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Detailed Far-Ultraviolet to Optical Analysis of Four [WR] Stars
We present far-UV to optical analyses of four hydrogen-deficient centralstars of planetary nebulae: BD +30 3639, NGC 40, NGC 5315, and NGC 6905.Using the radiative transfer code CMFGEN, we determined new physicalparameters and chemical abundances for these stars. The results wereanalyzed in the context of the [WR]-->PG 1159 evolution via thetransformed radius-temperature (RT×T*) andH-R diagrams. NGC 5315 showed itself as an odd object among thepreviously analyzed central stars. Its temperature (~76 kK) isconsiderably lower than other early-type [WR] stars (~120-150 kK). Fromour models for NGC 5315 and NGC 6905, it is unclear if early-type [WR]stars have smaller C/He mass ratios than other spectral classes, asclaimed in the literature. A ratio of ~0.8 is found for NGC 6905. Weanalyzed FUSE spectra of these stars for the first time and identifiedphosphorus in the spectra of BD +30 3639, NGC 40, and NGC 5315 throughthe doublet transition P V λλ1118, 1128 (3p2Po-3s 2S). The Fe, Si, P, S, and Neabundances were analyzed in the context of the nucleosynthesis occurringin previous evolutionary phases. We found evidence for Fe deficiency inBD +30 3639 and NGC 5315, and we determined a solar Si abundance for BD+30 3639 and NGC 40. Regarding P, an oversolar abundance in the NGC 5315model was preferred. Upper limits for the S abundance were estimated. Wefound that Ne is overabundant in BD +30 3639. In the other stars, Ne isweak or undetectable. Our results are in agreement with theoreticalpredictions and show the usefulness of [WR] stars as test beds fornucleosynthesis calculations in the AGB and post-AGB phases.

The Problem with Reddening Distances to Planetary Nebulae
It is noted that the vast majority of Galactic PNe are located outsideof the interstellar reddening layer, to the extent that local gradientsin E_{B-V} are low to undetectable. This is likely to invalidate certainprevious estimates of their reddening distances D_{RED}. It also meansthat larger scale analyses, such as those of Pottasch (1984) and Acker(1973), lead to values of D_{RED}] which are significantly too small. Asimilar critique applies to analyses based on measures of Na D-lineabsorption, and it seems likely that most of the distances of Napiwotzki& Schönberner (1995) are similarly in error.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Wolf-Rayet Nuclei III. Kinematical Analysis of a Large Sample of Nebulae
Expansion velocities (V_{exp}) of different ions and line widths at thebase of the lines are measured and analyzed for 24 PNe with [WC]-typenuclei (WRPNe), 9 PNe ionized by WELS (WLPNe) and 14 ordinary PNe. Acomparative study of the kinematical behavior of the sample clearlydemonstrates that WRPNe have on average 40-45% larger V_{exp}, andpossibly more turbulence than WLPNe and ordinary PNe. WLPNe havevelocity fields very much like the ones of ordinary PNe, rather than theones of WRPNe. All the samples (WRPNe, WLPNe and ordinary PNe) showexpansion velocities increasing with age indicators, for example is larger for low-density nebulae and also it is largerfor nebulae around high-temperature stars. This age effect is muchstronger for evolved WRPNe, suggesting that the [WC] winds have beenaccelerating the nebulae for a long time, while for non-WRPNe theacceleration seems to stop at some point when the star reaches atemperature of about 90,000 - 100,000. Non-WR nebulae reach a maximumV_{exp} ≤ 30 km s(-1) evolved WRPNe reach maximum V_{exp} about 40km s(-1) . For all kinds of objects (WRPNe and non-WRPNe) it is foundthat on average V_{exp}(N(+) ) is slightly larger than V_{exp}(O(++) ),indicating that the nebulae present acceleration of the external shells.

The abundance discrepancy - recombination line versus forbidden line abundances for a northern sample of galactic planetary nebulae
We present deep optical spectra of 23 galactic planetary nebulae, whichare analysed in conjunction with archival infrared and ultravioletspectra. We derive nebular electron temperatures based on standardcollisionally excited line (CEL) diagnostics as well as the hydrogenBalmer jump and find that, as expected, the Balmer jump almost alwaysyields a lower temperature than the [OIII] nebular-to-auroral lineratio. We also make use of the weak temperature dependence of helium andOII recombination line ratios to further investigate the temperaturestructure of the sample nebulae. We find that, in almost every case, thederived temperatures follow the relation , which is the relationpredicted by two-component nebular models in which one component is coldand hydrogen-deficient. Te(OII) may be as low as a fewhundred Kelvin, in line with the low temperatures found for thehydrogen-deficient knots of Abell 30 by Wesson, Liu and Barlow.Elemental abundances are derived for the sample nebulae from both CELsand optical recombination lines (ORLs). ORL abundances are higher thanCEL abundances in every case, by factors ranging from 1.5 to 12. Fiveobjects with O2+ abundance discrepancy factors greater than 5are found. DdDm 1 and Vy 2-2 are both found to have a very largeabundance discrepancy factor of 11.8.We consider the possible explanations for the observed discrepancies.From the observed differences between Te(OIII) andTe(BJ), we find that temperature fluctuations cannot resolvethe abundance discrepancies in 22 of the 23 sample nebulae, implyingsome additional mechanism for enhancing ORL emission. In the oneambiguous case, the good agreement between abundances derived fromtemperature-insensitive infrared lines and temperature-sensitive opticallines also points away from temperature fluctuations being present. Theobserved recombination line temperatures, the large abundancediscrepancies and the generally good agreement between infrared andoptical CEL abundances all suggest instead the existence of a coldhydrogen-deficient component within the `normal' nebular gas. The originof this component is as yet unknown.

The Chemical Composition of Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Regard to Inhomogeneity in the Gas Density in Their Envelopes
The results of a study of the chemical compositions of Galacticplanetary nebulae taking into account two types of inhomogeneity in thenebular gas density in their envelopes are reported. New analyticalexpressions for the ionization correction factors have been derived andare used to determine the chemical compositions of the nebular gas inGalactic planetary nebulae. The abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Arhave been found for 193 objects. The Y Z diagrams for various Heabundances are analyzed for type II planetary nebulae separately andjointly with HII regions. The primordial helium abundance Y p andenrichment ratio dY/dZ are determined, and the resulting values arecompared with the data of other authors. Radial abundance gradients inthe Galactic disk are studied using type II planetary nebulae.

Planetary nebula distances re-examined: an improved statistical scale
The distances of planetary nebulae (PNe) are still quite uncertain.Although observational estimates are available for a small proportion ofPNe, based on statistical parallax and the like, such distances are verypoorly determined for the majority of galactic PNe. In particular,estimates of so-called `statistical' distance appear to differ byfactors of ~2.7.We point out that there is a well-defined correlation between the 5-GHzluminosity of the sources, L5, and their brightnesstemperatures, TB. This represents a different trend to thoseinvestigated in previous statistical analyses, and permits us todetermine independent distances to a further 449 outflows. Thesedistances are shown to be closely comparable to those determined using aTB-R correlation, providing that the latter trend is taken tobe non-linear.This non-linearity in the TB-R plane has not been noted inprevious analyses, and is likely responsible for the broad (andconflicting) ranges of distance that have previously been published.Finally, we point out that there is a close accord between observedtrends within the L5-TB and TB-Rplanes, and the variation predicted through nebular evolutionarymodelling. This is used to suggest that observational biases areprobably modest, and that our revised distance scale is reasonablytrustworthy.

Characteristics of Planetary Nebulae with [WC] Central Stars
We have analyzed the plasma diagnostics (electron densities andtemperatures and abundance ratios), and the kinematics of a large sampleof planetary nebulae around [WC] stars by means of high resolutionspectra. The results have been compared with characteristics ofplanetary nebulae around WELS and non-WR central stars. We find that theproportion of nitrogen rich nebulae is larger in WRPNe than innon-WRPNe. None of the 9 nebulae around WELS in our sample showsN-enrichment. WRPNe have larger expansion velocities and/or largerturbulence than non-WRPNe demonstrating that the mechanical energy ofthe massive [WC] stellar wind largely affects the kinematical behaviorof nebulae. A weak relation between stellar temperature and expansionvelocities has been found for all kind of nebulae, indicating that oldernebulae expand faster. The effect is more important for WRPNe. Thiscould be useful in testing the evolutionary sequence [WC]-late ->[WC]-early, proposed for [WC] stars.

The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulae
We have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology.

Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinates
We have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029}

Quantitative classification of WR nuclei of planetary nebulae
We analyse 42 emission-line nuclei of Planetary Nebulae (PNe), in theframework of a large spectrophotometric survey of [WC] nuclei of PNeconducted since 1994, using low/medium resolution spectra obtained atESO and at OHP. We construct a grid of selected line-intensities(normalized to C Iv-5806 Å= 100) ordered by decreasing ionisationpotential going from 871 to 24 eV. In this grid, the stars appear tobelong clearly to prominent O (hot [WO1-4] types) or C (cooler [WC4-11]types) line-sequences, in agreement with the classification of massiveWR stars applied to Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPNe) byCrowther et al. \cite{crowther98} (CMB98). We propose 20 selected lineratios and the FWHM of C Iv and C Iii lines as classificationdiagnostics, which agree well with the 7 line ratios and the FWHMproposed by CMB98. This classification based on ionisation is related tothe evolution of the temperature and of the stellar wind, reflecting themass-loss history. In particular, inside the hot [WO4]-class, wediscover four stars showing very broad lines over the whole spectralrange. These stars possibly mark the transition from the initialmomentum-driven phase to the later energy-driven phase of the CSPNealong their evolution from the post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB)phase through [WC] late, [WC4] and [WO]-types. The HR diagram and thediagram linking the terminal velocity and the temperature indicatehighly dispersed values of the stellar mass for our sample, around amean mass higher than for normal CSPNe. The distribution of the 42 starsalong the ionisation sequence shows 24% of [WO1-3], 21% of [WO4], 17% of[WC4] hot stars, and 26% of [WC9-11] cool stars. The [WC5-8] classesremain poorly represented (12%). This distribution is confirmed on thebasis of a large compilation of the 127 known emission-lines CSPNe,which represent about 5% of the known PNe.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO), La Silla (Chile), and at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP,France).Table \ref{liste} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Ionized haloes in planetary nebulae: new discoveries, literature compilation and basic statistical properties
We present a comprehensive observational study of haloes aroundplanetary nebulae (PNe). Deep Hα+[NII] and/or [OIII] narrow-bandimages have been obtained for 35 PNe, and faint extended haloes havebeen newly discovered in the following 10 objects: Cn 1-5, IC 2165, IC2553, NGC 2792, NGC 2867, NGC 3918, NGC 5979, NGC 6578, PB 4, andpossibly IC 1747. New deep images have also been obtained of other knownor suspected haloes, including the huge extended emission around NGC3242 and Sh 2-200. In addition, the literature was searched, andtogether with the new observations an improved data base containing some50 PN haloes has been compiled.The halo sample is illustrated in an image atlas contained in thispaper, and the original images are made available for use by thescientific community at http://www.ing.iac.es/~rcorradi/HALOES/.The haloes have been classified following the predictions of modernradiation-hydrodynamical simulations that describe the formation andevolution of ionized multiple shells and haloes around PNe. According tothe models, the observed haloes have been divided into the followinggroups: (i) circular or slightly elliptical asymptotic giant branch(AGB) haloes, which contain the signature of the last thermal pulse onthe AGB; (ii) highly asymmetrical AGB haloes; (iii) candidaterecombination haloes, i.e. limb-brightened extended shells that areexpected to be produced by recombination during the late post-AGBevolution, when the luminosity of the central star drops rapidly by asignificant factor; (iv) uncertain cases which deserve further study fora reliable classification; (v) non-detections, i.e. PNe in which no halois found to a level of <~10-3 the peak surface brightnessof the inner nebulae.We discuss the properties of the haloes: detection rate, morphology,location of the central stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, sizes,surface brightness profiles, and kinematical ages. Among the mostnotable results, we find that, as predicted by models, ionized AGBhaloes are a quite common phenomenon in PNe, having been found in 60 percent of elliptical PNe for which adequately deep images exist. Another10 per cent show possible recombination haloes. In addition, using thekinematical ages of the haloes and inner nebulae, we conclude that mostof the PNe with observed AGB haloes have left the AGB far from a thermalpulse, at a phase when hydrogen burning is the dominant energy source.We find no significant differences between the AGB haloes ofhydrogen-poor and hydrogen-rich central stars.

The association of IRAS sources and 12CO emission in the outer Galaxy
We have revisited the question of the association of CO emission withIRAS sources in the outer Galaxy using data from the FCRAO Outer GalaxySurvey (OGS). The availability of a large-scale high-resolution COsurvey allows us to approach the question of IRAS-CO associations from anew direction - namely we examined all of the IRAS sources within theOGS region for associated molecular material. By investigating theassociation of molecular material with random lines of sight in the OGSregion we were able to construct a quantitative means to judge thelikelihood that any given IRAS-CO association is valid and todisentangle multiple emission components along the line of sight. Thepaper presents a list of all of the IRAS-CO associations in the OGSregion. We show that, within the OGS region, there is a significantincrease ( ~ 22%) in the number of probable star forming regions overprevious targeted CO surveys towards IRAS sources. As a demonstration ofthe utility of the IRAS-CO association table we present the results ofthree brief studies on candidate zone-of-avoidance galaxies with IRAScounterparts, far outer Galaxy CO clouds, and very bright CO clouds withno associated IRAS sources. We find that ~ 25% of such candidate ZOAGsare Galactic objects. We have discovered two new far outer Galaxystar-forming regions, and have discovered six bright molecular cloudsthat we believe are ideal targets for the investigation of the earlieststages of sequential star formation around HII regions. Finally, thispaper provides readers with the necessary data to compare othercatalogued data sets with the OGS data.Tables 1, 2 and A1 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/399/1083

WR Central Stars (invited review)
Not Available

Gas temperature and excitation classes in planetary nebulae
Empirical methods to estimate the elemental abundances in planetarynebulae usually use the temperatures derived from the [O III] and [N II]emission-line ratios, respectively, for the high- and low-ionizationzones. However, for a large number of objects these values may not beavailable. In order to overcome this difficulty and allow a betterdetermination of abundances, we discuss the relationship between thesetwo temperatures. Although a correlation is not easily seen when asample of different PNe types is used, the situation is improved whenthey are gathered into excitation classes. From [OII]/[OIII] andHeII/HeI line ratios, we define four excitation classes. Then, usingstandard photoionization models which fit most of the data, a linearrelation between the two temperatures is obtained for each of the fourexcitation classes. The method is applied to several objects for whichonly one temperature can be obtained from the observed emission linesand is tested by recalculation of the radial abundance gradient of theGalaxy using a larger number of PNe. We verified that our previousgradient results, obtained with a smaller sample of planetary nebulae,are not changed, indicating that the temperature relation obtained fromthe photoionization models are a good approximation, and thecorresponding statistical error decreases as expected. Tables 3-5, 7 and9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Expansion Velocities from Different Ions of Planetary Nebulae with [WC]-Type Central Stars
About 50 PNe in our Galaxy are known to have central stars of the carbonsequence Wolf-Rayet ([WC]) type stars and their atmospheres are almostpure helium and carbon. It has been suggested that the spectral sequenceof [WC] stars and the ``weak emission line stars'' (WELS, as defined byTylenda et al. 1993) corresponds to the following evolutionary sequence:late-[WC] -> early-[WC] -> WELS -> PG 1159 type stars. Thissuggestion is based upon both the analysis of the stellar atmospheresand the nebular properties of the planetary nebulae around [WC] stars(WRPNe) (e.g., Parthasarathy et al. 1998). This suggestion iscontroversial (Gorny & Tylenda 2000; Peña et al. 2001) and inorder to study the nature and evolution of WRPNe and WELS, we haveobtained a homogeneous high spectral resolution (echelle) data set of 30planetary nebulae and their nuclei using the 2.1-m telescope at theObservatorio Astronómico Nacional, San Pedro Mártir,México.

Study of electron density in planetary nebulae. A comparison of different density indicators
We present a comparison of electron density estimates for planetarynebulae based on different emission-line ratios. We have considered thedensity indicators [O Ii]lambda 3729/lambda 3726, [S Ii]lambda6716/lambda 6731, [Cl Iii]lambda 5517/lambda 5537, [Ar Iv]lambda4711/lambda 4740, C Iii]lambda 1906/lambda 1909 and [N I]lambda5202/lambda 5199. The observational data were extracted from theliterature. We have found systematic deviations from the densityhomogeneous models, in the sense that: Ne(ion {N}i) <~Ne(ion {O}{ii}) < Ne(ion {S}{ii}, ion {C}{iii},ion {Cl}{iii} or ion {Ar}{iv}) and Ne(ion {S}{ii}) ~Ne(ion {C}{iii}) ~ Ne(ion {Cl}{iii}) ~Ne(ion {Ar}{iv}). We argue that the lower [O Ii] densityestimates are likely due to errors in the atomic parameters used.

Infrared properties of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars
We have gathered from the literature near and mid infrared (photometricand spectroscopic) data for Galactic planetary nebulae, with specialattention to planetary nebulae surrounding Wolf-Rayet type central stars([WR] PN). These data have been analyzed to obtain insight into thedust-properties of [WR] PN and their evolutionary status. We have foundthat a sizeable fraction of [WR] PN seems to contain hot dust (1000-2000K), probably located in the winds of the central stars. The mean dusttemperature is shown to decrease with decreasing [WC] spectral type.This is in line with suggestions that the [WC] sequence is anevolutionary sequence from late to early types. [WR] PN in differentdiagrams, when compared to those of non-[WR] PN, suggest that [WR] PNform a homogeneous class of planetary nebulae. There is an unusuallylarge proportion of [WR] PN showing PAH features in their spectra.

Helium contamination from the progenitor stars of planetary nebulae: The He/H radial gradient and the ΔY / ΔZ enrichment ratio
In this work, two aspects of the chemical evolution of 4He inthe Galaxy are considered on the basis of a sample of disk planetarynebulae (PN). First, an application of corrections owing to thecontamination of 4He from the evolution of the progenitorstars shows that the He/H abundance by number of atoms is reduced by0.012 to 0.015 in average, leading to an essentially flat He/H radialdistribution. Second, a determination of the helium to heavy elementenrichment ratio using the same corrections leads to values in the range2.8 < ΔY / ΔZ < 3.6 for Y p = 0.23 and 2.0< ΔY / ΔZ < 2.8 for Y p = 0.24, in goodagreement with recent independent determinations and theoretical models.

New Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae identified on the AAO/UKST Hα Survey
The central stars of two of the new planetary nebulae found during scansof the AAO/UKST Hα Survey of the Milky Way have been found toexhibit Wolf-Rayet (WR) emission features. One (PMR 1) is an early-typestar of class either [WO4] or [WC4]. The other (PMR 2) is a late [WC]star which, depending on the classification scheme used, is eitherintermediate in class between [WC9] and [WC10] or the sole member of the[WC10] class. Both stars exhibit unusual spectral features which may beattributed to enhanced nitrogen in their atmospheres and could beindicative of unusual stellar evolution.

The low-excitation structures of planetary nebulae
The low excitation properties of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6720 areknown to be unusual, and to imply large ring/core emission ratios. Wepoint out that such characteristics are by no means confined to thissource alone, and that high ratios may occur in a large fraction ofelliptical and circular PNe. Such trends may arise because of thepresence of thin low-excitation emission sheets `wrapped' within andaround the primary outflows. The widths of such shells are required tobe exceedingly small, and may (for certain cases) be of order<<10-2pc. Such a mechanism appears capable ofexplaining most of the observed emission properties, and may arisethrough shock interaction between differing envelopes. Alternativeexplanations in terms of bipolar or cylindrical outflows are shown to beimplausible.

Galactic planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet nuclei. II. A consistent observational data set
We present high resolution spectrophotometric data for a sample of 34planetary nebulae with [WC] spectral type central stars (WRPNe) in ourGalaxy. The observed objects cover a wide range in stellarcharacteristics: early and late [WC] type stars, as well asweak-emission line stars (WELS). Physical conditions in the nebulae(electron density and temperatures) have been obtained from variousdiagnostic line ratios, and chemical abundances have been derived withthe usual empirical scheme. Expansion velocities were estimated in aconsistent manner from the line profiles for most objects of the sample.A statistical study was developed for the derived data in order to findfundamental relationships casting some light on the evolutionary statusof WRPNe. We found evidence for a strong electron temperature gradientin WRPNe which is related to nebular excitation. Such a gradient is notpredicted in simple photoionization models. Abundance ratios indicatethat there seems to be no preferential stellar mass for the Wolf-Rayetphenomenon to occur in the nucleus of a planetary nebula. Two objects, M1-25 and M 1-32, were found to have a very small Ne/O ratio, a propertydifficult to understand. We reexamined the relation between the nebularproperties of the WRPNe and the spectral types of the central stars. Ourdata confirm the trend found by other authors of the electron densitydecreasing with decreasing spectral type, which was interpreted asevidence that [WC] stars evolve from late to early [WC] types. On theother hand, our data on the expansion velocities do not show theincrease of expansion velocity with decreasing spectral type, that onemight expect in such a scenario. Two objects with very late [WC] typecentral stars, K 2-16 and PM 1-188, do not follow the general densitysequence, being of very low density for their spectral types. We suggestthat the stars either underwent a late helium flash (the ``born again''scenario) or that they have had a particularly slow evolution from theAGB. The 6 WELS of our sample follow the same density vs. [WC]-typerelation as the bona fide WRPNe, but they tend to have smaller expansionvelocities. Considerations about the evolutionary status of WELS mustawait the constitution of a larger observational sample. The analysis ofthe differences between the WRPNe in the Magellanic Clouds (distributionof [WC] spectral types, N/O ratios) and in the Galaxy indicates thatmetallicity affects the [WR] phenomenon in central stars of planetarynebulae. Based on data obtained at the Observatorio AstronómicoNacional, SPM, B.C., México Tables 2 and 3 are only available athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The infrared [WC] stars
A number of late [WC] stars have unique infrared properties, not foundamong the non-[WC] planetary nebulae, and together define a class ofIR-[WC] stars. They have unusual IRAS colours, resembling stars in theearliest post-AGB evolution and possibly related to PAH formation. Mostor all show a double chemistry, with both a neutral (molecular)oxygen-rich and an inner carbon-rich region. Their dense nebulaeindicate recent evolution from the AGB, suggesting a fatal-thermal-pulse(FTP) scenario. Although both the colours and the stellarcharacteristics predict fast evolution, it is shown that this phase mustlast for 10^4 yr. The morphologies of the nebulae are discussed. For oneobject in Sgr, the progenitor mass (1.3 M_solar) is known. The stellartemperatures of the IR-[WC] stars appear much higher in low metallicitysystems (LMC, Sgr). This may be indicative of an extended `pseudo'photosphere. It is proposed that re-accretion of ejected gas may slowdown the post-AGB evolution and so extend the life time of the IR-[WC]stars.

Statistics of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars
The status of planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet type central stars ([WR]PN) remains one of the most important problems in the investigation ofplanetary nebulae. We cannot claim to understand the evolution of lowand intermediate-mass stars without answering the question how [WR] PNare created. Analyzing the statistical properties of the wholepopulation of [WR] PN and comparing them to other planetary nebulae(non-[WR] PN) brings important information on their origin andevolutionary status. In this article I will summarize our results ofthis type of studies and show what limits they put on the possibleevolutionary routes of [WR] PN creation.

Abundances of [WC] central stars and their planetary nebulaee
We review elemental abundances derived for planetary nebula (PN) WCcentral stars and for their nebulae. Uncertainties in the abundances of[WC] stars are still too large to enable an abundance sequence to beconstructed. In particular it is not clear why the hotter [WCE] starshave C and O abundances which are systematically lower than those oftheir supposed precursors, the [WCL] stars. This abundance differencecould be real or it may be due to unaccounted-for systematic effects inthe analyses. Hydrogen might not be present in [WC] star winds asoriginally suggested, since broad pedestals observed at the base ofnebular lines can plausibly be attributed to high velocity nebularcomponents. It is recommended that stellar abundance analyses should becarried out with non-LTE model codes, although recombination lineanalyses can provide useful insights. In particular, C II dielectronicrecombination lines provide a unique means to determine electrontemperatures in cool [WC] star winds. We then compare the abundancesfound for PNe which have [WC] central stars with those that do not.Numerous abundance analyses of PNe have been published, but comparisonsbased on non-uniform samples and methods are likely to lack reliability.Nebular C/H ratios, which might be expected to distinguish between PNearound H-poor and H-rich stars, are rather similar for the two groups,with only a small tendency towards larger values for nebulae aroundH-deficient stars. Nebular abundances should be obtained withphotoionization models using the best-fitting non-LTE model atmospherefor the central star as the input. Heavy-metal line blanketing stillneeds to be taken into consideration when modeling the central star, asits omission can significantly affect the ionizing fluxes as well as theabundance determinations. We discuss the discrepancies between nebularabundances derived from collisionally excited lines and those derivedfrom optical recombination lines, a phenomenon that may have links withthe presence of H-deficient central stars.

Spectral analyses of WR-type central stars of planetary nebulae
So far, the evolution of post-AGB stars is not fully understood. Inparticular the formation of hydrogen-deficient and hydrogen-free CentralStars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPN) is unsettled. New evolution models,which allow for the consistent treatment of the physics of late thermalpulses, promise new insights to the formation of these stars. In thispaper we summarize the results of non-LTE analyses of CSPN with wind. Bycomparing these results with the predictions of the new evolutionmodels, open questions concerning the evolution of the stars might beanswered. In addition we discuss the driving mechanism of the winds ofWolf-Rayet CSPN. New models, which account for millions of iron lines,support the assumptions that these winds are driven by radiation.

Gravity distances of planetary nebulae II. Aplication to a sample of galactic objects.
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Evolutionary status of hydrogen-deficient central stars of planetary nebulae
The observational data for the planetary nebulae with hydrogen-deficientcentral stars are analysed. We show that the general evolutionarysequence is: late-[WC], early-[WC], PG 1159. An analysis of the observeddistributions of nebular parameters leads to a conclusion that theplanetary nebulae with hydrogen-deficient nuclei are not different fromthe population of other planetary nebulae in the Galaxy. In particularthe proportion of the H-deficient stars among young nebulae is the sameas in the whole population. We have made a detailed comparison of theobserved parameters with theoretical modelling of the late He-shellflash (born again AGB) scenario. Our finding is that the [WC] nuclei arenot formed in a late He-shell flash. This scenario can, however, giveorigin to some PG 1159 objects. There are five objects known which havepresumably suffered from a late He-shell flash. The observed parametersof their nebulae imply that these stars will not become typical [WC]objects. Thus most of hydrogen-deficient central stars (at least [WC])evolve directly from the AGB as do the other planetary nebula nuclei. Wediscuss implications of this result.

The dust content of planetary nebulae: a reappraisal
We have performed a statistical analysis using broad band IRAS data onabout 500 planetary nebulae with the aim of characterizing their dustcontent. Our approach is different from previous studies in that it usesan extensive grid of photoionization models to test the methods forderiving the dust temperature, the dust-to-gas mass ratio and theaverage grain size. In addition, we use only distance independentdiagrams. With our models, we show the effect of contamination by atomiclines in the broad band IRAS fluxes during planetary nebula evolution.We find that planetary nebulae with very different dust-to-gas massratios exist, so that the dust content is a primordial parameter for theinterpretation of far infrared data of planetary nebulae. In contrastwith previous studies, we find no evidence for a decrease in thedust-to-gas mass ratio as the planetary nebulae evolve. We also showthat the decrease in grain size advocated by Natta & Panagia(\cite{NattaPanagia}) and Lenzuni et al. (\cite{Lenzuni}) is an artefactof their method of analysis. Our results suggest that the timescale fordestruction of dust grains in planetary nebulae is larger than theirlifetime. Table~1 is only accessible in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The IUE Spectra of the O VI Sequence Planetary Nebulae NGC 2452, NGC 7026, M3-30, and Lo 4
We present emission-line fluxes for NGC 2452, NGC 7026, M3-30, and Lo 4from IUE low-dispersion spectra that have been processed by the NewSpectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS). For NGC 2452, a terminalwind velocity of -4200+/-300 km s-1 was determined from the CIV λ1549 P Cygni profile, while that of NGC 7026 is -4600+/-300km s-1, and -4800+/-400 km s-1 for M3-30. Thespectrum of Lo 4 is a stellar continuum with some absorptions and aquestionable C IV λ1549 feature.

Infrared Planetary Nebulae in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey
In order to construct a sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) unbiased bydust extinction, we first selected the 1358 sources in the IRAS PointSource Catalog north of J2000 declination delta=-40^deg having measuredS(25 μm)>=1 Jy and colors characteristic of PNe: detections orupper limits consistent with both S(12 μm)<=0.35S(25 μm) andS(25 μm)>=0.35S(60 μm). The majority are radio-quietcontaminating sources such as asymptotic giant branch stars. Free-freeemission from genuine PNe should make them radio sources. The 1.4 GHzNRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) images and source catalog were used to rejectradio-quiet mid-infrared sources. We identified 454 IRAS sources withradio sources brighter than S~2.5 mJy beam^-1 (equivalent to T~0.8 K inthe 45" FHWM NVSS beam) by positional coincidence. They comprise 332known PNe in the Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulaeand 122 candidate PNe, most of which lie at very low Galactic latitudes.Exploratory optical spectroscopic observations suggest that most ofthese candidates are indeed PNe optically dimmed by dust extinction,although some contamination remains from H II regions, Seyfert galaxies,etc. Furthermore, the NVSS failed to detect only 4% of the known PNe inour infrared sample. Thus it appears that radio selection can greatlyimprove the reliability of PN candidate samples withoutsacrificingcompleteness.

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Right ascension:01h57m35.90s
Apparent magnitude:14

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ICIC 1747

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