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 Further 2MASS mapping of hot dust in planetary nebulaeWe have used 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) mapping results toinvestigate the distribution of hot dust continua in 12 planetarynebulae (PNe). The nature of this emission is unclear, but it ispossible that where the continuum is extended, as is the case for M 1-12and NGC 40, then the grains concerned may be very small indeed. Theabsorption of individual photons by such grains may lead to sharp spikesin temperature, as has previously discussed for several other suchoutflows. Other sources (such as MaC 1-4, He 2-25, B1 2-1 and K 3-15)appear to be relatively compact, and the high temperatures observed areunderstandable in terms of more normal heating processes. It is possiblethat the grains in these cases are experiencing high radiant fluxlevels.Finally, it is noted that whilst the core of M 2-2 appears to show hotgrain emission, this is less the case for its more extended envelope.The situation may, in this case, be similar to that of NGC 2346, inwhich much of the emission is located within an unresolved nucleus.Similarly, it is noted that in addition to hot dust and gas thermalcontinua, the emission in the interior of NGC 40 may be enhanced throughrotational-vibrational transitions of H2, and/or the2p3P0-2s3S transition of HeI. On near Chandrasekhar mass central stars of planetary nebulaeAims.A recent spectroscopic analysis of central stars of planetarynebulae (CSPNe) claims that the sample studied includes five CSPNe withmasses very close to the Chandrasekhar limit of white dwarfs. This claimis tested using available kinematical and chemical abundanceinformation. Methods.Kinematical parameters are extracted fromGalactic orbits and compared with parameters expected for populations ofdifferent ages. The chemistry of the nebulae is compared with averagevalues for different types. Results.The reported high masses arenot supported by our investigation. The claimed high central star massesare in contradiction with all other evidence. A more consistent pictureemerges if CSPN masses close to the peak of the white dwarf massdistribution are assumed. The structure of planetary nebulae: theory vs. practiceContext.This paper is the first in a short series dedicated to thelong-standing astronomical problem of de-projecting the bi-dimensional,apparent morphology of a three-dimensional mass of gas. Aims.Wefocus on the density distribution in real planetary nebulae (and alltypes of expanding nebulae). Methods. We introduce some basictheoretical notions, discuss the observational methodology, and developan accurate procedure for determining the matter radial profile withinthe sharp portion of nebula in the plane of the sky identified by thezero-velocity-pixel-column (zvpc) of high-resolution spectral images.Results. The general and specific applications of the method (andsome caveats) are discussed. Moreover, we present a series of evolutivesnapshots, combining illustrative examples of both model and trueplanetary nebulae. Conclusions. The zvpc radial-densityreconstruction - added to tomography and 3D recovery developed at theAstronomical Observatory of Padua (Italy) - constitutes a very usefultool for looking more closely at the spatio-kinematics, physicalconditions, ionic structure, and evolution of expanding nebulae. Hot dust haloes in planetary nebulaeWe point out that many planetary nebulae (PNe) have large infraredindices (H-KS), and that this is likely to result from thepresence of hot grains, and/or H2 S(1) line emission atλ= 2.122μm. We are able to identify two groups of sourcesassociated with each of these mechanisms, both of which appear topossess distinct physical characteristics. One difference between thesegroups concerns the near-infrared dimensions of the sources. It appearsthat hot dust outflows frequently have sizes θ(KS)> θ(H) > θ(J). Four of the sources are particularlyextreme in this regard, and show emission extending well outside of theprimary shells. We propose that this is likely to arise fromhigh-temperature grains located in low-density haloes. The location ofsuch grains at large distances from the central stars represents achallenge for any mechanism purporting to explain this phenomenon. Themost likely explanation appears to be in terms of photon heating of verysmall grains. The mean properties of planetary nebulae as a function of Peimbert classPlanetary nebulae are known to possess a broad range of abundances, andthese (with other characteristics) have been used to define five classesof outflow. Peimbert Type I sources, for instance, possess high N and Heabundances, filamentary structures, and low mean scaleheights above theGalactic plane, whilst those of Type III have much lower abundances,high peculiar velocities, and belong to the Galactic thick disc. Apartfrom some rather ill-defined indications, however, very little is knownconcerning their mean physical, spatial, structural, kinematic andthermal characteristics.We have performed a comprehensive study of all of these properties, andfind evidence for strong variations between the various Peimbertclasses. Certain of these differences are consistent with Type I sourceshaving the highest progenitor masses, although it seems that thesenebulae also possess the lowest rms densities and 5-GHz brightnesstemperatures. The latter results are in conflict with a range of recentmodelling. The Chemical Composition of Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Regard to Inhomogeneity in the Gas Density in Their EnvelopesThe results of a study of the chemical compositions of Galacticplanetary nebulae taking into account two types of inhomogeneity in thenebular gas density in their envelopes are reported. New analyticalexpressions for the ionization correction factors have been derived andare used to determine the chemical compositions of the nebular gas inGalactic planetary nebulae. The abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Arhave been found for 193 objects. The Y Z diagrams for various Heabundances are analyzed for type II planetary nebulae separately andjointly with HII regions. The primordial helium abundance Y p andenrichment ratio dY/dZ are determined, and the resulting values arecompared with the data of other authors. Radial abundance gradients inthe Galactic disk are studied using type II planetary nebulae. Radiation-driven winds of hot luminous stars. XV. Constraints on the mass-luminosity relation of central stars of planetary nebulaeWe present a new model atmosphere analysis of nine central stars ofplanetary nebulae. This study is based on a new generation of realisticstellar model atmospheres for hot stars; state-of-the-art,hydrodynamically consistent, spherically symmetric model atmospheresthat have been shown to correctly reproduce the observed UV spectra ofmassive Population I O-type stars. The information provided by the windfeatures (terminal velocity, mass loss rate) permits to derive thephysical size of each central star, from which we can derive the stellarluminosity, mass, and distance, without having to assume a relationbetween stellar mass and luminosity taken from the theory of stellarstructure and AGB and post-AGB evolution. The results of our analysisare quite surprising: we find severe departures from the generallyaccepted relation between post-AGB central star mass and luminosity. 12C/13C Ratio in Planetary Nebulae from the IUE ArchivesWe investigated the abundance ratio of 12C/13C inplanetary nebulae by examining emission lines arising from C III2s2p3Po2,1,0-->2s21S0.Spectra were retrieved from the International Ultraviolet Explorerarchives, and multiple spectra of the same object were co-added toachieve improved signal-to-noise ratio. The 13C hyperfinestructure line at 1909.6 Å was detected in NGC 2440. The12C/13C ratio was found to be ~4.4+/-1.2. In allother objects, we provide an upper limit for the flux of the 1910Å line. For 23 of these sources, a lower limit for the12C/13C ratio was established. The impact on ourcurrent understanding of stellar evolution is discussed. The resultinghigh-signal-to-noise ratio C III spectrum helps constrain the atomicphysics of the line formation process. Some objects have the measured1907/1909 Å flux ratio outside the low-electron densitytheoretical limit for 12C. A mixture of 13C with12C helps to close the gap somewhat. Nevertheless, someobserved 1907/1909 Å flux ratios still appear too high to conformto the currently predicted limits. It is shown that this limit, as wellas the 1910/1909 Å flux ratio, are predominantly influenced byusing the standard partitioning among the collision strengths for themultiplet1S0-3PoJaccording to the statistical weights. A detailed calculation for thefine-structure collision strengths between these individual levels wouldbe valuable. The relation between Zanstra temperature and morphology in planetary nebulaeWe have created a master list of Zanstra temperatures for 373 galacticplanetary nebulae based upon a compilation of 1575 values taken from thepublished literature. These are used to evaluate mean trends intemperature for differing nebular morphologies. Among the most prominentresults of this analysis is the tendency forη=TZ(HeII)/TZ(HeI) to increase with nebularradius, a trend which is taken to arise from the evolution of shelloptical depths. We find that as many as 87 per cent of nebulae may beoptically thin to H ionizing radiation where radii exceed ~0.16 pc. Wealso note that the distributions of values η and TZ(HeII)are quite different for circular, elliptical and bipolar nebulae. Acomparison of observed temperatures with theoretical H-burning trackssuggests that elliptical and circular sources arise from progenitorswith mean mass ≅ 1 Msolar(although the elliptical progenitors are probably more massive).Higher-temperature elliptical sources are likely to derive fromprogenitors with mass ≅2 Msolar, however, implying thatthese nebulae (at least) are associated with a broad swathe ofprogenitor masses. Such a conclusion is also supported by trends in meangalactic latitude. It is found that higher-temperature ellipticalsources have much lower mean latitudes than those with smallerTZ(HeII), a trend which is explicable where there is anincrease in with increasing TZ(HeII).This latitude-temperature variation also applies for most other sources.Bipolar nebulae appear to have mean progenitor masses ≅2.5Msolar, whilst jets, Brets and other highly collimatedoutflows are associated with progenitors at the other end of the massrange (~ 1 Msolar). Indeed it ispossible, given their large mean latitudes and low peak temperatures,that the latter nebulae are associated with the lowest-mass progenitorsof all.The present results appear fully consistent with earlier analyses basedupon nebular scale heights, shell abundances and the relativeproportions of differing morphologies, and offer further evidence for alink between progenitor mass and morphology. Galactic Planetary Nebulae and their central stars. I. An accurate and homogeneous set of coordinatesWe have used the 2nd generation of the Guide Star Catalogue (GSC-II) asa reference astrometric catalogue to compile the positions of 1086Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) listed in the Strasbourg ESO Catalogue(SEC), its supplement and the version 2000 of the Catalogue of PlanetaryNebulae. This constitutes about 75% of all known PNe. For these PNe, theones with a known central star (CS) or with a small diameter, we havederived coordinates with an absolute accuracy of ~0\farcs35 in eachcoordinate, which is the intrinsic astrometric precision of the GSC-II.For another 226, mostly extended, objects without a GSC-II counterpartwe give coordinates based on the second epoch Digital Sky Survey(DSS-II). While these coordinates may have systematic offsets relativeto the GSC-II of up to 5 arcsecs, our new coordinates usually representa significant improvement over the previous catalogue values for theselarge objects. This is the first truly homogeneous compilation of PNepositions over the whole sky and the most accurate one available so far.The complete Table \ref{tab2} is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/1029} Angular dimensions of planetary nebulaeWe have measured angular dimensions of 312 planetary nebulae from theirimages obtained in Hα (or Hα + [NII]). We have appliedthree methods of measurements: direct measurements at the 10% level ofthe peak surface brightness, Gaussian deconvolution and second-momentdeconvolution. The results from the three methods are compared andanalysed. We propose a simple deconvolution of the 10% levelmeasurements which significantly improves the reliability of thesemeasurements for compact and partially resolved nebulae. Gaussiandeconvolution gives consistent but somewhat underestimated diameterscompared to the 10% measurements. Second-moment deconvolution givesresults in poor agreement with those from the other two methods,especially for poorly resolved nebulae. From the results of measurementsand using the conclusions of our analysis we derive the final nebulardiameters which should be free from systematic differences between small(partially resolved) and extended (well resolved) objects in our sample.Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The relation between elemental abundances and morphology in planetary nebulaeAn investigation of the variation of elemental abundances with planetarynebula morphology is of considerable interest, since it has a bearingupon how such sources are formed, and from which progenitors they areejected. Recent advances in morphological classification now enable usto assess such trends for a statistically significant number of sources.We find, as a result, that the distribution N[log(X/H)] of sources withrespect to elemental abundance (X/H) varies between the differingmorphologies. Circular sources tend to peak towards low abundancevalues, whilst bipolar nebulae (BPNe) peak towards somewhat highervalues. This applies for most elemental species, although it is perhapsleast apparent for oxygen. In contrast, elliptical sources appear todisplay much broader functions N[log(X/H)], which trespass upon thedomains of both circular and elliptical planetary nebulae (PNe).We take these trends to imply that circular sources derive fromlower-mass progenitors, bipolar sources from higher-mass stars, and thatelliptical nebulae derive from all masses of progenitor, high and low.Whilst such trends are also evident in values of mean abundance, they are much less clear. Only in the cases of He/H, N/H,Ne/H and perhaps Ar/H is there evidence for significant abundancedifferences.Certain BPNe appear to possess low abundance ratios He/H and Ar/H, andthis confirms that a few such outflows may arise from lower-massprogenitors. Similarly, we note that ratios are quite modestin elliptical planetary nebulae, and not much different from those forcircular and bipolar PNe; a result that conflicts with the expectationsof at least one model of shell formation. Ionized haloes in planetary nebulae: new discoveries, literature compilation and basic statistical propertiesWe present a comprehensive observational study of haloes aroundplanetary nebulae (PNe). Deep Hα+[NII] and/or [OIII] narrow-bandimages have been obtained for 35 PNe, and faint extended haloes havebeen newly discovered in the following 10 objects: Cn 1-5, IC 2165, IC2553, NGC 2792, NGC 2867, NGC 3918, NGC 5979, NGC 6578, PB 4, andpossibly IC 1747. New deep images have also been obtained of other knownor suspected haloes, including the huge extended emission around NGC3242 and Sh 2-200. In addition, the literature was searched, andtogether with the new observations an improved data base containing some50 PN haloes has been compiled.The halo sample is illustrated in an image atlas contained in thispaper, and the original images are made available for use by thescientific community at http://www.ing.iac.es/~rcorradi/HALOES/.The haloes have been classified following the predictions of modernradiation-hydrodynamical simulations that describe the formation andevolution of ionized multiple shells and haloes around PNe. According tothe models, the observed haloes have been divided into the followinggroups: (i) circular or slightly elliptical asymptotic giant branch(AGB) haloes, which contain the signature of the last thermal pulse onthe AGB; (ii) highly asymmetrical AGB haloes; (iii) candidaterecombination haloes, i.e. limb-brightened extended shells that areexpected to be produced by recombination during the late post-AGBevolution, when the luminosity of the central star drops rapidly by asignificant factor; (iv) uncertain cases which deserve further study fora reliable classification; (v) non-detections, i.e. PNe in which no halois found to a level of <~10-3 the peak surface brightnessof the inner nebulae.We discuss the properties of the haloes: detection rate, morphology,location of the central stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, sizes,surface brightness profiles, and kinematical ages. Among the mostnotable results, we find that, as predicted by models, ionized AGBhaloes are a quite common phenomenon in PNe, having been found in 60 percent of elliptical PNe for which adequately deep images exist. Another10 per cent show possible recombination haloes. In addition, using thekinematical ages of the haloes and inner nebulae, we conclude that mostof the PNe with observed AGB haloes have left the AGB far from a thermalpulse, at a phase when hydrogen burning is the dominant energy source.We find no significant differences between the AGB haloes ofhydrogen-poor and hydrogen-rich central stars. Comparative Absorption and Emission Abundance Analyses of Nebulae: Ion Emission Densities for IC 418Recent analyses of nebular spectra have resulted in discrepantabundances from CNO forbidden and recombination lines. We considerindependent methods of determining ion abundances for emission nebulae,comparing ion emission measures with column densities derived fromresonance absorption lines viewed against the central star continuum.Separate analyses of the nebular emission lines and the stellar UVabsorption lines yield independent abundances for ions, and their ratiocan be expressed in terms of a parameterem, the emission density'' for eachion. Adequate data for this technique are still scarce, but separateanalyses of spectra of the planetary nebula and central star of IC 418do show discrepant abundances for several ions, especially Fe II. Thediscrepancies are probably due to the presence of absorbing gas thatdoes not emit and/or to uncertain atomic data and excitation processes,and they demonstrate the importance of applying the technique ofcombining emission- and absorption-line data in deriving abundances fornebulae.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained from the STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555, and on observations made at CTIO/NOAO, which isoperated by AURA, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the NSF. Velocity Fields in 9 Southern Planetary NebulaeNot Available Far-Ultraviolet Spectra of Planetary Nebulae (invited review)Not Available Central Stars of Young Planetary Nebulae - A New Class of VariablesNot Available Radiation Driven Atmospheres of O-type stars: Constraints on the Mass-Luminosity Relation of Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (invited review)Recent advances in the modelling of stellar winds driven by radiationpressure make it possible to fit many wind-sensitive features in the UVspectra of hot stars, opening the way for a hydrodynamically consistentdetermination of stellar radii, masses, and luminosities from the UVspectrum alone. It is thus no longer necessary to assume a theoreticalmass-luminosity relation. As the method has been shown to work formassive O-stars, we are now able to test predictions from the post-AGBevolutionary calculations quantitatively for the first time. Here wepresent the first rather surprising consequences of using the newgeneration of model atmospheres for the analysis of a sample of centralstars of planetary nebulae. The Dynamical Evolution of the Circumstellar Gas around Low- and Intermediate-Mass Stars. II. The Planetary Nebula FormationWe have studied the effect of the mass of the central star (CS) on thegas evolution during the planetary nebula (PN) phase. We have performednumerical simulations of PN formation using CS tracks for six stellarcore masses corresponding to initial masses from 1 to 5Msolar. The gas structure resulting from the previousasymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution is used as the startingconfiguration. The formation of multiple shells is discussed in thelight of our models, and the density, velocity, and Hα emissionbrightness profiles are shown for each stellar mass considered. We havecomputed the evolution of the different shells in terms of radius,expansion velocity, and Hα peak emissivity. We find that theevolution of the main shell is controlled by the ionization front ratherthan by the thermal pressure provided by the hot bubble during the earlyPN stages. This effect explains why the kinematical ages overestimatethe age in young CSs. At later stages in the evolution and for low-massprogenitors the kinematical ages severely underestimate the CS age.Large (up to 2.3 pc), low surface brightness shells (less than 2000times the brightness of the main shell) are formed in all of our models(with the exception of the 5 Msolar model). These PN haloscontain most of the ionized mass in PNe, which we find is greatlyunderestimated by the observations because of the low surface brightnessof the halos. Mass-loss rates of H-rich central stars of planetary nebulae as distance indicators?If the mass loss rate, dot {M}, or the modified wind momentum, Pi , ofcentral stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) is strictly related to theluminosity, the study of their winds can be used to derive theirdistance as suggested in the literature. However, the mass loss ratesand modified wind momenta of a sample of 13 CSPN published in theliterature show a separation into two groups, which differ by a factor10 to 102 in Pi . This is partly, but not completely, due todifferences in the adopted methods for mass loss determinations, andpartly due to differences in the adopted stellar parameters, mainly theeffective temperature. We have adopted a homogeneous set of stellarparameters, based on the Zanstra method, the dynamical ages of thenebulae and on evolutionary tracks, and scaled the mass loss ratesaccordingly. The revised data show that there is a large jump in dot {M}and Pi near Teff =~ 60 000 K, with dot {M} and Pi beinglarger by a factor 10 to 102 for the cooler group of CSPN ofspectral type Of, than for the hotter group of type O. Thisdiscontinuity is most likely due to a bi-stability jump. The reviseddata do not show a clear relation between Pi and the luminosity. Theconsequences are discussed in terms of the post-AGB evolution theory andthe radiation driven wind models. Turbulent planetary nebulae around [WC]-type starsThrough a high-resolution spectroscopic survey, we analyze the velocityfield of 16 planetary nebulae with [WC]- or wels-type nuclei incomparison with 8 nebulae having other central star types. We foundspectral evidence for finite turbulent velocities in [WC]-type planetarynebulae superimposed on an essentially constant expansion velocitypattern. The nebulae around O-type stars show no evidences forsignificant turbulence while their expansion velocity is found toincrease outwards. Both types of nebulae show the same mean expansionvelocity. Our results support the earlier suggestions that nebulaesurrounding [WC] central stars are likely related to long-lastingmomentum-driven phase bubbles. Turbulence in the nebulae can be eithertriggered, or enhanced, by stellar wind inhomogeneities that appearubiquitous in Wolf-Rayet nuclei. Based on observations obtained at theEuropean Southern Observatory and the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The distances of planetary nebulae: A scaling factor based upon radial velocitiesWe have used the observed radial velocities of planetary nebulae, andthe galactic rotation curve to define a new distance scale for planetarynebulae. Care has been taken to restrict the analysis to sources inwhich distance non-linearities are minimised, and for which distortionof the distance scale is likely to be small. We conclude, as a result,that the so-called long'' distance scales are the most valid, and thatvarious shorter'' scales are unlikely to be correct. The primarysystematic errors in this procedure derive from uncertainties in thegalactic rotation profile, and in Θ0 and R0.Such errors are less than those normally associated with PN distancedeterminations. Gravity distances of planetary nebulae II. Aplication to a sample of galactic objects.Not Available Distances of Galactic Planetary Nebulae Based on a Relationship Between the Central Star Mass and the N/O AbundanceIn this paper, we propose a method to determine distances of Galacticplanetary nebulae on the basis of a relationship between the centralstar mass and the nebular N/O abundance ratio. This relationship is usedin combination with some basic parameters of the central stars, such asthe lambda 5480 flux, surface gravity and visual magnitude in order toobtain distances to a sample of a hundred Galactic planetary nebulae. The dust content of planetary nebulae: a reappraisalWe have performed a statistical analysis using broad band IRAS data onabout 500 planetary nebulae with the aim of characterizing their dustcontent. Our approach is different from previous studies in that it usesan extensive grid of photoionization models to test the methods forderiving the dust temperature, the dust-to-gas mass ratio and theaverage grain size. In addition, we use only distance independentdiagrams. With our models, we show the effect of contamination by atomiclines in the broad band IRAS fluxes during planetary nebula evolution.We find that planetary nebulae with very different dust-to-gas massratios exist, so that the dust content is a primordial parameter for theinterpretation of far infrared data of planetary nebulae. In contrastwith previous studies, we find no evidence for a decrease in thedust-to-gas mass ratio as the planetary nebulae evolve. We also showthat the decrease in grain size advocated by Natta & Panagia(\cite{NattaPanagia}) and Lenzuni et al. (\cite{Lenzuni}) is an artefactof their method of analysis. Our results suggest that the timescale fordestruction of dust grains in planetary nebulae is larger than theirlifetime. Table~1 is only accessible in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Spectroscopic investigation of old planetaries. IV. Model atmosphere analysisThe results of a NLTE model atmosphere analysis of 27 hydrogen-richcentral stars of old planetary nebulae (PN) are reported. These starswere selected from a previous paper in this series, where we gaveclassifications for a total of 38 central stars. Most of the analyzedcentral stars fill a previously reported gap in the hydrogen-richevolutionary sequence. Our observations imply the existence of twoseparated spectral evolutionary sequences for hydrogen-rich and -poorcentral stars/white dwarfs. This is in line with theoreticalevolutionary calculations, which predict that most post-AGB stars reachthe white dwarf domain with a thick hydrogen envelope of ~ 10(-4) M_sun.We determine stellar masses from the comparison with evolutionary tracksand derive a mass distribution for the hydrogen-rich central stars ofold PNe. The peak mass and the general shape of the distribution is inagreement with recent determinations of the white dwarf massdistribution. The properties of most analyzed stars are well explainedby standard post-AGB evolution. However, for eight stars of the sampleother scenarios have to be invoked. The properties of three of them areprobably best explained by born again post-AGB evolution. Two of theseare hybrid CSPN (hydrogen-rich PG 1159 stars), but surprisingly thethird star doesn't show any signs of chemical enrichment in itsatmosphere. The parameters of five stars are not in accordance withpost-AGB evolution. We discuss alternative scenarios such as thestripping of the hydrogen-rich envelope by a companion during the firstred giant phase or the formation of a common envelope with a possiblemerging of both components. Two stars (HDW 4 andHaWe 5) remain mysterious after all. They resembleordinary hot DA white dwarfs, but due to very large evolutionary agesthe presence of a PN cannot be explained. We speculate that the nebulaemay be shells produced by ancient nova outbursts. A wide spread ofhelium abundances is observed in the photospheres of central stars ofold PNe. It is shown that a good correlation between helium abundancesand luminosity is present. It is inferred that when the stars'luminosities fall below L~ 300 L_sun depletion starts and the heliumabundance steadily decreases with decreasing luminosity. The existenceof this correlation is in qualitative agreement with recent theoreticalcalculations of gravitational settling in the presence of a stellarwind. A Survey of Planetary Nebulae in the Southern Galactic BulgeWe present the results of a deep and uniform narrowband Hα imagingsurvey for planetary nebulae (PNs) in the southern Galactic bulge. Inour survey, we have found 56 new PNs and have rediscovered 45 known PNs.We have measured the radial velocities of this uniformly selected sampleand have also remeasured radial velocities for a subset of 317 PNs fromthe Acker catalog. Using the COBE/DIRBE 1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm images,we show that there is a similar longitude distribution of the PNs andthe COBE light in the zone of our deep survey. Also, we find that theextinction in our surveyed fields is not severe and that itsdistribution is fairly uniform. Finally, we present Hα fluxes for47 of our 56 newly discovered PNs and estimate the survey detectionlimit. Electron densities in planetary nebulae, and the unusual characteristics of the [S BT II] emission zone} ] densities in planetary nebulaeWe investigate the radial variation of electron densities in planetarynebulae, using values of ne deriving from the [S ii]<~mbda6717/<~mbda6730 line ratio. As a result, we are able to showthat there is a sharp discontinuity in densities of order 1.4 dex closeto nebular radii R=0.1 pc. It is proposed, as a consequence, that mostnebulae contain two primary [S ii] emission zones, with densitiesdiffering by a factor ~ 10(2) . The intensity of emission from thedenser component increases by an order of magnitude where nebulae passfrom radiation to density-bound expansion regimes, resulting in acorresponding discontinuous jump in [S ii]/Hβ line ratios. Theorigins of these changes are not entirely clear, although one mechanismis investigated whereby the superwind outflows shock interact withexterior AGB envelopes. Finally, the derived trends in ne(R)are used to determine distances for a further 262 nebulae. The resultingdistance scale appears to be comparable to that of Daub (1982) and Cahnet al. (1992). The kinematics of 867 galactic planetary nebulaeWe present a compilation of radial velocities of 867 galactic planetarynebulae. Almost 900 new measurements are included. Previously publishedkinematical data are compared with the new high-resolution data toassess their accuracies. One of the largest samples in the literatureshows evidence for a systematic velocity offset. We calculate weightedaverages between all available data. Of the final values in thecatalogue, 90% have accuracies better than 20 km s(-1) . We use thiscompilation to derive kinematical parameters of the galacticdifferential rotation obtained from least-square fitting and toestablish the Disk rotation curve; we find no significal trend for thepresence of an increasing external rotation curve. We examine also therotation of the bulge; the derived curve is consistent with a linearlyincreasing rotation velocity with l: we find V_b,r=(9.9+/-1.3)l -(6.7+/-8.5) km s(-1) . A possible steeper gradient in the innermostregion is indicated. Table 2 is available in electronic form only, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html A self-consistent determination of distances, physical parameters, and chemical composition for a large sample of galactic planetary nebulae: chemical compositionThe relative abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Ar arepresented for, respectively, 185, 65, 212, 221, 180, 13, 41, 197, and205 Galactic planetary nebulae. The observed stages of ionization weretaken into account using the relations between the relative abundancesof different ions derived from a grid of photoionization models for thenebular emission. The chemical compositions of all the planetary nebulaewere determined using the same method and the same atomic data, so thatthe results have a high degree of uniformity; this is the first timethis has been done for such a large sample of Galactic planetary nebulae(221 objects).
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