-main sequence object. We found evidence that the mainpart of the circumstellar gas in this system is concentrated near thesecondary companion. Although the young age of HD 53367, its evolvedprimary B0e star seems to have already became a classical Be starexhibiting a specific alternation of the B-Be stages.

On the binarity of Herbig Ae/Be stars
We present high-resolution spectro-astrometry of a sample of 28 HerbigAe/Be and three F-type pre-main-sequence stars. The spectro-astrometry,which is essentially the study of unresolved features in long-slitspectra, is shown from both empirical and simulated data to be capableof detecting binary companions that are fainter by up to 6mag atseparations larger than ~0.1arcsec. The nine targets that werepreviously known to be binary are all detected. In addition, we reportthe discovery of six new binaries and present five further possiblebinaries. The resulting binary fraction is 68 +/- 11 per cent. Thisoverall binary fraction is the largest reported for any observed sampleof Herbig Ae/Be stars, presumably because of the exquisite sensitivityof spectro-astrometry for detecting binary systems. The data hint thatthe binary frequency of the Herbig Be stars is larger than that of theHerbig Ae stars. The Appendix presents model simulations to assess thecapabilities of spectro-astrometry and reinforces the empiricalfindings. Most spectro-astrometric signatures in this sample of HerbigAe/Be stars can be explained by the presence of a binary system. Twoobjects, HD 87643 and Z CMa, display evidence for asymmetric outflows.Finally, the position angles of the binary systems have been comparedwith available orientations of the circumprimary disc and these appearto be coplanar. The alignment between the circumprimary discs and thebinary systems strongly suggests that the formation of binaries withintermediate-mass primaries is due to fragmentation as the alternative,stellar capture, does not naturally predict aligned discs. The alignmentextends to the most massive B-type stars in our sample. This leads us toconclude that formation mechanisms that do result in massive stars, butpredict random angles between the binaries and the circumprimary discs,such as stellar collisions, are also ruled out for the same reason.

Star formation associated with H II regions
Star formation associated with H II regions is briefly reviewed. Specialemphasis is laid on our series of observational studies on bright-rimmedclouds (BRCs), in which we found a phenomenon called "small-scalesequential star formation." In addition a new hypothesis is advocated onthe two modes of star formation associated with H II regions, i.e., thecluster and dispersed modes. The former gives birth to a rich clusterand in the associated H II region BRCs are formed only at a later stageof its evolution in the peripheries. In the latter mode no clusters oronly loose ones are formed, but BRCs can appear at earlier stages ininner part of the H II region. Presumably these modes depend on theinitial density distribution of the natal molecular cloud.

A search for shock-excited optical emission from the outflows of massive young stellar objects
We have searched for optical shock-excited emission lines in the outerparts of the bipolar outflows from massive young stellar objects wherethe flow terminates and the extinction is expected to be low. The TaurusTunable Filter (TTF) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) was used toobtain narrow-band (12-15 Å) images of the Hα, [Nii] 6583,and [Sii] 6717/6731 lines around Mon R2 IRS3,S255 IRS1/3, GL 961 andGL 989. No clear examples of shocked emission werefound. A bow shock feature in the GL 989 region mayberelated with the molecular outflow NGC 2264 D. A weak optical bow-likefeature is seen in GL 961, but which of the stars inthe cluster is the driving source cannot be uniquely identified. Otheremission line features were found in Mon R2 and S255 that are consistentwith an Hii region origin. The observed fluxes and the upper limits werecompared with predictions from radiative shock models available in theliterature. Any head-on collisions of a jet with speeds of the order of500 km s-1 should have been detected if the extinctionAv < 10 mag. Estimates of the extinction in the outerparts of the molecular clouds are somewhat lower than this, although itis possible that it could be higher local to any interaction regions dueto swept up material. If the extinction is low, then the shocks musteither be slower (<150 km s-1) or very oblique(>75°), which would argue against the presence of highlycollimated jets from high mass young stellar objects.

Probing the circumstellar structures of T Tauri stars and their relationship to those of Herbig stars
We present Hα spectropolarimetry observations of a sample of 10bright T Tauri stars, supplemented with new Herbig Ae/Be star data. Achange in the linear polarization across Hα is detected in most ofthe T Tauri (9/10) and Herbig Ae (9/11) objects, which we interpret interms of a compact source of line photons that is scattered off arotating accretion disc. We find consistency between the position angle(PA) of the polarization and those of imaged disc PAs from infrared andmillimetre imaging and interferometry studies, probing much largerscales. For the Herbig Ae stars AB Aur, MWC 480 and CQ Tau, we find thepolarization PA to be perpendicular to the imaged disc, which isexpected for single scattering. On the other hand, the polarization PAaligns with the outer disc PA for the T Tauri stars DR Tau and SU Aurand FU Ori, conforming to the case of multiple scattering. Thisdifference can be explained if the inner discs of Herbig Ae stars areoptically thin, whilst those around our T Tauri stars and FU Ori areoptically thick. Furthermore, we develop a novel technique that combinesknown inclination angles and our recent Monte Carlo models to constrainthe inner rim sizes of SU Aur, GW Ori, AB Aur and CQ Tau. Finally, weconsider the connection of the inner disc structure with the orientationof the magnetic field in the foreground interstellar medium: for FU Oriand DR Tau, we infer an alignment of the stellar axis and the largermagnetic field direction.

On the nature of pre-main sequence candidate stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We investigate a sample of 18 Large Magellanic CloudHerbig Ae/Be candidate stars looking at their (1) spectral types (2)brightness variability mechanism and (3) near infra-red JHK emission. Wefind that the majority of the target stars have Hα emission, areof spectral type early- to mid-B and lack strong JHK excess emission.Their Balmer decrements are found to be similar to that of Galactic Bestars in general. Their erratic brightness variability is evaluated byusing the observed optical color excess and the color gradient from thelight curves and is subsequently interpreted as being due to variabledust obscuration or variable bf-ff emission from circumstellar ionizedgas. For approximately half of the target stars in our sample the typeof variability seems to be dissimilar to the mechanism involvingbound-free and free-free emission, but could be interpreted as caused byvariable dust obscuration, as we have proposed in earlier studies. It istherefore suggested that they are pre-main sequence objects, despite thefact that they nearly all lack thermal dust emission in the nearinfra-red; mid/far infra-red observations for these objects arewarranted. One star is observed to have JHK excess emission and aninspection of its 7.5 year MACHO light curve confirms its erraticphotometric behavior. The object displays deep photometric minima with aquasi-period of 191.3 days, as generally seen in the Galactic pre-mainsequence subgroup of the UX Orionis stars.Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla.

Abundances and Depletions of Interstellar Oxygen
We report on the abundance of interstellar neutral oxygen (O I) for 26sight lines, using data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer,the International Spectroscopic Explorer, and the Hubble SpaceTelescope. O I column densities are derived by measuring the equivalentwidths of several ultraviolet absorption lines and subsequently fittingthose to a curve of growth. We consider both our general sample of 26sight lines and a more restrictive sample of 10 sight lines that utilizeHST data for a measurement of the weak 1355 Å line of oxygen andare thus better constrained owing to our sampling of all three sectionsof the curve of growth. The column densities of our HST sample showratios of O/H that agree with the current best solar value if dust isconsidered, with the possible exception of one sight line (HD 37903). Wenote some very limited evidence in the HST sample for trends ofincreasing depletion with respect to RV and f(H2),but the trends are not conclusive. Unlike a recent result from Cartledgeet al., we do not see evidence for increasing depletion with respect to, but our HST sample contains only two points moredense than the critical density determined in that paper. The columndensities of our more general sample show some scatter in O/H, but mostagree with the solar value to within errors. We discuss these results inthe context of establishing the best method for determining interstellarabundances, the unresolved question of the best value for O/H in theinterstellar medium, the O/H ratios observed in Galactic stars, and thedepletion of gas-phase oxygen onto dust grains.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

A radio and mid-infrared survey of northern bright-rimmed clouds
We have carried out an archival radio, optical and infrared wavelengthimaging survey of 44 Bright-Rimmed Clouds (BRCs) using the NRAO/VLA SkySurvey (NVSS) archive, images from the Digitised Sky Survey (DSS) andthe Midcourse Space eXperiment (MSX). The data characterise the physicalproperties of the Ionised Boundary Layer (IBL) of the BRCs. We haveclassified the radio detections as: that associated with the ionisedcloud rims; that associated with possible embedded Young Stellar Objects(YSOs); and that unlikely to be associated with the clouds at all. Thestars responsible for ionising each cloud are identified and acomparison of the expected ionising flux to that measured at the cloudrims is presented. A total of 25 clouds display 20 cm radio continuumemission that is associated with their bright optical rims. The ionisingphoton flux illuminating these clouds, the ionised gas pressure and theelectron density of the IBL are determined. We derive internal molecularpressures for 9 clouds using molecular line data from the literature andcompare these pressures to the IBL pressures to determine the pressurebalance of the clouds. We find three clouds in which the pressureexerted by their IBLs is much greater than that measured in the internalmolecular material. A comparison of external pressures around theremaining clouds to a global mean internal pressure shows that themajority of clouds can be expected to be in pressure equilibrium withtheir IBLs and hence are likely to be currently shocked byphotoionisation shocks. We identify one source which shows 20 cmemission consistent with that of an embedded high-mass YSO and confirmits association with a known infrared stellar cluster. This embeddedcluster is shown to contain early-type B stars, implying that at leastsome BRCs are intimately involved in intermediate to high mass starformation.Figure \ref{fig:images} and Table \ref{tbl:istars1} are only availablein electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

On Rotation of an Isolated Globule
During CO observations of new Southern objects with the 15-m SEST mmtelescope (Cerro La Silla, Chile) we have found that the globuleconnected with the object CLN127-128 rotates with an angular velocity4.3 · 10-14 s-1, which corresponds to the velocity of extremelyfast rotating globules. The object CLN127-128 is a chain of three stars;two of them are connected with bright nebulae, and the third is asuspected Herbig Ae/Be star. All three stars are bright in near IR,which is specific for the existence of circumstellar shells (or disks)around them. The specific angular momentum of the globule confirms thatit is in virial equilibrium. Besides the finding of a rotating globule,CO observations suggest the presence of a blue-shifted outflow fromCLN127-128 with a velocity of -1.1 km/s (in the system connected withthe globule).

13CO (J = 1 -- 0) Survey of Molecular Clouds toward the Monoceros and Canis Major Region
rough a large-scale 13CO(J=1-0) survey toward a region inMonoceros and Canis Major, we present following results: (1) Weidentified in total 115 clouds. (2) GroupI (CMaOB1 and G220.8 ‑1.7) may physically connected with GroupII (Mon R2 and NGC2149). (3)496YSO candidates were chosen from IRAS point source catalog (IPC). (4)The mass spectrum of the Local clouds shows a power-law relation with anindex of ‑1.55 ± 0.09. (5) The number fraction ofstar-forming clouds increases as the cloud mass increases. Especially,massive clouds of Mcloud≥103.5Modot are all star-forming clouds. (6) Theline width-cloud radius relation is best fitted asΔVcomp ∝ rcloud0.47(correlation coefficient = 0.87). (7) The distribution of(Mvir / Mcloud) shows that star-forming cloudstend to be more virialized than no star-forming clouds. (8) Starformation in GroupI is more active than that in GroupII. (9) Unexpectedsmall number of low-mass clouds in GroupI may be due to strong UVradiation from O-type stars in the vicinity of the clouds. (10) Starformation in GroupII might occurred by self-gravitational, except forthe most massive cloud.

Properties of galactic B[e] supergiants. III. MWC 300
We present the results of optical and near-IR spectroscopic and mid-IRimaging observations of the emission-line star MWC 300. Its propertiesand evolutionary state are still under debate (a B[e] supergiant or aHerbig Be star). For the first time we detected radial velocityvariations of the photospheric lines and found a correlation betweenthem and those of the He I λ5876 Åline. Most of the pureemission lines had stable positions for nearly 20 years. New estimatesof the object's luminosity (log L/Lȯ=5.1±0.1),distance (D=1.8±0.2 kpc), and systemic velocity (+26±2 kms-1) were derived. We found that both the circumstellarextinction in the disk-like dusty envelope and the interstellarextinction play a significant role in the attenuation of the stellarbrightness. Our 2D modeling of the observed spectral energy distributionin the wavelength range from 0.3 μm to 1.3 mm suggests that the staris viewed through a gaseous-and-dusty flared disk with an opening angleof 30 °, an inclination angle of 10 °, an equatorial opticaldepth τV=3.0, and a total mass of 0.08Mȯ. We argue that MWC 300 is most likely a binarysystem, because of the similarities of its observed parameters withthose of recognized B[e] binaries.Partially based on observations collected at the Canada-France-Hawaiitelescope (CFHT), operated by the National Research Council of Canada,the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and Univeristy ofHawaii.

J - K DENIS photometry of a VLTI-selected sample of bright southern stars
We present a photometric survey of bright southern stars carried outusing the DENIS instrument equipped with attenuating filters. Theobservations were carried out not using the survey mode of DENIS, butwith individual target pointings. This project was stimulated by theneed to obtain near-infrared photometry of stars to be used in earlycommissioning observations of the ESO Very Large TelescopeInterferometer, and in particular to establish a network of brightcalibrator sources.We stress that near-infrared photometry is peculiarly lacking for manybright stars. These stars are saturated in 2MASS as well as in regularDENIS observations. The only other observations available for brightinfrared stars are those of the Two Micron Sky Survey dating from overthirty years ago. These were restricted to declinations above≈-30°, and thus cover only about half of the sky accessible fromthe VLTI site.We note that the final 2MASS data release includes photometry of brightstars, obtained by means of point-spread function fitting. However, thismethod only achieves about 30% accuracy, which is not sufficient formost applications.In this work, we present photometry for over 600 stars, each with atleast one and up to eight measurements, in the J and K filters. Typicalaccuracy is at the level of 0\fm05 and 0\fm04 in the J and K_s bands,respectively.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/413/1037

Investigation of 131 Herbig Ae/Be Candidate Stars
We present a new catalog of 108 Herbig Ae/Be candidate stars identifiedin the Pico dos Dias Survey, together with 19 previously knowncandidates and four objects selected from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog.These 131 stars were observed with low- and/or medium-resolutionspectroscopy, and we complement these data with high-resolution spectraof 39 stars. The objects present a great variety of Hα lineprofiles and were separated according to them. Our study suggests thatmost of the time a Herbig Ae/Be star will present a double peak Hαline profile. Correlations among different physical parameters, such asspectral type and vsini with Hα line profiles were searched. Wefound no correlation among Hα line profiles and spectral type orvsini except for stars with P Cygni profiles, where there is acorrelation with vsini. We also use preliminary spectral energydistributions to seek for any influence of the circumstellar medium inthe Hα line profiles. The presence of [O I] and [S II] forbiddenlines is used together with the Hα line profiles and thesepreliminary spectral energy distributions to discuss the circumstellarenvironment of the Herbig Ae/Be candidates. The distribution of thedetected [O I] and [S II] forbidden lines among different spectral typespoints to a significantly higher occurrence of these lines among Bstars, whereas the distribution among different Hα profile typesindicates that forbidden lines are evenly distributed among eachHα line-profile type. Combining the distance estimates of theHerbig candidates with the knowledge of the interstellar mediumdistribution, we have found that 84 candidates can be associated withsome of the more conspicuous SFRs, being in the right direction and at acompatible distance. As a further means of checking the properties ofthe HAeBe candidates, as well as their present evolutionary status, thederived luminosities and effective temperatures of the stars withpossible association to the star-forming regions and/or Hipparcosdistances were plotted together with a set of pre-main-sequenceevolutionary tracks on an HR diagram. A set of 14 stars were found outof their expected positions in the HR diagram.Based on observations made at the Obsevatório do Pico dosDias/LNA (Brazil), ESO (Chile), and the Lick Observatory.

A quest for PMS candidate stars at low metallicity: Variable HAe/Be and Be stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud
We report the discovery of 5 new Herbig Ae/Be candidate stars in theSmall Magellanic Cloud in addition to the 2 reported in Beaulieu et al.(\cite{Beaulieu01}). We discuss these 7 HAeBe candidate stars in termsof (1) their irregular photometric variability, (2) their near infraredemission, (3) their Hα emission and (4) their spectral type. Onestar has the typical photometric behaviour that is observed only amongPre-Main Sequence UX Orionis type stars. The objects are more luminousthan Galactic HAeBe stars and Large Magellanic Cloud HAeBe candidates ofthe same spectral type.The stars were discovered in a systematic search for variable stars in asubset of the EROS2 database consisting of 115 612 stars in a field of24x 24 arcmin in the Small Magellanic Cloud. In total we discovered 504variable stars. After classifying the different objects according totheir type of variability, we concentrate on 7 blue objects withirregular photometric behaviour. We cross-identified these objects withemission line catalogues from Simbad and JHK photometry from 2MASS. Theanalysis is supplemented with obtained narrow and broad band imaging. Wediscuss their variability in terms of dust obscuration and bound-freeand free-free emission. We estimate the influence of metallicity on thecircumstellar dust emission from pre-main sequence stars.

Observations of Rotationally Resolved C3 in Translucent Sight Lines
The rotationally resolved spectrum of theA1Πu<--X1Σ+g000-000 transition of C3, centered at 4051.6 Å, hasbeen observed along 10 translucent lines of sight. To interpret thesespectra, a new method for the determination of column densities andanalysis of excitation profiles involving the simulation and fitting ofobserved spectra has been developed. The populations of lower rotationallevels (J<=14) in C3 are best fitted by thermaldistributions that are consistent with the kinetic temperaturesdetermined from the excitation profile of C2. Just as in thecase of C2, higher rotational levels (J>14) ofC3 show increased nonthermal population distributions inclouds that have been determined to have total gas densities below ~500cm-3.

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

High-Resolution Observations of Interstellar Ca I Absorption-Implications for Depletions and Electron Densities in Diffuse Clouds
We present high-resolution (FWHM~0.3-1.5 km s-1) spectra,obtained with the AAT UHRF, the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coudéspectrograph, and/or the KPNO coudé feed, of interstellar Ca Iabsorption toward 30 Galactic stars. Comparisons of the column densitiesof Ca I, Ca II, K I, and other species-for individual componentsidentified in the line profiles and also when integrated over entirelines of sight-yield information on relative electron densities anddepletions (dependent on assumptions regarding the ionizationequilibrium). There is no obvious relationship between the ratio N(CaI)/N(Ca II) [equal to ne/(Γ/αr) forphotoionization equilibrium] and the fraction of hydrogen in molecularform f(H2) (often taken to be indicative of the local densitynH). For a smaller sample of sight lines for which thethermal pressure (nHT) and local density can be estimated viaanalysis of the C I fine-structure excitation, the average electrondensity inferred from C, Na, and K (assuming photoionizationequilibrium) seems to be independent of nH andnHT. While the electron density (ne) obtained fromthe ratio N(Ca I)/N(Ca II) is often significantly higher than the valuesderived from other elements, the patterns of relative nederived from different elements show both similarities and differencesfor different lines of sight-suggesting that additional processesbesides photoionization and radiative recombination commonly andsignificantly affect the ionization balance of heavy elements in diffuseinterstellar clouds. Such additional processes may also contribute tothe (apparently) larger than expected fractional ionizations(ne/nH) found for some lines of sight withindependent determinations of nH. In general, inclusion of``grain-assisted'' recombination does reduce the inferred ne,but it does not reconcile the ne estimated from differentelements; it may, however, suggest some dependence of ne onnH. The depletion of calcium may have a much weakerdependence on density than was suggested by earlier comparisons with CHand CN. Two appendices present similar high-resolution spectra of Fe Ifor a few stars and give a compilation of column density data for Ca I,Ca II, Fe I, and S I.

Optical interferometry in astronomy
Here I review the current state of the field of optical stellarinterferometry, concentrating on ground-based work although a briefreport of space interferometry missions is included. We pause both toreflect on decades of immense progress in the field as well as toprepare for a new generation of large interferometers just now beingcommissioned (most notably, the CHARA, Keck and VLT Interferometers).First, this review summarizes the basic principles behind stellarinterferometry needed by the lay-physicist and general astronomer tounderstand the scientific potential as well as technical challenges ofinterferometry. Next, the basic design principles of practicalinterferometers are discussed, using the experience of past and existingfacilities to illustrate important points. Here there is significantdiscussion of current trends in the field, including the new facilitiesunder construction and advanced technologies being debuted. This decadehas seen the influence of stellar interferometry extend beyond classicalregimes of stellar diameters and binary orbits to new areas such asmapping the accretion discs around young stars, novel calibration of thecepheid period-luminosity relation, and imaging of stellar surfaces. Thethird section is devoted to the major scientific results frominterferometry, grouped into natural categories reflecting these currentdevelopments. Lastly, I consider the future of interferometry,highlighting the kinds of new science promised by the interferometerscoming on-line in the next few years. I also discuss the longer-termfuture of optical interferometry, including the prospects for spaceinterferometry and the possibilities of large-scale ground-basedprojects. Critical technological developments are still needed to makethese projects attractive and affordable.

Some Diffuse Interstellar Bands Related to Interstellar C2 Molecules
We have investigated the correlations between the equivalent widths of21 selected diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and the correspondinginterstellar column densities N(C2), N(CN), and N(CH), toward53 stars with color excesses 0.11<=E(B-V)<=1.99. The observationaldata were derived primarily from echelle spectra acquired at R=38,000 aspart of our extensive, continuing survey of the bands. All but six ofthe 53 final spectra show signal-to-noise ratios >=800 at 5780Å. The principal result presented here is that seven of the 21bands prove to be examples of ``the C2 DIBs,'' a class ofweak, narrow bands whose normalized equivalent widthsWλ(X)/Wλ (λ6196) are wellcorrelated specifically with N(C2)/E(B-V) via power laws. Incontrast, the similarly normalized equivalent widths of the 14 other,well-known DIBs analyzed here are uncorrelated, or weaklyanticorrelated, with N(C2)/E(B-V), to within theobservational uncertainties. Thus, the polyatomic molecule(s) presumedto cause these seven C2 DIBs may bear a direct chemicalrelation to C2 that is not shared by the polyatomic moleculesputatively responsible for the other 14 bands. The C2 DIBsalso show positive correlations with N(CN)/E(B-V) and N(CH)/E(B-V) inour particular sample of light paths, although generally with shallowerslopes in the case of N(CN) and with greater scatter in the case ofN(CH). Eleven additional C2 DIBs are also identified but arenot analyzed here. Among the 18 C2 DIBs identified, fourapparently have not been previously detected. The λ4963 band isgenerally the strongest of the 18 C2 DIBs, while theλ4734 band shows the most sensitive correlation withN(C2).Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

Merged catalogue of reflection nebulae
Several catalogues of reflection nebulae are merged to create a uniformcatalogue of 913 objects. It contains revised coordinates,cross-identifications of nebulae and stars, as well as identificationswith IRAS point sources.The catalogue is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/399/141

Observations of C3 in Translucent Sight Lines
The A1Πu<--X1Σ+g transition of the simplestpolyatomic carbon chain molecule, C3, at 4051.6 Å hasbeen searched for toward reddened stars where abundant C2 hadbeen reported and toward other stars with high color excess. Absorptionfrom C3 has been detected toward 15 stars with color excessE(B-V) from 0.33 to 1.12. The observed C3 column densities,ranging from 1012 to 1013 cm-2, arewell correlated with the corresponding C2 column densities,with N(C2)/N(C3)~40, indicating their closechemical relation. The carbon-rich sight line toward HD 204827 (forwhich no previous C2 observation had been reported) has byfar the highest C3 and C2 column densities. Thechemistry of formation of C3 from C2 is discussed.A search for the next strongest 020-000 vibronic band was unsuccessfulas a result of the low Franck-Condon factor and interference with astellar line. Searches for C4 and C5 werenegative.

Detecting Embedded Intermediate-Mass Stars Using Mid-Infrared and H I 21 Centimeter Emission
A technique is presented to detect distant, young embedded B stars (andpossible clusters) from their imprint on the surrounding interstellarmedium. H I 21 cm and 12CO (J=1-0) line data from theCanadian Galactic Plane Survey are combined with mid-infrared imagesfrom the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Galactic plane survey todetect the photodissociation regions (PDRs) and molecular gas associatedwith the embedded intermediate-mass stars. The technique has beenapplied to a section of the Galaxy covered by the 12CO FiveCollege Radio Astronomy Observatory outer Galaxy survey(102.5d

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Right ascension:07h04m25.53s
Apparent magnitude:99.9

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